Comparison Between Android Operating Computer Science Essay

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This research is all about the comparison between two operating systems. One is Android and another is i operating system. This research shows, what are these operating system and what are the oldest as well as latest function and features of the operating system. This research also shows the history and expected future of the these operating system. Alog with this the application of the android and i operating system and development of the product in the market. These operating system mainly Android is used in many equipment like kitchen equipment, it used in car also.

By the doing this study, we knew micro thing about the both operating system. We went through lots of references. By this we knew who people are comparing two things, specially in technical information sectors. Many time we don't know about those things, even we use all times. Today almost every person wants a Android phone or i phone because some time it shows the status and some time using some specific features. But they don't know who it works. By this study we know that who they works.

Introduction and history of Android operating system-

What is android?

This is basically linux based operating system. This Operating System (OS) created by Google to run on any electronic devices such as cell phones, e-books, Media Internet Devices (MID), net books, Internet tablets, and many others devices in the future. An Operating System is similar to Windows, it controls your desktop as well as laptop and personal computers. Google developed Android and make it into an Open Source. Now for the phone manufacturer, you can purchase the license and can use android with a low cost. This is open to modify without any restriction, allowing it to fit the device they are making -total freedom. For this any equipment manufacturer adopt android. The ability to run tens of thousands of apps is another big incentive.

Android was founded in California in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich miner, nick sears and Chris White.

Rubin said "...smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences."

Despite the obvious past accomplishments of the founders and early employees, Android Inc. operated secretly, revealing only that it was working on software for mobile phones.[9] That same year, Rubin ran out of money. Steve Parlman, he is the close friend of Rubin, he brought $10,000 in cash in an envelope and refused a stake in the company.

Google acquired Android on 17 August 2005, making it a wholly owned subsidiary of Google. After the acquisition Rubin, Miner and White are the key employees. At that time very few person know about Android but google was planning to enter cell phone market and Rubin's team developed a mobile device platform. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible and upgradable system. Google had lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part.

An in complete intension of google to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. Now Google wanted its own search and applications on mobile phones and it was very hard to deliver. Media was also created a rumors that Google was developing its own hand set. Some speculated that as Google was defining technical specifications, it was showing prototypes to cell phone manufacturers and network operators. In September 2007, information week covered an Evalueserves  study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony.

On 5 November 2007 the alliance of open hand set, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint Nextel and T-Mobile, and chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop open standards for mobile devices.[10] That day, Android was unveiled as its first product, a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version 2.6.[10] The first commercially available phone to run Android was the HTC Dream, released on October 22, 2008.

In 2008, Android have seen lots of updates which have increased improvment of the operating system, they were adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases. Each and every operating system named in alphabetical order

Nexus series was launched by Google in 2010. This is a line of smart phone, tablets and palmtops which is running with the android operating system then HTC collaborated with Google and release the first smartphone 'the Nexus One'. Then Samsung and Asus has been the series with newer devices, Galaxy Nexus and Nexus 7 tablet respectively.

Application-

Android has a growing selection of third party applications, which can be acquired by users either through an app store such as Google Play or the Amazon Appstore, or by downloading and installing the application's APK file from a third-party site. The Play Store application allows users to browse, download and update apps published by Google and third-party developers, and is pre-installed on devices that comply with Google's compatibility requirements. The app filters the list of available applications to those that are compatible with the user's device, and developers may restrict their applications to particular carriers or countries for business reasons.

Purchases of unwanted applications can be refunded within 15 minutes of the time of download,  and some carriers offer direct carrier billing for Google Play application purchases, where the cost of the application is added to the user's monthly bill. As of September 2012, there were more than 675,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from the Play Store was 25 billion.

Applications are developed in the Java language using the Android software development kit (SDK). The SDK includes a comprehensive set of development tools, including a debugger, software libraries, a handset emulator based on QEMU, documentation, sample code, and tutorials. The officially supported integrated development environment is Eclipse using the Android Development Tools (ADT) plugin. Other development tools are available, including a Native Development Kit for applications or extensions in C or C++, Google App Inventor, a visual environment for novice programmers, and various cross platform mobile web applications frameworks.

In order to work around limitations on reaching Google services due to Internet censorship in the People's Republic of China, Android devices sold in the PRC are generally customized to use state approved services instead.

Devolepment ( linux )-

It is kernel based on the Linux kernel 2.6 and Linux Kernel 3.x. Cand application software is running on an application framework. This framework includes Java-compatible libraries based on Apache Harmony. Android uses theDalvik virtual machine with just-in-time compilation to run Dalvik dex-code (Dalvik Executable), which is usually translated from Java bytecode. The ARM architecture is the main hardware platform for the android. There is support for  Google TV uses a special x86 version of Android.

Then Android's linux kernel has further architecture, it changes by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle. Android does not have a nativeX Window System by default nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries, and this makes it difficult to port existing Linux applications or libraries to Android.  But the support of simple C and SDL applications is possible by injection of a small Java shim and usage of the JNI, like e.g. in the Jagged Alliance 2 port for Android.

