Collection Of Mobile Nodes Computer Science Essay


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A Mobile Ad Hoc Network is a collection of mobile nodes which interact over bandwidth confined. Multi hop routing scheme is property of MANET. Because of this the network topology can change quickly and uncertain over time, each node must united within a communication routing protocol that make easier network discovery, assures message delivery, and detects failed message delivery attempts. In MANET each node should interact with other nodes if it is in range and distribute all information across the network. The main advantage of this type of network is the self-organizing property which discards the need of fixed infrastructure. The applications of MANETs are different, ranging from small networks, static networks that are confined by power sources, large-scale, mobility, and highly dynamic networks. Since MANETs are excessively pliable and scalable, they are ideal for set up communications in script where there is no existing connection infrastructure. Since, the range of the communications network is limited appears to be a perfect solution for military applications. MANET work without a centralized supervision where nodes communicate with each other on the support of cooperative trust. This feature makes MANET more vulnerable to be browbeaten by an attacker which is surrounded by the network. Wireless associations also make the MANET more prone to attacks which build it easier for the attacker to go within the network and search out for access to the current message. Mobile nodes here within the series of wireless link can eavesdrop and even contribute in the network.

In the age of Net-Centric Warfare, warfighters use Command Control Communications Computers Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems to manner distributed implementation of missions throughout the plays of operation. These distributed mechanisms of the system are connected together by military networks to split information and provide reliable and elastic coordination, communication, and intellect services to the warfighters. Military analysts believe this to be a force multiplier; less distributed and coordinate assets can break a larger adversary that executes centrally with small coordination. Moreover, the entity components performing distributed implementation can become specialized to contribute to an exacting part of the assignment. While this has a popular benefit, it places important burden on the ease of use of the network. If the network becomes disrupt due to incorrect pattern, failures, or spiteful activities the distributed components become remote. The effect is that particular units must act on limited or outdated global in sequence and may need to receive on a larger burden of the assignment, of which they may not be preferably equipped to address. If warfighters have access to inferior communication systems, then they have no way to get better from this isolation and may fast be consumed by the enemy. Thus, because of the use of Net-Centric Operations, the network becomes a critical resource to defend and a profitable target to attack. Because of the rising importance of the network, the Joint Publication for Information Warfare JP 3-13 has defined Computer Network Attack (CNA) as a process to attack adversary networks to minimize its accessibility (e.g., disrupt, deny, corrupt) and Computer Network Defense (CND) to minimize the enemy's ability to corrupt the United States military's access to its network [JP 3-13]. For both of these operations, it is important to understand the effects of availability attacks on multiple networks in the same way the effects of kinetic attack on structure is known. By knowing the effects of these attacks, the warfighter can study ways to avoid threats against Air Force networks while setting up effective attacks against the enemy's systems. Availability attacks exist at every layer of the network stack for different types of network classes [BJJ07], [YaM03].

This report focuses on one availability attack at the network layer: the Black Hole attack for ad-hoc networks. Ad-hoc networks offer data routing services to insecurely coordinating groups or fast reactionary forces, building it essential for recent and future Net-Centric Operations. A Black Hole attack [5] is a well-known denial of service availability attack for ad-hoc networks that dishonestly attracts data to flow through nodes under direction of an attacker. As packets of data flow into the malicious node, they are silently dropped. A highly unbeaten Black Hole attack can prevent all facts from reaching its destination. Consequently, this attack is a major threat to Net-Centric Warfare because it causes isolation in this network. While the Black Hole attack is well known, it has not been extensively studied. Of the existing research, most published work on Black Hole attacks involves measuring the effect of a Black Hole attack on protocols. However, there has been no research on the efficiency of attacks on different instances of ad-hoc networks (e.g. number of nodes, density, and width).

A security belongs in wireless networks they are more readily flat to listen secretly than a wired network, because there is no physical protection. Moreover, every node in MANET has increased duty in comparison to a node in a traditional fixed network because every node in MANET performed as a router. The liability of each node increases the need for security and measures the confidentiality and integrity of all nodes. If a MANET node is settled, possible it can act as a gateway to infect the entire network. Further, in some of the potential MANET application domain, such as those found in the military or law enforcement, security of the relation is a critical requirement. Moreover, even in custom networks that does not require absolute confidentiality, the public demand privacy to keep their private information secure. With the increasing affordability of laptop computers and wireless data communication devices, wireless communication between mobile users are becoming more and more popular, sometimes, there is no communication infrastructure such as base stations and mobile switching centers that make up today's cellular network is expensive or inconvenient to use, people can setup networks of their own on the air, which are called "Ad-hoc Networks".

