Code Division Multiple Access System Computer Science Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Telecommunication is a vibrant and ever changing field. As the days are coming the significance of networking mainly in the field of mobile communication is going on mounting. As the demand of cellular communication growing so day by day the technology also keeps altering or getting better. By illustrating and developing an understanding of the various engineering, scientific and economic tradeoffs necessary in the design and implementation of networking, the assignment aims at providing an understanding of the principles underlying the structure of CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS SYSTEM (CDMA). As we have given the option for both the technologies i.e. CDMA and GSM. But we have chosen CDMA technology in order to complete our given task.

A CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS SYSTEM (CDMA) technology consists of different types and performance levels of memory, having different technology and modulation schemes. In the given assignment we have analysed and investigate the three major types that is technology used in CDMA which is spread spectrum technology, the modulation technique used in it, where the CDMA technology is implemented and with its merits and demerits.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 2

ABSTRACT 4

INTRODUCTION 6

Types Of Spread Spectrum: 9

Implementation of CDMA technology 20

f) Describe the advantages/strengths and disadvantages of the technology. 22

g) Describe the problems during the implementation of such technology. 23

h) Using relevant diagrams and figures provide a simple design of the implementation of the chosen standard. 26

REFERENCES 31

CONCLUSION 33

INTRODUCTION

The beginning of the 21st century saw the advancement and proliferation of wireless communication technologies, specifically in the mobile network categories. Mobile communications are rapidly becoming more and more necessary for everyday activities. With so many more users to accommodate, more efficient use of bandwidth is a priority among cellular phone system operators. Equally important is the security and reliability of these calls. One solution that has been offered is a CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS SYSTEM (CDMA)

CDMA is one method for implementing a multiple access communication system. Multiple Accesses is a technique where many subscribers or local stations can share the use of the use of a communication channel at the same time or nearly so despite the fact originate from widely different locations. A channel can be thought of as merely a portion of the limited radio resource, which is temporarily allocated for a specific purpose, such as someone's phone call. A multiple access method is a definition of how the radio spectrum is divided into channels and how the channels are allocated to the many users of the system.

So, we are choosing CDMA technology for our assignment and reports for the same are as follows:

What is CDMA?

The code division multiple access (CDMA) system is a 2nd generation digital mobile radio communication system that provides for voice and medium-speed data communication services. Code division multiple access (CDMA) A digital wireless technology that converts analog information, such as speech, into digital information, which is then transmitted as a radio signal over a wireless network. It is a form of multiplexing (not a modulation scheme) and a method of multiple access that does not divide up the channel by time (as in time division multiple access), or frequency (as in frequency-division multiple access), but instead encodes data with a special code associated with each channel and uses the constructive interference properties of the special codes to perform the multiplexing. CDMA also refers to digital cellular telephony systems that make use of this multiple access scheme, such as those pioneered by Qualcomm, and W-CDMA by the International Telecommunication Union or ITU. 2

This figure shows a simplified diagram of a CDMA system. This diagram shows that the CDMA system includes mobile communication devices (mobile stations) that communicate through a radio tower (base station) and a mobile switching center (MSC) or data routing networks to connect to other mobile telephones, public telephones, or to the Internet. This diagram shows that the CDMA system contains both 2nd generation CDMA IS-95 voice radio channels and 1st generation analog radio channels. CDMA devices include voice only (such as a mobile telephone), data only (such as a computer browsing the Internet), and multimedia devices (such as a personal digital assistant that has voice and data capability).

History of CDMA:

CDMA is a military technology first used during World War II by English allies to foil German attempts at jamming transmissions. The allies decided to transmit over several frequencies, instead of one, making it difficult for the Germans to pick up the complete signal. Because Qualcomm created communications chips for CDMA technology, it was privy to the classified information. Once the information became public, Qualcomm claimed patents on the technology and became the first to commercialize it.

Describe the technology involved, giving a clear indication of what the technology is about.

