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Prompt exists to provide direct communication between the user and operating system. NET-based command line environment, Windows Power Shell that has been developed. This is different from Unix / Linux shell, rather than a byte stream rather than use, Power Shell pipeline pipeline object, that is, they have been given a complete object type of data passed between cmdlets Masu. Data is piped as objects, serialization of arbitrary elements, without the need for an explicit analysis of the stream or to maintain encapsulation between the structure and type of cmdlet. Or Cygwin, MS Services proprietary, Unix and Windows provide a terminal for the bash. [Edit] is enabled by default Posix subsystem is not included. Environment can perform four types of console, NT on top of MSDOS scripts or running through Command.com NTVDM, NT shell scripts and OS / 2 console script. NT4.0, but the OS certainly running NT3.1 / 2, open Modobainarikonsoru. The new version of Windows Script Host, Windows 98 are included.
Strongly in Linux will be integrated into the system console. If the system is present in the command line, the graphics subsystem fails.   UNIX can be used to recover a large number of shells; have been using a large number "Bourne-compatible shell" is the most widely used GNU the bash shell. Alternative to full shell Z; as well as other programming language syntax of the shell, C shell, such as base, includes a shell and Perl. Many applications, through the system console, you can script , we have so much to work with small and specialized utilities to integrate with other programs. This is called the principle of the toolbox.
Ease of Install
Windows Server 2003 and earlier, the installation is divided into two stages, the first text mode;, second graphical Windows Vista and the new installation is one stage, and the graphical.
Some older versions, you aresliped the floppy disk driver or driver, to create a new installation CD) If you are using, or SATA2 or SATA drives in a RAID array of third party to use a large number of driver (for example, need
Distribution varies significantly. Most distributions provide a simple graphical installer for new or intermediate users.
Meanwhile, the distribution of professional-oriented general purpose live CD or from the target GUI installer (SuSE is, Debian is, Pardus, Pclinuxos is, Mandriva, Ubuntu is, Fedora, etc.) provide other menu (the vector is Linux, Slackware, Debian) and drive to copy the group to provide the installer (Gentoo's) is required to compile the source. In addition, this system completely from scratch, source code from scratch (directly from Linux) can be established.
Installation via Live Environments
In May to install BartPE Windows Preinstallation Environment and through. However, only the former will be approved by Microsoft. Only Microsoft certified system builders (OEM company) to install the license will be allowed to use a WinPE disk. End user, WinPE is not allowed to use in installation.
Almost all Linux distributions could be used live for testing CD is installed, or recover.
Not pre-installed software
Both proprietary software (including shareware and freeware) have a large pool and free software. The program is generally easy to install and properly be included with the library. Most programs must be installed separately.
Uninstall, can vary in difficulty depending on how many installers, components, which may be used and registry entries remain. Windows, the installer program to develop software that is installed, the installer "is, Windows Intafeisurappa installer to achieve the installation" and then. All managers do not use the Windows software installed.
Using proprietary software and some free software, there is a large pool to cover a wide range. Microsoft employees in 1998 was an internal report, "most of the major applications, the people, Linux is available free and already need to move on." Wrote a free Windows-based wine using the compatibility layer, like some of the lesser degree of Windows can also run on Linux software is often. Third-party software is usually listed / OS system which has been incorporated into the package will be integrated. This popular program is not in the repository following the distribution will be provided in many forms (DEB format, or use of, RPM (Red Hat Package Manager) format) are easily installed by the package manager and that. If you do not exist in the package is compiled, the program is more or less, can be built from source code automatically. The default settings for interactive non-most software is installed.
Native support for: is NTFS, FAT, ISO 9660 is, UDF, and other third-party driver, ext2, ext3, so available, ReiserFS for HFS, and other
Native support for: the ext2, ext3, ext4 to, ReiserFS is, FAT, ISO 9660 is, UDF is, NFS, NTFS for the JFS, XFS, and other incomplete, many additional file system (most notably the NTFS NTFS - 3g and use ZFS) are available using FUSE. FTP archive sites or can be mounted as a file system to the site.
Most consistent. Ported from the old to the new operating system software to be displayed through the port back to the main contradiction. For example, the software from XP to Vista, up to). [Example edit] Vista but that is about the guidelines, these new systems (IE7 and Windows Media Player to 11 ports must comply with the, Microsoft released a consistency between the guidelines for the continuous interface designed to push.'s latest Windows Vista user experience guidelines indicate.  is that consistency and ease of use in their focus, the new version has increased concern for safety. Third-party If you do not follow these guidelines or applications may not follow all the rules for interface design guidelines that may or proprietary.