Formally, Chlamtac, Conti and Liu (2003) asserted a definition of a mobile adhoc network (MANET) as a transient network formed dynamically by an interaction of autonomous wireless mobile nodes without the use of existing network infrastructure, or centralized administration. Nature of mobile nodes decides the characteristics of MANET such as dynamic topology, low bandwidth, high packet loss and power confine, etc (Kaliaperumal and Jeyakumar, 2005).

Mobile ad hoc network is a self configuring network which is settled of several moving user equipment. These mobile users communicate with each other without any infrastructure, furthermore, all of the transmission links are established through wireless medium. MANET is widely used in military purpose, disaster area, personal area network and so on [1]. However, there are still many major issues discussed about MANETs, such as security problem, finite transmission bandwidth [2], abusive broadcasting messages [3], reliable data delivery [4], dynamic link establishment [5] and restricted hardware caused processing capabilities [6].

The security threats have been extensively discussed and investigated in the wired and wireless networks [7]. There are many security issues discussed that have been studied in recent years. For instance, snooping attacks, wormhole attacks, black hole attacks [9], routing table overflow and poisoning attacks, packet replication, denial of service (DoS) attacks, distributed DoS (DDoS) attacks [10] etc. Specifically, the improper behavior of routing [11] is one of the major security threats such as black hole attacks. Some researchers propose their secure routing idea [12-15] to solve this black hole attack issue, but the security problem is still incapable to prevent completely. Security in MANET is the mainly significant concern for the essential functionality of network. Availability, confidentiality and integrity of the data can be achieved for security. MANET frequently experience from security attacks as its features like open medium, changing its topology energetically, lack of central monitoring and management, cooperative algorithms and no clear defense mechanism.

1.2 Motivation

MANET is a type of multi-hop system, communications less and the most significant self-organizing. Due to wireless and spread nature there is an immense challenge for system protection designers. In the last few years security problems in MANETs have attach much awareness; most of the study efforts focusing on precise security areas, like secure routing protocols or establish trust infrastructure or interference detection and response. One of the major qualities of MANET's with respect to safety design point of sight is involved of clear line security. There are mostly three major safety services for MANETs: Authentication, confidentiality, integrity.

Authentication way correct distinctiveness is known to communicate authority.

Confidentiality way message in sequence is kept safe from illegal access.

Integrity way message is unchanged during the contact between two parties.

Today's mobile phones, laptops and still cars can be prepared with network hardware that allows one of them to honestly communicate with extra devices. The resultant networks are mobile, decentralized and appear as ad hoc i.e. Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs). A Mobile ad hoc Network is an independent network comprised of free nomadic nodes which converse wireless by radio broadcast. MANETs are already ubiquitous and their range of use will spread in the near future. For example, carto-car communication will allow up-to-date traffic information exchange, informing a car about a nearby accident at the moment of impact. Additionally, emergency response and military organizations are promising future avenues for this technology.

In this documentation different aspect of security in MANET will discuss. In this situation, all nodes in a system communicate with every node via wireless communication. The way of each message intended to the base station is actually crucial in terms system lifetime: e.g., using small routes to the base station to contain nodes with exhausted batteries may yield decrease network lifetime. On the additional, using a lengthy route composed of lots of sensor nodes can considerably enlarge the network delay. But, some necessities for the routing protocols are contradictory. Always select the shortest route towards the base station, the intermediate nodes to reduce faster, these consequences in decreased network duration. At the same time, all the time choosing the shortest path force result in lowest energy use and network delay.

The purpose of this document is to provide a framework for understanding the Black Hole attack in ad hoc networks and evaluate its damage in the association. We made our simulations using NS-2 (Network Simulator version 2) simulation plan that consists of the set of all network protocols to replicate many of the offered network topologies. Having implemented a fresh routing protocol which simulates the black hole we performed tests on diverse topologies to evaluate the network performance with and without black holes in the network. As expected, the throughput in the network was deteriorating considerably in the existence of a black hole. Afterwards, proposed a solution to remove the Black hole effects in the AODV network in terms of packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, and throughput and routing overhead. In the Black Hole attack, a spiteful node absorbs all information packets in itself, similar to a gap which sucks the whole thing. In this each and every packets in the network are drop. A spiteful node dropping all the traffic in the associations make use of the vulnerabilities of the route discovery packet of the reactive protocols, for instance AODV. In route detection process of AODV protocol, intermediate nodes are answerable to find a fresh path to the end, sending detection packets to the neighbor nodes. Spiteful nodes do not use this process and as a substitute, they immediately react to the source node by false information however it has fresh enough pathway to the destination. Hence, a source module sends its data packets via the spiteful node to the destination and assumes that this is a true path. Black hole attack may happen due to a spiteful node which is purposely misbehaving, as well as a damage node edge. In several cases, nodes in the network will continually try to find a route for the purpose, which makes the node use its battery in addition to lose packets.