Technology Involved In CDMA:

CDMA is a "spread spectrum" technology, allowing many users to occupy the same time and frequency allocations in a given band/space. CDMA technology is the basis for third generation (3G) wireless technologies which offer increased voice capacity and provide higher data rates than 2G and 2.5G networks. In a world of finite spectrum resources, CDMA enables many more people to share the airwaves at the same time than do alternative technologies. CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) assigns unique codes to each communication to differentiate it from others in the same spectrum. 4, 5

About the Technology:

Basis of CDMA is the spread spectrum technology.

SPREAD SPECTRUM is a means of transmission in which the data sequence occupies a bandwidth in excess of the minimum bandwidth necessary to send it. Spread spectrum is accomplished before transmission through the use of a code that is independent of the data sequence (PN).

Types Of Spread Spectrum:

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum:

DS sequence allows each station to transmit over the entire Frequency Spectrum all the time. Multiple simultaneous transmissions are separated using some sort of coding technique that is each user is assigned a chip sequence. The sender and receiver synchronize by the receiver locking into the chip sequence and the sender and receiver locking into the chip sequence of the sender. All the other (unsynchronized) transmission is then seen as random noise. So with CDMA each user uses the full frequency spectrum.

They employ a high speed code sequence along with the basic information being sent, to modulate their RF carriers. The high speed code sequence is used directly setting the transmitted RF bandwidth.

Binary phase shift keying (BPSK) is the most common technique used in DS system. Direct sequence is, in essence, multiplication of a more conventional communication waveform by PN sequence in the transmitter.

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum:

FH - CDMA is a kind of spread spectrum technology that enables many users to share the same channel by employing a unique hopping pattern to distinguish different users' transmission. The type of spread spectrum in which the carrier hops randomly from one frequency to another is called FH spread spectrum. A common modulation format for FH system is that of M-ary frequency shift keying (MFSK).the combination is referred to as FH/MFSK.

A major advantage of frequency hopping is that it can be implemented over a much larger frequency band than it is possible to implement DS- spreading, and the band can be noncontiguous. Another major advantage is that frequency hopping provides resistance to multiple - access interference while not requiring power control to prevent near - far problems. In DS - systems , accurate power control is crucial but becomes less effective as the carrier frequency is increased.

Frequency hopping does not cover the entire spread spectrum Instantaneously, we are led to consider the rate at which the hops occur. So, we may identify two basic characterizations of frequency hopping.

Slow frequency hopping, in which the symbol rate Rs of MFSK signal is an integrator multiple of the hop rate Rh . that is, several symbols are transmitted on each frequency hop

Fast frequency hopping, in which the hop rate Rh is an integrator multiple of the MFSK symbol rate Rs. that is, the carrier frequency will change or hop several times during the transmission of one symbol.

b) Describe the importance of the technology (i.e. how the technology has or will affect human beings at work and social life).

Technology is an absolute need we cannot escape from. Let's just say, it has a very big role in most aspects of our lives. In other words, it answers most of Mankind problems. Across centuries technology evolves. The importance of technology is aiming for comfort of use in whichever form it is. It always directs for easiness in life. Take the mobile technology for example. The faster the world is moving, the more hi-end the features are offered. The need to be able to communicate anytime, anywhere, has inspired scientists to create cellular phone. And it gets smaller and smaller. The fact that the importance of technology in our daily basis is undeniable has inspired scientists to make improvements from time to time through their invented tools and devices for us to use, just to make our lives easier.7

Importance of Spread Spectrum Technology Used in CDMA affecting human lives:

There is many advantages of spread spectrum technology used in CDMA such as it can provide secure communication in hostile environment such that the transmitted signal is not easily detected or recognized by unwanted listeners. It can reject interference whether it is the unintentional interference by another user simultaneously attempting to transmit through the channel, or the intentional interference by a hostile transmitter attempting to jam the transmission. Another application is in multiple access communication in which a number of independent users can share a common channel without an external synchronizing mechanism.