Linux included the autosleep and wakelocks capabilities in the 3.5 kernel, after many previous attempts at merger. The interfaces are the same but the upstream Linux implementation allows for two different suspend modes: to memory (the traditional suspend that Android uses), and to

disk (hibernate, as it is known on the desktop).  In August 2011, Linus Torvalds said that "eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel, but it will probably not be for four to five years". In December 2011, Greg Kroah-Hartman announced the start of the Android Mainlining Project, which aims to put some Android drivers, patches and features back into the Linux kernel, starting in Linux 3.3. further integration being expected for Linux Kernel 3.4.

The flash storage on Android devices is split into several partitions, such as "/system" for the operating system itself and "/data" for user data and app installations. In contrast to desktop Linux distributions, Android device owners are not given root access to the operating system and sensitive partitions such as /system are read-only. However, root access can be obtained by exploitingsecurity flaws in Android, which is used frequently by the open source community to enhance the capabilities of their devices, but also by malicious parties to install viruses and malware.

Android security and privacy-

This application run in sandbox, this is an isolated area of the system that does not have access to the rest of the system's resources, until and unless access permissions are explicitly granted by the user when the application is installed. The play store shows all required permission before installing an application. When the user view that permission again, it can decide whether the application install.

System lessens the impact of vulnerabilities and bugs in applications of the sandboxing and permissions. Many of the security firms, such as Lookout Mobile Security, AVG Technologies, and McAfee,  have released antivirus software for Android devices. This software is ineffective as sandboxing also applies to such applications, limiting their ability to scan the deeper system for threats.

In android operating system system's features have the ability report the location of wi fi access points, it has ability to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points. These databases can locate the smartphones form electronic maps, allowing them to run apps like Foursquare, Google Latitude, Facebook Places, and to deliver location-based ads. Third party monitoring software such as TaintDroid, an academic research-funded project, can, in some cases, detect when personal information is being sent from applications to remote servers.

Introduction of i operating system-

i operating system is a mobile operating system which is developed by apple. This operating system  released for the iPhone and iPod Touch in 2007. Now it has been extend to support other Apple devices like the iPad and Apple TV. Aslike Microsoft's Windows Phone and Google's Android, Apple does not license iOS for installation on non-Apple hardware. Apple's App Store contained more than 700,000 iOS applications on 12 sept. 2012, which have collectively been downloaded more than 30 billion times. Ios had a 14.9% share of the smartphone mobile operating system units shipped in the third quarter of 2012, behind only Google's Android. In June 2012, it accounted for 65% of mobile web data consumption (including use on both the iPod Touch and the iPad). At the half of 2012, there were 410 million devices activated.  According to the special media event held by Apple on September 12, 2012, 400 million devices have been sold through June 2012.

The user interface of iOS is based on the concept of direct manipulation, using multi-touch gestures. Interface control elements consist of sliders, switches, and buttons. Interaction with the OS includes gestures such as swipe, tap, pinch, and reverse pinch, all of which have specific definitions within the context of the iOS operating system and its multi-touch interface. Internal accelerometers are used by some applications to respond to shaking the device (one

common result is the undo command) or rotating it in three dimensions (one common result is switching from portrait to landscape mode).

iOS is derived from OS X, which it shares the Darwin foundation, and is therefore a Unix operating system. iOS is Apple's mobile version of the OS X operating system used on Apple computers.

In iOS, four abstraction layers and tese are the Core OS layer, the Core Services layer, the Media layer, and the Cocoa Touch layer. Current version of the operating system (iOS 6.0) dedicates 1-1.5 GB of the device's flash memory for the system partition, using roughly 800 MB of that partition for iOS. These devices designed and marketed by Apple that run a Unix-like operating systemnamed iOS, often referred to simply as iDevices. These ddevices include the iPhone multimedia smartphone, the iPod Touch, which is similar to the iPhone and the iPad tablet computer. All three devices function as digital audio and portable media players and Internet clients. The Apple TV, which also runs iOS, is a set-top box for streaming local media to a connected television set, and has no screen of its own.

This operating system of iOS devices can be updated by  iTunes or by iOS 5 or later, using over-the-air (OTA). The main part of the ios realesed once in a year and is normally free for the users although iPod Touch users were formerly required to pay for the update. Ios upgrades its products' hardware periodically even a period of year. There have been six generations of  iPhone ,original iPhone, iPhone 3G, iPhone 3GS, iPhone 4, iPhone 4Sand iPhone 5, five of iPod Touch, 1st to 5th generations, and four of iPad, iPad 1st generation, iPad 2, iPad 3rd generation and iPad 4th generation.

At last os 2011, iOS accounted for 60 percent of the market share for smartphones and tablet computers, however by mid 2012 iOS had slipped to just 16.9% and Android had taken over with 68.1% global share.

Features and applications-

The home screen displays application  icons and a dock at the bottom of the screen where users can pin their most frequently used apps. The home screen appears whenever the user switches on the device or presses the "Home" button (a physical button on the device). The screen has a status bar across the top to display data, such as time, battery level, and signal strength. The rest of the screen is devoted to the current application. When a passcode is set and a user switches on the device, the Lock Screen is displayed.