1.3 Dissertation Goal and Purpose:

Based on the features associated to MANETs and the basis of troubles and vulnerabilities in such network, our study on MANET has focused attacks. This issue is main center of this dissertation. In this dissertation, I figure out the consequences of black hole attacks and their possible improvement plans. In this documentation simulation experiment, focuses on-

The study center for concentration on study of black hole attack in MANET and its consequences.

A generic classification of black hole attacks and a classification of possible solution for this attack on MANET using AODV protocol.

Experimental dimensions of some important presentation metrics of MANET such as throughput, end-to-end relay and packet delivery ratio.

1.4 Organization of the Dissertation:

The remainder of this dissertation is organized as follows. The rest of this chapter describes the challenges that a routing protocol for ad hoc networks must overcome and gives a brief history of investigations into the problem. Chapter 2 presents literature survey and outcome of literature survey. Chapter 3 briefly describes the problem formulation and methodology. In Chapter 4, there is proposed solution for preventing black hole attack from MANET using AODV protocol. Chapter 5 shows the results and simulation of MANET using proposed solution. Finally, Chapters 6 conclude the dissertation and a future scope of the results of the dissertation.

Literature Survey Chapter 2

2.1 Historical Perspective and Evolution:

Ad-hoc is described in Latin word 'for this'. MANET is a group of mobile nodes form short live or provisional networks without the assist of any centralized structure. These networks introduce a new skill of network organization and can be well suitable for an environment where any infrastructure is lost or where organize an infrastructure that is not extremely cost efficient. The entire life cycle of wireless networks might be categorized into the first generation (1G), second generation (2G), and the third generation (3G) ad-hoc networks systems. Recent ad-hoc networks systems are measured as the third generation.

The first generation go back to 1972. At the instance, they were called PRNET (Packet Radio Networks). In arrangement with ALOHA (Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres) and CSMA (Carrier Sense Medium Access), approach for MAC (medium access control) and a type of distance-vector routing PRNET was used on a test basis to provide altered networking capability in a battle environment.

The 2G of wireless networks appear in 1980s, when the ad-hoc networks were advance enhanced and implement as a piece of the SURAN (Survivable Adaptive Radio Networks) program that provides a packet-switched network to the mobile battleground in a situation without transportation. This program proves to be valuable in improving the radios' presentation by building them smaller, cheaper, and flexible to electronic attacks.

In the 1990s, the conception of commercial ad-hoc networks here with notebook computers and other feasible communications tackles. At identical time, design of a gathering of mobile nodes was projected at a number of research conferences.

The IEEE 802.11 subcommittee have adopted the term "ad hoc networks" with the research area had started to look into the prospect of deploying wireless networks in previous areas of application. For the time being work was going on to progress the formerly built wireless networks. GloMo (Global Mobile Information Systems) and NTDR (Near-term Digital Radio) are a number of results of those efforts. GloMo was designed to provide office surroundings with Ethernet type multimedia connectivity everywhere and anytime in handheld procedures.

NTDR is the merely "real" non-prototypical wireless network to ease is in use nowadays. It uses cluster and link state routing, and is also self prepared into a two-tier wireless network. Development of different channel access approach now in the CSMA/CA and TDMA, and some other routing and topology organize mechanism were some of the other invention to time.

In mid-1990s, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the MANET functioning group was formed to standardize routing protocols for wireless networks. The expansion of routing within the functioning cluster and the larger area resulted in the development of reactive routing protocols and proactive routing protocols. Almost after, the IEEE 802.11 [1] subcommittee uniform a MAC that was based on conflict prevention and tolerate unseen terminals, assembly it practical for building MANET prototypes. HYPERLAN and Bluetooth were a few previous wireless network standards that attempt and proceeds ad-hoc networking.