Quality of graphic design and distribution varies across the desktop environment. (GNOME and KDE) are defined interface guidelines to clarify the two tend to be clear and consistently followed the largest single desktop environment.  , and to adapt to the needs of these users, providing consistent high-quality customized. In Ubuntu, SuSE companies, Fedora and Mandriva distributions, such as better together, take a step, the safety features and ease of use. However, inconsistency, GNOME-based programs may be displayed, according to various guidelines, especially KDE programs look different. The other environment / window manager, rudimentary programs feature a very powerful target audience and some experts and usually simple, a simple graphical front-end is a lot of focus on performance More safety and compactness. Window Maker and Flux box in / of open box / Black box is an example of such environment. Some other environments, one between two models, eye candy and simplicity (Enlightenment/E17, Xfce) provides power to both give and receive. Some graphical environment, users only have to target the mouse (Flux box in), others only to users of the keyboard (Rat poison), one of the others. In particular graphical environment to be as a resource, it is designed to run on older machines as conservative as possible.
Consistency between versions
Version of the software and user operations generally consistent between releases, with the edition.
Distribution among the poor range of high integrity from our version, the window manager / desktop environment and programs. Software is generally high, and customize the user may keep a customized version of the user .
Consistency between applications
While not by any third party related to software development for Windows, GUI for all these guidelines in Microsoft software, GUI to follow the same guidelines. As mentioned earlier, back port tend to follow the guidelines from the new operating system.
Very consistent in KDE and GNOME. S o, provided with the distribution, additional software will be supplied from elsewhere in the vast amount of the same GUI that does not follow the guidelines, may cause or inconsistent (for example, a different look and feel of the program feel a different widget is built in between).
Binary Emulation , Alternative API
In an environment where many programs are set up, Unix-like OS is, Windows will run. SUA supports the Microsoft. SUA is the console that runs on raw materials, Linux may be used to compile the source code. For a Program Manager / Explorer, libraries and other appropriate X is required to install the server program to run. Microsoft, Lina, Cygwin and MinGW is not supported, these open source software, Windows on, Unix-like environment is executed to set up. Windows can run all enterprise applications.
Cedega, Crossover, on the degree of reliability of Linux and wine, many Windows can be used to run the program. These programs, technical, and rather than emulating Windows, different Windows API is to provide the same practical effect. Some windows, since the software correctly, API will not run if you have not completed provided by the implementation of these software packages. Overall approach is often less than the same wine and Microsoft Windows emulation or virtualization hardware you need to run the operating system CPU power is required.
Hardware emulation and Virtualization
VMware, VirtualBox and, Virtual PC, Virtual Server is, Hyper - V's (only 64 in Vista SP2 is available, Windows 7, bit Edition and Windows Server 2008) is, Parallels, QEMU, a new hardware.
VMware, VirtualBox, Xen is, Parallels is, Linux - VServer is, OpenVZ is, Win4Lin, KVM is. VirtualBox and QEMU as a guest operating system of Microsoft Windows can be used to run.
Package management system
What is the Windows kernel and certain libraries or programs, multiple versions of Windows are not bound by the original developers of the program can distribute a single package that can operate in version. This causes the problem, Linux ecosystem is packaged in it, there is a need to maintain a large repository of compiled for the exact version of the operating system, version and repository source in a different package To manage the complex dependencies, however, in some cases, if the security will occur is equivalent to cutting out the need to update the critical updates for large numbers of programs or other There.
Recent versions of Windows, Windows Installer to install the software depends on the management. This register, in which components are installed here, on a user's system. Microsoft's strict guidelines, software vendor, Windows installer recommended use. However, many applications are deployed using a separate installer. As an example, NSIS is a. Application is usually, Program Files are installed by the executable file in the directory.
Linux kernel and library versions of the exact version of the program (or range) are dependent. Such a program would only properly (or very) version of the distribution as they are built to work on a particular. Order is having to manage complex dependencies, most distributions, the number of RPM, APT or, Gentoo's ebuild meta packages (source) that are based on the package manager. In some cases the installation is compatible with the primary system can have two second package management system. Determine the distribution of the number of front-end, the format that exists on the core and GUI package installation with the command line or aptitude, the synapses, Portage has, YaST, and yum. Also rare, creating a unique example of the format of several distributions and Pardus PiSi Pac-Man.