The signal occupies a bandwidth much greater than that which is necessary to send the information. This results in many benefits, such as immunity to interference and jamming and multi-user access, through which the signal we receive is very clear without any obstruction we can talk properly at our work in day to day life.

There are number of importance about the technology as we have discussed above through which human beings are being affected at their works and social life and they are getting the benefit for the same. There are some more advantages as we will discuss now:

Low power spectral density: As the signal is spread over a large frequency-band, the Power

Spectral Density is getting very small, so other communications systems do not suffer from this kind of communications.

Interference limited operation: In all situations the whole frequency-spectrum is used.

Privacy due to unknown random codes: The applied codes are - in principle - unknown to a hostile user. This means that it is hardly possible to detect the message of another user.

Applying spread spectrum implies the reduction of multi-path effects.

Random access possibilities: Users can start their transmission at any arbitrary time.

Good anti-jam performance. 8

Benefits of CDMA Technology in Mobile Communication:

Through CDMA's application in cellular telephony is relatively new, but it is not a new technology. CDMA has been used in much military application, such as anti jamming, ranging and secure communication.

The use of CDMA for civilian radio application is novel. Commercial application became possible because of following evolutionary developments.

Availability of very low cost, highly dense digital integrated circuits, which reduce the size, weight and cost of the subscriber station to an acceptably low level.

Realization that optimal multiple access communication requires that all user station regulate their transmission power to the lowest that will achieve adequate signal quality.

c) Describe the modulation technique used and basic requirement for successful implementation of the technology (i.e. hardware, software, skills, cost, etc.).

Multi-Carrier CDMA system

Multi-carrier modulation (MCM) is a data transmission technique where several sub carriers are employed to transport the user's data stream signal. Originally this technique was implemented using a bank of analogue SyQuest filters which provide a set of continuous-time orthogonal basis functions. Today using very fast and cost effective digital signal processors, multi-carrier modulation can be implemented using discrete Fourier transform (DFT) as the set of orthogonal sub carriers. This makes the technique very attractive.

Multi-Carrier Modulation (MCM) improves system capacity by making transmission more robust to frequency selective fading and enhances user spectral efficiency. The main drawbacks are:

Difficult sub carriers' synchronization in fading transmissions.

Sensitivity to frequency offset is more pronounced than for a single carrier.

Sensitivity to non-linear amplification (peak factor problem).

To gain the advantages of both schemes (CDMA & MCM), a combination known as multi-carrier CDMA (MC-CDMA) was proposed in 1993 taking after both CDMA & MCM schemes.

An MC-CDMA transmitter spreads the original data stream in the frequency domain over different sub carriers using a given spreading code. In this system the sub carriers convey the same information at one time. The MC-CDMA offers better frequency diversity to combat frequency selective fading.

MC-CDMA transmitter

The simplicity of the multi-carrier system is an important aspect in a cellular system especially for the down link receiver (mobile station). The modulation-demodulation is done by IDFT - DFT. A wavelet-based system can be used instead of DFT for the multi-carrier modulation. Wavelet transform has a property of time-frequency multi resolution. By choosing the right wavelet function and scaling function, the system can achieve the optimum resolution according to need.

Figure 4. Spectrum of MC-CDMA signal

Digital communication systems can be viewed as general transmultiplexer systems, which consist of synthesis part and analysis part. The element, which plays an important role in characterization of the system, is the filter set used in both synthesis and analysis parts. The time-frequency properties of these filters, i.e. time spread and frequency spread, will determine the type of communication systems (TDMA, FDMA, CDMA, OFDM, MC-CDMA, MC-DS-CDMA).