2.2 Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET):

MANET [17] [18] is a cluster of wireless mobile computer in which node shift in self-directed manner in any way. The nature of MANETs carries a great face to system protection. In such a network, each movable nodule operates not only as a host but as sound as a router, forwarding packets for additional mobile nodes in the association that may be various hops gone from each other. To preserve this connectivity, all nodes use a few routing protocols such as AODV (Ad hoc on demand distance vector) [3], DSR (Dynamic source routing) [4] and DSDV (Destination-sequenced distance vector). As wireless ad hoc networks want transportation, they are showing to a bunch of attacks. And most important attack is the Black Hole attack. Physically, a mobile ad hoc network consists of a number of physically-distributed, that distribute a common radio channel. Compare with other type of networks, such as cellular networks or satellite networks, the mainly unique feature of mobile ad hoc networks is the require of any fixed transportation. RoofTop networks, which figure a multihop wireless network by fit radios at top and offer built-up wireless internet services, and Bluetooth technology, which restore cables using wireless networking. Both can be view as special kind of wireless networks. As wireless message more and more goes through everyday life, new application for mobile ad hoc networks will persist to emerge and become a significant part of the message structure. As mobile ad hoc networks offer the users unique litheness, they bring serious challenges to the designers. All nodes are effectively the same and there is no natural hierarchy or central controller in the network. All function has to be scattered among the nodes. Nodes are often powered by battery and have partial communication and calculation capabilities. The bandwidth of the organization is usually incomplete. The space between two nodes often exceeds the radio transmission range, and a communication has to be relay by other nodes before getting its destination. As a result, a network has a multihop topology, and this topology changes as the nodes move around. The multihop topologies permit spatial reuse of the wireless spectrum.

Another efficient method to expand the ability of a wireless network is power control [2]. By manipulative its transmission power, a node can understand its transmission quality while at the equal time reduce the interposition in the channel. Power controls can also easiness the effect of nodal relationship to some extend. For a network to develop its capacity, it is necessary that every node doubtfully adjusts its power, sometimes to the lowest feasible level just to reach its nearest neighbor [10]. This is also attractive for increasing the battery life of a mobile node.

MANETs are independent and decentralized wireless systems. Nodes are the system or procedure i.e. mobile phone, laptop, PDA, MP3 player and personal computer that are participating in the network and are mobile. They can figure individual topologies on the basis of their connectivity with every one in the network. Those nodes have the capability to place themselves and because of their self arrangement, they can be deploying without delay and without the requirement of any communications. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has mobile ad hoc network working group (WG) and i.e. dedicated for increasing IP routing protocols. MANETs must have a secure way for communication and announcement and this is relatively challenging and very important issue as there is rising threats of attack on the Mobile Network. Safety is the sob of the day. In order to present secure announcement and broadcast must understand special types of attacks and its effect on the MANETs. Wormhole attack, Black hole attack, Sybil attack, Flooding attack, Denial of Service (DoS), impersonation attack are variety of attacks and a MANET can suffer from these attacks. MANET is further unlock to these variety of attacks because message is based on mutual trust among the nodes, there is rejection of central point for network management, rejection of authorization facility, dynamically changing topology and limited resources.

The characteristics [19] of these networks are summarized below:

Autonomous and Infrastructure-less

Dynamic Network Topology

Self-organization and Self-administration

No Centralized controller and Infrastructure

Intrinsic Mutual Trust

Device Heterogeneity


Energy-Constrained Operation

Multi-hop Routing

Network Scalability

Nodes can be both host or router

Frequent Routing updates

Limited Physical Security

Two nodes can sincerely communicate with each additional if they are within the radio range. If the nodes are not inside the radio range they can communicate with each other using multihop routing. These mobile networks have following features that indicate more secure operation in the MANET.:

1. The wireless association between the nodes is highly susceptible. This is because nodes can constantly move causing the normal breakage of the link. The power accessible for transmission is also harshly limited.

2. The topology of the network is extremely dynamic due to the nonstop breakage and organization of wireless link. Nodes constantly move into and out of the radio range. This gives rise to the change in routing information.

3. At hand is a bandwidth limitation in this wireless networks.

4. MANETS need energy - efficient process because all the nodes depend on run power which is highly limited.

Advantages: The subsequent are the advantages of MANETs:

MANET provides access to in order and services in spite of of geographic position.

These networks can be put at any place and time.

Disadvantages: Disadvantages of MANETs are:

Limited resources.

Restricted physical security.

Intrinsic mutual trust susceptible to attacks.

Lack of authorization services.

Unpredictable network topology makes it tough to detect spiteful nodes.

It is also true that the solutions to the wired networks do not workable to mobile ad hoc networks domain. Mobile ad hoc network has different challenges with respect to wireless security due to some of the following reasons:

1. The wireless network particularly responsible to attacks since, for active eavesdrop to passive interfering.

2. Due to be short of of Trusted Third Party adds it is very hard to deploy or implement security mechanism.

3. Mostly Mobile devices have incomplete computation potential and power consumption functionalities which are more vulnerable to Denial of Service attacks. It is also incapable to run heavy security algorithms which need high computations like public key algorithms.