In iOS version 3.0, a spotlight search function has been available on the leftmost page of the home screen page allowing users to search through media, applications, e-mails, contacts, messages, reminders, calendar events, and similar files.

In iOS version 4 or later and with a supported device, in this the user can set a picture as the background of the home screen. This background feature is only available on third-generation devices or newer iphone 3GS and ipad touch 3rd gen. The ipad, however, has had this feature since its release with iOS 3.2.

Comparision-

Android-

This operating system provide a open platform where you can only buy a license.

It can compile custom firm wares. This is good for hackers and other.

Logs to developers

Programming language of the operating system is Java but bridges from other languages exist (C# .net - Mono, etc)

Java is a high level language that appeared in 1995. Android supports Java 1.5 and translates the byte code to its own custom Dalvik byte code optimized for mobile devices.

For the hardcore programmers, Android offers the possibility of programming in C using the native dev kit NDK supports multitasking .

Nice IDE - Eclipse, NetBeans.

Development SDK is free.  

Easy to debug, can send.

It can run script languages like LUA, Perl, Python, etc.

It can install third party applications from sdcard, random sites - not locked to a specific market

The applications can hook and override everything - email interface, SMS sending, custom keyboards, etc.

supports widgets.

It can publish applications on the Android market instantly - initial one time registration fee is 25E.

User has access to the sdcard and can use it as a USB disk.

.

I operating system-

It is not providing an open platform it provides you a closed platform and all the rights have been reserved to Apple.

No multitasking except for some Apple applications. multitasking is probably going to be introduced in the next vertion of the iPhone, the iPhone 4.

Development kit costs ~90E.

Programming language is Objective C - but bridges exist from Java, C#, etc.

Objective C appeared in 1986.

Next version of iPhone is supposed to only allow Objective C code, this means the bridges are out and you mustprogram in Objective C if you want to create an iPhone application.

Applications are not allowed to duplicate the iPhone functionality - ie no custom email interface, etc.

Does not support widgets - unless the phone is jail broken.

User does not have access to the sd card - user can only do synchronization via internet or LAN.  

Third party applications can only be installed from the Apple store. For testing the applications, developers can use Ad Hoc publishing.   

Publishing on the store is a very lengthy and tiresome process. Apple has many and bizarre rules. Many applications were rejected for strange reasons.

Other things-

Android phone seems to be cheaper than iphone also the hardware in some case double thantheiphone has. The iphone market seems to slowly and some influence is a nice and cheap android phones. Another reason for iphone sale droping is that people are trying to get away from the whole iphone. In general, people tend to stick to their preferred phone manufacturer. Nokia fans are very excited abo

ut the new phones. Android users don't have anything better to switch to. BlackBerry users will never switch to other phones because of the great (subjectively speaking) physical keyboard.

Why Google's Android phones are better than the iPhone?

There are many reasons why Google's Android phones are better than iPhone or any other "Smartphones" on the planet.

One main reason can be simplify in just one word:  CHOICES !

Imagine a phone that is as capable and better than the iPhone but without the monopoly of one company, Apple. That is what Android is all about. The ability to run tens of thousands of apps just like the iPhone but with choice of phone models that you can choose from. The choice of with or without physical keyboard, shape, color, phone size, screen size, manufacturer, features, and phone carrier. No more monopoly by one company on one carrier. Choices drive competition. The competition within Android phone manufacturers itself will inevitably make Android phones even better than what it is today, and in a short period of time. Just take a look at the Android'shistorical timeline and news event pageon how fast events are rapidly unfolding and how Android phones are evolving.

Future of both the the operating systems-

In the future, don't be surprised if your car dashboard runs Android. This allows your car to run the same apps as your hand-carried phone. Android in a car allows you make phone calls, play music, GPS navigation, traffic updates, car diagnostic with parts replacement suggestions, parts price comparison, and service center closest to you. The possibilities are endless. Your kitchen refrigerator could also have a potential of running Android for instant recipe, phone calls, clock, appointment calendar, reminders, weather, and local traffic updates.Here is a video on how price comparison works.

iPhone's hardware and software developments are done by one company, Apple. However, Android's hardware development is done by many different companies from all over the world with famous brand name such as Motorola, Sony, Samsung, Dell, LG, HTC, Acer, etc. Android software development comes from three different path, that is from Google, various cellphone manufacturers, and the Open Source community. Openness and competition within Android

manufacturers alone (let alone with others) will propel Android in a very big way.New evidence of this here. It will be so big that it would be impossible for us to keep-up and update this web site in 1 or 2 years from now.

Conclusion-

As we can see in the research report that how android operating system is better than i operating system. There is lots of differences between them. Android operating system is much cheaper than ios and it provides an open platform where you just purchase a license and manufacturer the phone. But in ios all rights has been reserved.

In opening of 2010 one company launched an Android microwave oven and then it come with washing machine and at last of the year one company launched the first Android car Roewe 350.

So now the conclusion is as per price and demand Android operating system is much better. In terms of quality it can be better than Android but for this much higher cost is not good.

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