Coding Binary Decimal And Ascii Computer Science Essay

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ASCII - it short for American Standard Code for Information, it's coded to represent text in computers, communication equipment and any other devices that uses text. The coding character set consists of 128 7-bit characters. There are 32 control characters, 94 graphic characters, the space character and the delete character

Hexadecimal - it's a numeric system with base 16. it has sixteen different symbol or values. The symbols 0-9 to represent values zero to nine, and A, B, C, D, E, F (or a through f) to represent values ten to fifteen. Examples of decimal numbers converted to hexadecimal.

Decimal:

Hexadecimal:

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

A

B

C

D

E

F

Binary - it's a base 2 number system, it has two numeric values. They are 0 and 1. To convert decimal numbers to binary you have to divide the decimal number by 2 until you get 0. Below there are some decimal converted to binary.

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Decimal

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Binary

0

1

10

11

100

101

110

111

1000

1001

1010

Bit masks - The bit masks uses the binary number 1s and 0s, so its takes advantages of binary numbers as bit masks digits are equivalent to binary number. The binary numbers are used as switches to enable or disable certain electronic system. So taking binary number 1010 as an example bit 0 is off, bit 1 is on, bit 2 is off and bit 3 is on.

Bit maps - it consists of rows and columns of dots, of a graphics image in computer. The value of each dot is stored in one or more bits of data, it doesn't matter if it's filled or not.

Converting decimal to binary

I will convert my name (Amjad) to decimal then I will convert the decimal to binary.

A = 65 in decimal. So to convert it to binary I will divide 65 by 2 until I can't divide further more.

2/65 = 32 carry 1

2/32 = 16 carry 0

2/16 = 8 carry 0

2/8 = 4 carry 0

2/4 = carry 0

2/2 = 1 carry 0

Now I will put the binary digits together, starting from the bottom to the top:

So A = 1000001

m = 109 in decimal. So to convert it to binary I will divide 109 by 2 until I can't divide further more.

2/109 = 54 carry 1

2/54 = carry 0

2/27 = 13 carry 1

2/13 = 6 carry 1

2/6 = 3 carry 0

2/3 = 1 carry 1

Now I will put the binary digits together, starting from the bottom to the top:

So m = 1101101

j = 106 in decimal. So to convert it to binary I will divide 106 by 2 until I can't divide further more.

2/106 = 53 carry 0

2/53 = 26 carry 1

2/26 = 13 carry 0

2/13 = 6 carry 1

2/6 = 3 carry 0

2/3 = 1 carry 1

Now I will put the binary digits together, starting from the bottom to the top:

So j = 1101010

a = 97 in decimal. So to convert it to binary I will divide 106 by 2 until I can't divide further more.

2/97 = 48 carry 1

2/48 = 24 carry 0

2/24 = 12 carry 0

2/12 = 6 carry 0

2/6 = 3 carry 0

2/3 = 1 carry 1

Now I will put the binary digits together, starting from the bottom to the top:

So a = 1100001

d = 100 in decimal. So to convert it to binary I will divide 100 by 2 until I can't divide further more.

2/100 = 50 carry 0

2/50 = 25 carry 0

2/25 = 12 carry 1

2/12 = 6 carry 0

2/6 = 3 carry 0

2/3 = 1 carry 1

Now I will put the binary digits together, starting from the bottom to the top:

So d = 1100100

Now I will convert my surname (Ali) to binary

A = 65 in decimal. So to convert it to binary I will divide 65 by 2 until I can't divide further more.

2/65 = 32 carry 1

2/32 = 16 carry 0

2/16 = 8 carry 0

2/8 = 4 carry 0

2/4 = carry 0

2/2 = 1 carry 0

Now I will put the binary digits together, starting from the bottom to the top:

So A = 1000001

l = 108 in decimal. So to convert it to binary I will divide 108 by 2 until I can't divide further more.

2/108 = 54 carry 0

2/54 = 27 carry 0

2/27 = 13 carry 1

2/13 = 6 carry 1

2/6 = 3 carry 0

2/3 = 1 carry 1

Now I will put the binary digits together, starting from the bottom to the top:

So l = 1101100

I = 105 in decimal. So to convert it to binary I will divide 105 by 2 until I can't divide further more.

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2/105 = 52 carry 1

2/52 = 26 carry 0

2/26 = 13 carry 0

2/13 = 6 carry 1

2/6 = 3 carry 0

2/3 = 1 carry 1

Now I will put the binary digits together, starting from the bottom to the top:

So I = 1101001

Converting binary to hexadecimal

To convert binary to hexadecimal you first have add and extra 0 to beginning of the digits so its 8 digits. Then you divide them into two groups. You will get the hexadecimal value by adding up numbers which are at top of digit 1's. Then you just join both groups together to get the hexadecimal.