4. Due to MANET's properties like infrastructure less and self-organizing, there are more chances for trusted node to be compromised and launch attacks on networks. In other words we need to cover up from both insider and outsider attacks in MANET, in which internal attacks are very tricky to deal with.

5. It is tricky to differentiate among stale routing and faked routing information because of node mobility mechanism. In node mobility mechanism it implements common networking reconfiguration which produces more chances for attacks.

A wireless ad hoc network is mainly divided into two areas: Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANET) and Smart Sensor Technology. Mobile ad hoc networks consist of mobile nodes, which can communicate with each other and nodes can enter and depart the network anytime due to the little transmission range of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, routes between nodes may consist of one or more hops. Thus each node may as well work as a router or depend on a number of other nodes for routing. Figure 2.2 shows a simple ad hoc network by three mobile hosts using wireless interface. Host A and C are not in series from each other's wireless source. When exchange packets, they may use the routing services of host B to ahead packets since B is within the transmission range of both of them.

Figure 2.2 Mobile Ad hoc networks with 3 mobile nodes

2.3 Types of Networks:

According to exposure area, three kind of wireless interconnection have been separate. Personal Area Networks (PANs), Local Area Networks (LANs) and Wide Area Networks (WANs).

2.3.1. Personal Area Networks (PAN)

PAN is a computer network use for communication amongst computer devices (including telephones, PDAs, etc.) close up to one person. Distinctive PAN networks are Bluetooth, Sensor networks. The principles Board of the IEEE accepted the standard 802.15, as MAC and PHY Specifications for Wireless PANs (WPANs).

2.3.2. Local Area Networks (LAN)

In this type of network and strategy are communicating with each other in a restricted coverage area that can be a structure or a campus. In a WLAN nodes employ air as the medium. WLANs are consistent by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

2.3.3. Wide Area Networks (WAN)

WANs increase a comparatively larger geographical area. Typically a WAN include more than one LANs. 2G and 3G Mobile Cellular Networks, Satellite Systems and Paging Networks are example of Wireless WANs (WWANs).


2G cellular

3G cellular


Wireless LAN


Wired LAN





Fig 2.3 Data rates and mobility for communication types

2.4 MANETs Routing Protocols:

Nodes of MANET execute as router and obtain part in result and upholding to set up a reliable route of all. Therefore, routing protocol for wired networks cannot be in a straight line used in wireless networks and common protocols have been developed for MANETs. These routing protocols are divided into two categories based on management of routing tables. These categories are Table Driven (proactive) Routing Protocols [8] and On Demand (reactive) Routing Protocols [6] [7] are explaining below:

MANETs Routing Protocols

Reactive Protocols

Proactive Protocols








Hybrid Protocol


Fig 2.4 MANETs Routing Protocol

2.4.1 Proactive (Table Driven) Routing Protocols:

In this maintain reliable, up-to-date routing information from every node to each other node in the network. This routing protocol keeps one or more tables to store their routing in order, and can respond to modify in network topology by propagate updates throughout the network. To maintain reliable routing tables, every node propagates the update messages to the network when the network topology changes. Because every node has information about network topology, table driven routing protocols present several problems.

•Periodically updating the network topology increases bandwidth overhead.

•Periodically updating route tables keeps the nodes awake and quickly exhausts their batteries.

•Many redundant route entries to the specific destination needlessly take place in the routing tables.

Proactive routing protocols explain some routing protocol that work on this scenario. These are: Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector Routing Protocol (DSDV), Fisheye State Routing (FSR), Hierarchical State Routing (HSR), Zone-based Hierarchical Link State Routing Protocol (ZHLS) and Cluster head Gateway Switch Routing Protocol (CGSR) Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP), Global State Routing (GSR). All these protocols sustain continually simplified topology of the network. All nodes in the network know about the extra node in advance keep it simple, the entire network is famous in all the nodes and making that network. The entire routing information is typically kept in number of different tables [6]. Every time there is a modification in the network topology, those tables are revised according to modification. The nodes switch topology information with each other, and they can have route information at all time when they needed [6].

2.4.2 Reactive (On-Demand) Routing Protocols

Reactive routing protocols are not maintained periodically, but when route tables are required to create. When the source node wants to connect to the destination node, it propagates the route request packet to its neighbors. Reactive routing protocols are: Dynamic Source Routing Protocol (DSRP), Associativity Based Routing (ABR), Cluster based Routing Protocols (CBRP), Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA), and Signal Stability Routing (SSR).