Most of the normal package manager, PGP to sign the form on the package is based on the OpenPGP example, Debian packages. In addition, GUI to create the installation package distribution, Auto package if you cannot use the. Software is also the source code can be compiled in the management system does not require any kind of any package. Take time from their source code, can be difficult, however, is to compile software. Source code is usually a specific version of the library, and associated, in many cases, the source code, system libraries, which can disable the existing installed software that rely on accurate Build a library of them cannot be compiled without updating the Masu. In some cases, where one conflict is that certain older versions of libraries to the latest version of the program occurs, dependent, except that the new version of the same library by another program.
Cross-platform (development )
-Microsoft has been a lot of libraries have not been ported to other operating systems .
-Many of the Microsoft framework can also be substituted for other operating systems
-Similar content on the GNU tool chain for Windows GTK, Qt has been ported to many other libraries.
-Many projects are already in Windows builds
Client and server OS, x86 and x64 editions come Windows. Target platform for Windows CE / Windows XP Embedded is, ARM, MIPS is, x86 - 64 in, SuperH that. Target platform for Windows Mobile PDAs that.
i386 except, x86 - 64, PowerPC is a 32/64, SPARC, DEC Alpha's, ARM's and MIPS, PA - RISC for, S390, IA - 64 for, SuperH and m68k, many PDA and embedded systems.
Ubuntu with the existing Microsoft Windows Workstation
The Windows API is used by many program. Windows depends on the implementation of API. Some steps, Windows source code compatible with the UNIX are carried out POSIX or UNIX subsystem.
Linux is the UNIX operating system, for the preparation of the program, UNIX is running a standard programming. In some programs, Linux-specific framework for a variety of people and they are usually written with the port window.
Some of the wine in terms of Linux or Windows .Some programs are run may cause some errors. Windows and Linux operating systems, the company's products in some versions of the work. These programs please do not rely on any kind of regular frames.
The installation is as follows: The binary file and flight experience in interpretation and translation layer that, regardless of the layers of a practical procedure to perform in order to provide a process is running the operating system. You can create platform-independent software. Translation layer is required to configure the operating system
Many of Microsoft libraries have not ported to other operating systems, Microsoft's framework can be replaced by other operating systems support.
GNU tool chain windows, GTK, Qt, as well as many other libraries, many projects have been ported to Windows.
Software is writing to the language and framework for cross-platform portability is usually easier.
Installation of Ubuntu on a machine and cinfigure network services forWindows and Linux for sharing and pring
Select the language.
You are selected Ubuntu Server install.
When you see Ubuntu Server install, you are selected the languag.
You are selected the location.
When you are trying keyboard for pressing the series of keys, select the "Yes" option. And then you can do clicks the "Yes".
You are selecting the origin of the keyboard.
You are selecting keyboard layout and press enter.
You has been saw the detecting hardware to find CD-ROM drives in the program.
And then you see the loading additional components.
You are detecting network hardware .
Configures DHCP if DHCP server is present.
Please enter Hostname
Beginning the partitioner
Also, create a partition on your hard disk, this example is where I see how you do it manually by pressing the swap option to manually partition the entire disk can be enter.Make select option. If you choose to use the
Warning message about data lost on your hard disk
Select Yes, Enter here and write changes to disk pressing need
Ext4 file system creation in progress
Installing base system in progress
If necessary, in this example if i create a server, choose to continue to enter the user's full name, Enter key press the user-created ruche
Enter your user account name here
Entered the password for ruchi user select continue and press enter
Check the user's password ruchi
If, this is to choose a weak password is required, such as the following screen
If you want to configure encrypted private directory select yes and press enter
Package Manager to continue, Enter select Settings and press
Configuration of the package is related to mirror the options in this country
Press Enter to configure automatic updates and how to select
Now here you are here and i will install the software, the LAMP server option and a separate "option" to select the package we select the package for each man installation.If we select LAMP server begins must have
Installation of the software as it is, MySQL root password please enter the selected server's root password, and then select the prompt to continue
Check the mysql server's root password, and continue to select
Software installation is in progress
GRUB Insutorubutoroda of ongoing
Ending installation in Progress
CD to restart your server and select Enter to continue the installation complete message here you must remove the key Once you are logged in should see the following screen, restart the server after you are prompted to enter a user name and password,
File Sharing in Ubuntu Server 9.10 Edition
Quantlib compiled from source is created as benchmarks QuantLib
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â oost test framework using tools. It measures the performance of
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Preselected set of numerically intensive test cases. Whole
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â QuantLib benchmark index is given by the average performance.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â mflops. The number of floating point operations a specific test case
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Propo using the library, please refer to the measured.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Maintenance
Spong routine of this program is to perform regular maintenance
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Database.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â - Clean up the old history of seven days. This is an old historical movement
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â $ SPONG_ARCHIVE directory to each host. Otherwise
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The history of the past, I think I can get just by clicking
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â This change will remove the script.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â * How to remove thanks to is no longer valid.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â * To remove all services is not reported to any more (if it exists
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â On your machine - something to stop monitoring the old entry
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Hang still appear as purple).