Amjad

A

8421|8421

0100|0001

4 | 1

So A = 41

m

8421|8421

0110|1101

6 | 13

So m = 6D

j

8421|8421

0110|1010

6 | 10

So j = 6A

a

8421|8421

0110|0001

6 | 1

So a = 61

d

8421|8421

0110|0100

6 | 4

So d = 64

Ali

A

8421|8421

0100|0001

4 | 1

So A = 41

l

8421|8421

0110|1100

6 | 12

So l = 6C

i

8421|8421

0110|1001

6 | 8

So i = 68

Addition

Adding binary numbers are simple and easy. When adding you should align both as they are decimal then start adding from right to left. There are four combinations in adding binary:

0 + 0 → 0

0 + 1 → 1

1 + 0 → 1

1 + 1 → 0, carry 1 (since 1 + 1 = 0 + 1 Ã- 10 in binary)

A

j

carry

sum

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

A + j = 0010101

Subtractions

To subtract binary numbers first you should take the second value which to be subtracted and apply two complement to it (For each digit in the number, change every 1 to 0 and every 0 to 1). This is done in two steps:

Complement each digit in turn (change 1 for 0 and 0 for 1).

Add 1 (one) to the result.

A =1000001

J = 1101010 = 0010101 replacing 1's with 0's and 0's with 1's.

0010101

+ 1 Adding 1

0010110

Now adding to find the value

1000001

0010110

1010111

A-j = 1010111

Multiplication

Binary multiplication is similar to decimal multiplication; you follow the rules which apply to decimal numbers. It's like when you multiply 5x5= 25 but in binary you will need the following combinations:

0 x 0 = 0

0 x 1 = 0

1 x 0 = 0

1 x 1 = 1

First you align both numbers as they are decimal then you start multiplying from right to left then you add them.

A =1000001

J = 1101010

0000000

1000001

0000000

1000001

0000000

1000001

1000001

A x j = 1101011101010

Division

A/A

1000001/1000001 = 1

Analogue data

The analogue to digital converter (ADC) is electronic device in an integrated circuit. It converts non-stop signals to digital numbers. This operation can be reversed by the digital to analogue converter (DAC). ADCs are integral to current music reproduction technology. Since much music production is done on computers, when an analog recording is used, an ADC is needed to create the PCM data stream that goes onto a compact disc. ADCs are used, in TV tuner cards. Slow on-chip 8, 10, 12, or 16 bit ADCs are common in microcontrollers.

The ADC is used to convert or transform analogue information like audio signals or measurement of physical variables (for example force and temperature.) into form of digital. This might be involved in these kinds of operations:

Processing by a computer or by logic circuits, including arithmetical operations, comparison, sorting, ordering, and code conversion,

storage until ready for further handling,

Display in numerical or graphical form, and (4) transmission.

Motherboard

The motherboard provides support for all the internal components and passes information between all the computer parts. Every thing is connected to motherboard, components such as CPU, memory, monitor, mouse, key board, peripherals like printers and speakers.

Memory

The memory stores data, programs and intermediate results. The random access memory (RAM) is the part of the computer which stores information while the computer is working. It can store data in any order and the common memory is 512-1024 megabytes. The most common RAM is DDR-SDRAM which stands for double-data-rate synchronous dynamic random access memory.

Hard drive

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The hard drive is to store data on it permanently; it also contains all the personal work as well as the operating system. The hard drive is needed because when the RAM is lost when the computer is off. It has a space of 4 gigabytes, 80 gigabyte hard drives are the most common, but they are available at up to 400 GB, and several hard drives can be installed in one case.

RISC - it's short for Reduced Instruction Set Computer. RISC is computer architecture, which decrease chip complication by using simpler instructions. RISC compilers have to produce software routines to perform the equivalent processing performed by more broad instructions in "complex instruction set computers" (CISC computers).

CISC

A complex instruction set computer (CISC, is a computer instruction set architecture (ISA) in which each instruction can execute several low-level operations, such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store, all in a single instruction. The term was retroactively coined in contrast to reduced instruction set computer (RISC).

CPU (Central Processing Unit)

This is the component which executes information the computer and keeps it organized .The CPU does the most of the mathematical manipulations which makes the computer operate. Even thought other components have their own processors but the results always goes through the PCU. The speed of the computer is measured by the CPU. CPUs generate a lot of heat, so they need a heat sink and fan to prevent them from overheating.

CPU components

A microprocessor which is a single integrated circuit that contains the circuit for both the arithmetic logic unit and the control unit

An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) which performs arithmetic operations such as addition and subtraction

Registers which hold the data that is being processed.

A control unit that directs and co-ordinates processing.