Reactive protocol do not initiates route detection themselves, and generate routes just when chosen by the source node. These protocols group routes when demanded [3, 4]. Once a node needs to correspond with a new node in the network, and the source node don't have a route to this node with that it wants to communicate, this protocols will set up a route for the source to destination node. Usually these protocols don't discover route until demanded. When a route has been recognized, it is preserved by a route maintenance procedure until destination becomes inaccessible or route is no longer desired. Once node attempt to discover the destination "on demand", it uses overflow technique to broadcast the queue and do not use bandwidth for sending information. They use bandwidth, after the nodes start broadcasting the data to the destination node.

In our work, we have used Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) [16] and execute Black Hole attack to this protocol. Black Hole Attack is detailed in next chapter.

2.4.3 Hybrid Protocols:

Hybrid protocols develop the power of both reactive and proactive protocols, and combine both to obtain improved results. The network is separated into zones, and utilizes different protocols in two dissimilar zones i.e. one is used within zone, and the other is used to connect them. Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) is the instance of Hybrid Routing Protocol. ZRP uses proactive mechanism for route organization inside the nodes region, and for message between the regions it takes the benefit of reactive protocols. These local regions are known as zones, and named as zone routing protocol. Every zone can have special size and all nodes may be within several overlapping zones.

2.5 Attacks in MANETs:

The attacks in the MANET are able to be external or internal. External attacks are accepted out by nodes that do not fit in to the network. An external attack can cause jamming sends false routing in sequence or causes unavailability of services. In an Internal attack the spiteful node from the network gain unauthorized access and impersonate as a real node. It can analyze traffic between other nodes and may participate in other network activities. The attacks can be separated into two categories of passive attack and active attack. In passive attacks the attacker does not bother the routing protocol. It only eavesdrop ahead the routing traffic and activities to extract precious information like node pecking order and network topology from it. In active attacks, spiteful nodes can bother the correct performance of a routing protocol by modify routing information, by fabricate false routing information, and by impersonate other nodes launch on an ad hoc network.

Some distinctive types of active attacks to facilitate can usually be simply performed next to MANETs are listed as follows [19] [20] [21]:

2.5.1 Denial of Service Attack and Flooding - Dos attack aims to attack the easiness of use of a node or the complete network. If the attack is doing well the services will not be accessible. In a Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack, a mugger attempt to avoid legitimate users from access in sequence or services. By target client computer and its network association, or the computers and network of the sites client is annoying to use, a mugger may be able to avoid the client from accessing email, websites, online accounts, or other services that rely on the affected computer. The most frequent and clear type of DoS attack occur when an enemy floods a network with in sequence as shown in Fig

Fig. 2.5.1 DoS Attack

This fig 2.5.1 shows that when client type a URL for a exacting website into browser, the server can simply process a definite number of requirements at once, so if an attacker overload the server with desires, it can't progression the legal request.

2.5.2 Impersonation - If the validation mechanism is not correctly implemented a spiteful node can act as a authentic node and watch the network traffic. It can also send false routing packets, and add access to some secret information.

Fig.2.5.2 Impersonation

2.5.3 Eavesdropping - In this node only observes the confidential in sequence and work as a passive attack. In this information can be later worn by the spiteful node. The top secret information like location, private key, password, public key etc. are be able to be fetch by eavesdropper.

Fig.2.5.3 Eavesdropping

2.5.4 Routing Attacks - The spiteful node make routing services because it's significant services in MANETs. This attack uses two types of routing attack. One attack is on routing protocol that is designed for jamming the broadcast of routing information to a node and another one is on packet forwarding or delivery mechanism and provides upsetting the packet delivery next to a predefined path.

Black hole attacks - A Black hole is a spiteful node that wrongly replies for route requirements without having an active route to the destination and exploit the Routing Protocol to announce itself as having a fine and valid path to a destination node. As shown in Fig a spiteful node tries to develop into an element of an active route, if there is a possibility and it has awful intention of disorderly data packets being sent to the destination node or obstruct the route discovery process.

Fig. Black hole Attack

Gray hole attacks - A Gray hole [15] may ahead all packets to positive nodes but may fall packets coming from or meant to specific nodes as shown in Fig In this attack, node may act spitefully for some time but afterward it behaves totally normally. This type of attacks is more hard compared to black hole attack.