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The spong - cleanup and program every night must be run as a cron job. This
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The database query is guaranteed to speed history log
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Displayed.
In many ways, Ubuntu Server Edition supports the community support and commercial support in couples. Main commercial support (development funds) Co., Ltd, support contracts are available from the power unit at a reasonable price for each desktop or server. For more nformation, please visit our ser vices page for licensing trems.
Community support is provideed by cimpanies dedicated individuals, Upuntu is that you want the best possible distribution, Supported through multople mainling lists, IRS channels, forums, blogs , widi, etc are available in large quantitirs of information and good search engine query can be overwhwlming answer your question usually can be provided to offer . For more in formation,Ubuntu p lease refer to the support page.
VPN Technology (hardware and software)
VPN Technology : Type of VPNs
Remote access VPN
VPN technology: Remote Access VPN
VPN Technology: Intranet VPN
VPN Technology: Extranet VPN
VPN Technology: Advantage and Disadvantage of VPN
Easy to add/remove users
Reduced long-distance telecommunications costs
Lack of standards
Understanding of security issues
Unpredictable Internet traffic
Difficult to accommodate products from different vendors
VPN Technology: what is needed?
Existing hardware (Servers, workstations,â€¦)
VPN - Router/Switch
Software to create and manage tunnels
Security Device such as firewall
VPN Technology: How is worked
Operates at layer 2 or 3 of OSI model
Layer 2 frame - Ethernet
Layer 3 packet - IP
allows senders to encapsulate their data in IP packets that hide the routing and switching infrastructure of the Internet
to ensure data security against unwanted viewers, or hackers.
VPN Components: protocols
IP Security (IPSec)
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)
Voluntary tunneling method
Uses PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)
Exists at the data link layer of OSI
Composed from PPTP and L2F (Layer 2 Forwarding)
Compulsory tunneling method
VPN Components: security
Technique for scrambling and unscrambling information
Unscramble - called clear-text
Scrambled information - cipher-text
Secret code that the encryption algorithm uses to create a unique version of cipher-text
8-bits keys = 256 combinations or two to the eighth power
16-bits keys = 65,536 combinations or two to the 16th power
56-bits keys = 72,057,594,037,927,900 or two to the 56th power
Determine if the sender is the authorized person and if the data has been redirect or corrupted
VPN Components: Appliances
Intrusion detection firewalls
Monitors traffic crossing network parameters and protects enterprises from unauthorized access
Packet-level firewall checks source and destination
Application-level firewall acts as a host computer between the organization's network and the Internet
VPN Productivity Cost and Benefits
Extends geographic connectivity
Boosts employee productivity
Improves Internet security
Costs associated with implementing VPN
In House implementation
Middle Ground implementation
VPN Design For Banks
Firewalls are used several techniques. Firewall is used to get the effective and secure security.
Routine software was done by packet filtering. It discards the ones that aren't from trusted sources. It also do the Analyzing of the incoming data packets which are based on one or more criteria for example address, range of addresses and type (e-mail, file transfer , etc).Most packet filter software which are used in routers allow the internet connection to a private network.
A router breaks connection between the sender and the receiver of proxy of the network. Router functions as an intermediate between a client and a server. It prevents the invasion of the private network. Proxies are also used in conjunction with NAT-Network Address Translation. HTTP proxy is used for web proxy and FTP proxy is used for file transfers. These proxies are known as application level proxies. It is also called application level gateways. A circuit-level proxy or generic proxy supports multiple application .Socks is generic based proxy server.