Consequently, the key decision is how to design and optimize this set of filters according to their applications. One of the optimization results for multi-carrier systems is to use one of perfect reconstruction quadrate mirror filter (PR-QMF) types which are called discrete wavelet multi tone (DWMT). Using this DWMT system for MC-CDMA cellular system yields the following advantages:

lower inter channel interference

more robust against multipart fading

more robust against narrow band interference or jamming signal

d) Describe the security issues of the technology (i.e. any special considerations or pre-requisites such as safety, security, regulation, etc.).

Security issue of CDMA

Protecting corporate network assets is an ongoing task for IT professionals. Increased worker mobility and mobile workers' needs for immediate, secure access to critical business information add challenges to maintaining network security. Mobility benefits all, but it can introduce security risks.

Some of today's top security issues and concerns are:

Unauthorized systems and network access

Auditability and compliance

Customer data breaches

Internal and external sabotage

Theft of intellectual property and confidential business information

Cost of mobile device administration

Following are the security measures in CDMA:-

1xrtt autonomous registration authentication:- The authentication sequence comprises of almost 15 steps and focuses on the major protocol exchanges that begin with authentication between the mobile station (MS) and the base station controller (BSC).

EV-do access authentication:- In this first of all the mobile node sends a Unicast Access Terminal Identifier (UATI)-Request. Then, the RNC (Radio network controller) assigns the UATI, and then EVDO session is established between, mobile node and RNC. The RNC sends a challenge handshake authentication protocol (CHAP) to the MN, and it calculates A12 CHAP key. At last, RNC informs the mobile node for A12 authenticated key for successful connection

Mobile IP (Public network) or enterprise home agent (Private network) access:- In this, mobile node registers with the nearest base station and authentication process goes up to the PDSN(Packet Data Serving Node) and A PPP(Point-Point Protocol) session is established between the MN and the PDSN, through which a particular IP is designated to every user and it helps in secure connection.

Air interface (Physical layer) Security

Mobile stations rely on radio technology to access the network. Security is of concern when using radio technology, but with the advances in radio technology, several air interface security mechanisms have been developed to keep signals secure while increasing access capability. Modern radio systems typically divide their allotted radio spectrum by two factors-time or frequency-allowing multiple connections to occur. The different methods of dividing radio spectrum to accommodate lots of connections are called multiple-access schemes. Dividing radio spectrum by time lets each connection (in all or part of the allotted spectrum) use a specific time slot and is called Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). Using TDMA, multiple connections are separated from each other in time. Dividing the radio spectrum by frequency allows each connection (in all or part of the allotted spectrum) to have access to the radio spectrum all of the time and is called Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA). Using FDMA, multiple connections are separated from each other by different frequencies.

e) Describe where such technology is best suited for implementation (i.e. for specific industry and locality).

Implementation of CDMA technology

Future generations of wireless communication systems will be designed with the aim of making the best possible use of the limited radio spectrum in order to further increase throughput as well as user capacity. The application of multicarrier CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) within mobile communication systems is discussed. An overview of the main types of multicarrier spread-spectrum system is given. The multicarrier CDMA system is described in details, including its relationship with OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), its general performance in comparison with direct sequence CDMA and some specific implementation problems. The paper also presents some results comparing the performance of a selection of algorithms that can be used to isolate the individual signal of each user. Potential capacity increases achievable with adaptive loading in time and frequency slots is briefly demonstrated. By allocating users multiple codes, very high data rates can be achieved and the paper gives a comparison of multi code, multicarrier CDMA with OFDM-based wireless LAN systems.

Wireless location using CDMA cellular networks brings with it the possibility of several applications which will benefit businesses as well as consumers.

The potential applications include:

E-911

Location-sensitive billing

Fraud detection

Cellular system design and resource management

Fleet management and intelligent transportation systems (ITS)

For Example:-

E-911:- Location information for wireless E-911 calls permits rapid response in situations where callers are disoriented, disabled, unable to speak, or do not know their location.

Location-sensitive billing:- Location-sensitive billing provides a wireless carrier the ability to offer different rates depending on whether the wireless terminal is used at home, in the office,

f) Describe the advantages/strengths and disadvantages of the technology.