Fig. Gray hole Attack

Wormhole attacks - In this attack, a spiteful node can trace packets (or bits) at one place in the network and channel them to a new location during a private network joint with collude spiteful node. This attack can be done with one node also, but usually two or more attacker connects by a link called wormhole link. The significance of this attack is that it can be launch against all connections that provide validity and privacy. This attack is of three types: Closed Wormhole, Half Open Wormhole, and Open Wormhole.

In the crate of open attacks, worms can get part in routing and, at the equal time, spitefully arrest and replay packets. In closed attacks, they purely are passive capture-and replay devices. Passive worms stay invisible to the network topology. In the hybrid half-open attacks, one worm is opened and the other is closed. The channel between worms can be a devoted communication standard such as long ranges wireless devices or optical cable. All of these have been shown in Fig.

Fig. Worm hole Attack

2.5.5 Rushing - In this rushing [14] attack, two spiteful nodes requests a route to shape a worm hole and use a channel procedure, and the tunnel packets can broadcast faster than a normal multi-hop route. When a fellow citizen of the objective receives the hasty REQUEST from the attacker, and forwards that REQUEST, and it will not ahead any further REQUESTs from route discovery. When non attacking REQUESTs come in these nodes, they will throw away these lawful REQUESTs as shown in Fig-

Fig.2.5.5 Rushing


Security in MANET is the primarily significant concern for the essential functionality of network. MANET frequently suffers from security attacks since its characteristics. Characteristics of MANET have altered the battle field condition for the MANET beside the security threats. MANETs are very supple for the nodes i.e. nodes can generously connect and go away from the network. There is no input body that keeps watching on the nodes incoming and leave the network. These weaknesses of MANETs make MANET susceptible to attacks and are discussed as below.

2.6.1 Non secure boundaries: MANET is susceptible to dissimilar variety of attacks due to rejection of clear secure boundary. In MANET nodes have the freedom to connect and depart inside the network. Because of this node can connect to a network frequently if the node is in the radio range, therefore it can correspond with additional nodes in the network. Because of this, MANET is more susceptible to attacks. In MANET attacks may be passive or active. There is no protection beside attacks like firewalls, which may consequence the susceptibility of MANET to attacks [10].

2.6.2 Compromised Node: A number of of the attacks are to obtain access inside the network in organize to acquire organize above the node in the network by unfair means to carry out their spiteful activities. In MANET nodes are open to travel, connect or go away from the network it means nodes are independent [11]. Due to this independent factor for mobile nodes it is very tough for the nodes to avoid spiteful activity with this it is communicating. Wireless network mobility formulates it easier for a compromised node to modify its position so often making it more difficult and worrying to track the spiteful activity.

2.6.3 No Central Management: MANET consists of mobile nodes where the message connecting these mobile nodes with no central control because it is self configurable network. In this each and all node act as router and can in front and get packets [12]. MANET works with no preexisting communications. This lack of central management guides MANET more susceptible to attacks. Distinguish attacks and examine the traffic on large scale wireless network is very complex due to no central management.

2.6.4 Problem of Scalability: In conventional networks, the network is constructing and in this machine is associated with other machine with help of wire. The scale of the network when designed does not change during the use. In MANETs the nodes are portable and because of this the scale of the MANETs changed. This is very difficult to predict the numbers of nodes in the MANETs.

There are five most important security goals that need to be address in order to maintain a dependable and secure ad-hoc network environment. These mechanisms prevent, detect, and respond to security attacks. They are mainly [9]:

Availability makes certain view of availability that is survivability of network services in spite of DoS attacks. It assures that the services of the system are available at all times and are not denied to authorize users. A DoS attack might be initiated at any layer of an wireless network.

Confidentiality makes certain view of certain information that never revealed to unauthorized entities. In MANETs, this is difficult because intermediates nodes (that act as routers) obtain the packets for added receiver, so they can easily spy the information that being routed.

Integrity promises about a message that it's transferred will never corrupt. And Message being transmitted is never altered. A message might be dishonored because of failures, such malicious attacks on the network.

Authentication declare an entity that concern the origin of a message what it declare to be. It permits a node for identity of the peer node with this it is communicating. Lacking of authentication, an opponent could impersonate a node, therefore gaining illegal access to resource and responsive information and snooping with the process of other nodes.

Non-repudiation makes sure that sending and receiving parties can never reject that message that has been already sent or received. It is helpful for finding and separation of compromised nodes. When a node X obtains a wrong message from a node Y, it allows X to blame Y with this message and to induce other nodes that Y is compromised.