NAT allows one IP address to show outside world. When it is implemented in a router, the firewall of PC connections are conserved and private IP addresses are still remain a secret. Therefore it prevents some of the first level attacks which can occur on the network.
Stateful inspection is a firewall technology. This technology ensures that the inbound packets are the result of an outbound request. By using this technology, it blocks attackers from sending harmful or not requested packets to a network.
In a network, the information is sent in the form of packets. A Router is a device with which at least with two network interface cards which support the respective protocol. It watch at the IP packets and decides how to forward these packets in what route. Routers operate at the network layer of the OSI reference model. Router connects many networks. It also connects the local networks to the internet. It gets packets from an interface card and then it reads the address on the IP packet. Router forwards the packet to an appropriate output network interface. Before sending this packet, the router replaces the link protocol header. The packets are forwarded according to the packets IP destination address and routing information.
In a LAN network, the routers separate local area networks into sub networks. The router balances traffic between workgroups. It also filters traffic for security purposes. Routers are used at the edge of the network. It connects to remote offices or to connect to an ISP.
In Enterprise networks such as banks, routers serve as a connector of all internal networks all over the Ethernet. They connect to the outside network through T3, ATM, Cable modem or other links. Therefore the routers act as a major switching point for all packets within the network and outside of the network.
Although the network architecture (for example token ring or Ethernet) differs routers can connect the different network. But they cannot transform information from one data format to other (as an example TCP/IP to IPX/SPX). If the routing table does not indicate proper address of a packet then the packet is discarded. But if we manually configure the router, the information in the router table is fixed. Therefore, it is called a static router. If they are automatically decided (that is routers exchange routing tables) depending on the algorithms. Therefore, it is called a dynamic router. Distance Vector algorithm is based on hop count of satellites. It periodically broadcast routing tables to other routers. Link state algorithm is another algorithm with broadcast routing tables only when it starts up. Multi protocol routers support more than one protocol which are
* IS-IS, -Intermediate system to intermediate system
* IPX - Internet Packet Exchange
* NLSP - Netware Link Services protocol
* RIP - Routing information protocol
We can add software for VPN router functions or normal router functions to a server or a specialized computer is optimized for communication. Routers were called 'network layer bridges'; and they are also called gateways.
The hardware and software requires to implement the bank's VPN
Protocols- IP Security (IPSec)- Transport mode
-Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)-Voluntary tunneling method
Uses PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)
-Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)- Exists at the data link layer of OSI
-Composed from PPTP and L2F (Layer 2 Forwarding)
-Compulsory tunneling method
Installation and testing
A schedule for the implementation of the VPN
In the stage of requirement, we will accumulate required equipments for the Bank. Creation of design is involved in design stage. Feasibility report will be the stage of feasibility. Installation may be hardware and software installation as well as Bank's Networking system design. Testing means that check there is error or not within the system. Documentation stage is to document our action.
Leased line networks have hard-wired dedicated connections from single corporate customers. By extending the idea of dedicated connection to the internet, a number of protocols have grown up. These protocols create tunnels, which allow users to encapsulate their data in IP packets, The IP packets hide routing and switching information from both the sender and receiver. Therefore, it can prevent snooping.
Any communication usually involves at least two end points. In VPN technology it is usually between 'Client-to-LAN' and 'LAN-to-LAN'. In a 'client-to-LAN' case the client has a special client VPN software that they run to communicate with the gateway, protecting the receivers LAN. In case of 'LAN-to-LAN' connections security gateways at each end point is the interface between the tunnel and the LAN. A security gateway may be a VPN router or a firewall.
VPN hardware equipment consists of modem banks and multiple frame relay circuits. The multiple frame relay can use any transport medium for transmission of data. Therefore, there is a reduction of equipment which are required for a VPN compared to a WAN. Therefore hardware and software setup and maintenance cost is also reduced. Nowadays, many companies now outsource VPN to service providers.
Responsibilities of ISP
Quality and reliability to provide a comprehensive portfolio of services.
In order to support between dial-up or ADSL broadband access.
Business customers provide eased lines, Web hosting , dedicated servers, collocation, and application development services
All of our customers to provide technical support 24 hours a day.
Level of services
Management skills and services, EUnet set out to achieve the optimal level of differentiation
Definition of the goals of the project includes:
Improve profit margins: to attract new customers is expected EUnet service differentiation,
and expanding on the same network was still hoping to be able to support the subscriber base
and infrastructure, without adding additional staff in call centers, processing, customer
Requests the service.