2.7 Ad hoc on demand distance vector routing (AODV)

An ad hoc network can be quickly deployed and provide limited but much needed communications. Ad hoc networks will enable people to exchange data in the field or in a class room without using any network structure except the one they create by simply turning on their computers or PDAs, or enable a flock of robots (UAVs, satellites, etc.) to form a self-organizing group and collectively perform some task. It was planned by Perkins and Royer [96]. Its operation can be summarized as follows: Each node using AODV maintains a route table entry for each destination of interest. AODV [11], [12], [13] is one of the leading routing protocols. It is an on-demand algorithm that builds routes between nodes, but only as desired by source nodes, and maintains these routes as long as they are needed. AODV uses sequence numbers to ensure the freshness of routes. It is loop-free, self starting, and scales to large numbers of mobile nodes. We will identify security issues, discuss challenges to security. An ad hoc network [1] is a wireless network without any fixed infrastructure. Mobile Ad hoc network (MANET) [17] [18] is a group of mobile hosts without the required involvement of any offered infrastructure or centralized access point such as a base station. The MANET presents many challenges, including secure routing, to the research community. Wireless networks are formed by routers and hosts, and use radio frequencies to transmit and receive data instead of using physical cables. Ad hoc networks are an emerging area of mobile computing. There are various challenges that are faced in the Ad-hoc environment. AODV is an on demand routing network protocol which is specially design for Ad hoc network. This protocol is Mixture of DSR and DSDV routing protocol. Ad hoc network is particularly susceptible due to the lack of any centralized infrastructure. Ad hoc network is a collection of independent nodes, corresponding to each other without a given fixed infrastructure. Therefore, they offer great flexibility, higher throughput, lower operating cost and better coverage compared to cellular base wireless networks.

A route table entry contains the destination D, next hop, number of hops to D, sequence number of the destination and the expiration time for the route table entry. When a node S has a packet to send to a destination D, S checks its routing table for an entry containing D as the destination with a sequence number equal to or greater than the last known destination sequence number of D. If there is no such entry, S broadcasts a route request (RREQ) packet, containing the source address, the source sequence number, broadcast id, destination sequence number and hop count. The source sequence number and the broadcast id are separate Counters are maintained by each node. A node increments its broadcast id counter each time it constructs a new RREQ packet; whereas the node's sequence number counter is incremented less frequently. The destination sequence number is the last known sequence number of the destination. When a node ni receives a RREQ packet it has not previously seen, it sets up a reverse path to the source by recording the address of its neighbor from which it received the first copy of the RREQ. If ni is not the destination and its routing table does not contain an entry for D, it increments the hop count and rebroadcasts the RREQ packet to its neighbors. If ni however is the destination or if its routing table contains an entry with D as its destination with a destination sequence number that is equal to or greater than the destination sequence number in the RREQ packet, it constructs a route reply (RREP) packet and unicasts it to the neighboring node it received the RREQ from. An RREP packet contains the source address, destination address, destination sequence number, hop count and lifetime. When an intermediate node receives a RREP packet, it updates its routing table with the information the RREP contains, then unicasts it to the neighbor it received the first copy of the associated RREQ packet. The process continues until the RREP packet gets to S. S can now forward its packet to the next hop on the path to D.

There are three types of control messages for route discovery and maintenance which are described below.

Route Request Message (RREQ):

SN (Source node) that wants to be in contact with a new node in the network broadcast RREQ message.

Route Reply Message (RREP):

A node that is requested for identity of node or identity of any intermediate node that send route to the requested node to generate a route reply RREP message back to the source node.

Route Error Message (RERR):

When the node senses a relation break in an active route, then RERR message is caused by the node.

2.7.1 Route Discovery Mechanism in AODV

When a node A desires to begin communication through a different node G that is intermediate node, and create a route RREQ. This message is promote to the fellow node, and this node promote the direct message to its fellow nodes or intermediate node. This process continues until it discovers a node that has a fresh route to the destination and it is located. Formerly the target node is situated or a middle node with sufficient fresh routes is positioned, they produce RREP to the source node. When RREP arrive at the source node, a route is recognized between the source node X and destination node Z. Formerly the route is create node X and Z can correspond with each other. The give figure 2.7.1 show switching of messages between source node and destination node.








Fig. 2.7.1 AODV Route Discovery

When there is a link error destinations causes that links are unreachable from the source node or neighbors nodes, then the RERR message is sent to the source node. When RREQ message is broadcasted for locating destination node i.e. from node A to the neighbors nodes, at node B the link is broken between B and Z, so a route error RERR message is generated at node B and transmitted to the source node informing the source node a route error. The scheme is shown in the Fig. 2.3 below.









Fig. 2.7.2 Route Error Message in AODV

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