To provide testing services to customers in the future: for customers by simply
EUnet core competitors, the company expects to test a broadband connection
to attract new subscribers.
The integration of existing back-office system: It also requires management expenses
Location information and billing system integration solutions.
EUnet also included in the study, it set to protect the total network investment in the
Development (R & D) and the Network Operations Center (NOC) as well as the entire metro network Serbia.
As part of its due diligence, IT organizations, evaluation of all major vendors
DPI market. Long-term relationship, the success of the Cisco Â® as a reliable partner and had been included,
Ultimately selected as the solution provider for leading-edge technologies and features
Cisco Service Control Engine (SCE) 2020 platform.
Trojan attacks are causing the most serious threat to computer security. The attack is not called here only if you have to attack others without knowing that. Decreased their food for what this page, if you work around already, I'll tell you how to repair the damage. According to legend, the Greeks are hiding in a giant hollow wooden horse to sneak into a fortified city of Troy won the Trojan War. In today's computer world, Trojan horses ", destruction program is disguised as something benign malicious security" is defined as. For example, look like your movies and music files, when you click to download, you unleash a dangerous program to erase your disk, a stranger, send your credit card number and password or, they can take over someone else's computer is virtually the last monthly net DAL IRC to commit the unlawful interference, such as denial of service attacks to a network Failure.
The following general information and much is done on all operating systems / Windows user, and applies to most of the damage caused by its vast popularity and many weaknesses.
(Note: The Trojan many people, the virus, worm-like terms, using the hacking, cracking all interchangeably, in fact, the same so do not. If you are interested, here is a simple primer to define, to distinguish them. And let's just say is, "" Once infected, the Trojan horse, as well as to hurt others can easily grow to like virus is dangerous!)
Worms are considered low class, who are similar. However, some human behavior, unlike the spread of viruses on your computer, your computer worms, power does not travel. Bugs in your system files or other information to help people take advantage of how the transmission can travel.
Its ability to replicate itself on your system, and the greater the risk of insect, so this is not a worm to send a single computer, it's hundreds or thousands of copies of itself to create the destructive effects can be sent. For example, all the bugs in the user's e-mail address list, we'll send a copy of it. Then, worms, and delete all the duplicates of each receiver's address book and reference will be instructions on the bottom line itself can be sent out.
Most of the worm to copy across the network due to the nature and functions, the final results of this worm is a Web server, network, server and personal computer stops responding too much system memory (or network bandwidth) is the cause of travel spending. Talk to your system, such as the Blaster worm and the more recent worm attacks, worms, malicious users and remote users, the tunnel is designed to control the roll.
A computer virus attached to the program itself or from one computer to another computer, so the file spread the infection to travel to the leaves. As with the human virus, computer viruses range in severity are: for the other users of hardware, software or files that can damage only a little annoying, some effects may occur.
Almost all the virus may exist on your computer, but does not run or open a malicious program that actually infect your computer can not mean the virus is attached to an executable file. It is a virus, without human action, (for example, run an infected program cannot be spread), it is still important to note instantly.
People infected file or attachment in an e-mail viruses and e - mail delivery by sharing the spread of computer viruses, most of them unconsciously to continue.
Major network security Issues
Network security is sometimes thought of as a necessary evil network securities take the form of hand-to-remember passwords that must be hanged frequently and cryptic terms. The security policy is made difficult to understand or follow, users resist adhering to security policy. A policy that requires users to change their passwords every week security policy should be a continual work in include features such as progress, with modification made as needed to reflect changing technologies and business parties. Restrictive policies usually include features such as data encryption, complex password requirements, detailed auditing and monitoring of computer and network access, intricate authentication methods, and policies that govern use of the Internet and e-mail.
Ref-Page (364 to 366) Chapter-10
Network security policies
Acceptable use policy means the number of available network resources for any purpose described
Authentication policy describes how to access network resources users to identify themselves. Logon name, password rules, and the authentication methods are described.
Internet use policy is meant for Any proper or improper use of the Internet resource description and configuration
Access policy__ How to access network resources, the user can specify. Policies should be for all outlets and Internet sites can be accessed remotely.
Auditing policy__ this breach of security compliance or violation, and you can see the results for the manner described.
Data protection___ outlines the policies for backup procedures, virus protection, and disaster recovery.
Ref: Page (365) Chapter 10