ADVANTAGES

Capacity increase

No frequency management or assignment

Best for micro-cell and in building system

Reduce average transmitted power

Reduces number of sites needed to support any given amount of traffic

Reduce deployment and operating cost because fewer cell sites are needed

Improves the telephone traffic capacity

improves the voice quality and eliminate audible and effects of multipath fading

Provides reliable transport mechanism for data communication, such as facsimile and internet traffic.

Simplifies site selection

Reduced interference to other electronic devices.

DISADVANTAGE

Multi-user interference or multiple access interference(MAI)

In CDMA system, each user data is spread by a pseudorandom code. All users then transmit in the same frequency band and are distinguished at the receiver by the user specific spreading code. All other signal are not despread because they use different codes. These signals appear as interference to the desired user because of non zero cross co-relation values between the spreading codes.

Multi-path fading

g) Describe the problems during the implementation of such technology.

As every coin has two sides, same is the case with the CDMA technique. One hand where its provides us with the best of technologies and a faster data transfer rate and has overwhelmed the problems of the GSM, while on the other it has various drawbacks. The major drawbacks are discussed below.

The IPR royalty related to the CDMA has become a thorny issue in wireless industry. Some of the issues related with the royalty problem are:

Complaints by European Commission (Broadcom, Ericsson, NEC, Nokia, Panasonic Mobile Communications and Texas Instruments

Legal action of QUALCOMM on September 1, 2006

Qualcomm/Nokia License Negotiations and Litigation from November 4, 2005-April 3, 2007

Korean Fair Trade Commission Complaints which started in the starting of April in 2005.

The CDMA technique was developed for voice-centric applications, which means it needs long frame for signal detection and suits for slow-speed continuous-time transmission. Moreover, It does not fit high-speed burst-traffic of the telecom industry.

The CDMA has a poor orthgonality of spreading codes which means only periodic correlation functions are considered in code. Other poor features due to this are:

Not orthogonal at all in uplink transmissions

Bad a periodic correlations

Bad partial correlations

Only unitary codes have been used, i.e., Gold, Walsh, Kasami, etc.

CDMA technology has a low spreading efficiency (SE) in direct-sequence (DS) spreading. The various points covered under this drawback are:

Spreading efficiency is defined as bits deliverable per chip

The Spreading efficiency for direct-sequence spreading is only 1/N bit per chip (if PG=N)

A big room left to improve Spreading efficiency, which is equal to bandwidth efficiency

CDMA technology is unsuitable to support QoS sensitive multimedia traffic. It means:

Difficult to adjust data rate on-a-fly

Data rate change always comes with change in PG

Data rate change always needs Tx power adjustment

Rate change in ONE user affects cell-wise code-assignment plan (e.g., OVSF code used in WCDMA)

Rate change requires huge traffic overhead

A very low cell-wise resource utilization as a result

CDMA technology has a great implementation complexity. It depicts the precision power control to overcome near far effect is very less. Other issues regarding this drawback are:

Multi-user detection to decorrelate user signals.

RAKE for multipath signal separation and detection.

Sectorized antennas to reduce co-channel interference

.

The performance of CDMA is Interference-limited

Multiple access interference (MAI) is serious.

RAKE receiver may not work well to deal with multipath interference (MI).

Capacity is far less than the processing gain (PG).

All problems come from the same root: bad codes

"Unitary codes" work on an one-code-per-user basis. All current CDMA systems use "unitary codes".

h) Using relevant diagrams and figures provide a simple design of the implementation of the chosen standard.

Following are the graphics used before implementing the CDMA technique:-

CDMA architecture

A CDMA network consists of the following components:

Mobile station. The CDMA mobile station (or mobile phone) communicates with other parts of the system through the base-station system.

Base station (BS). The base station (BS) handles the radio interface to the mobile station. The base station is the radio equipment (transceivers and antennas)

Base station controller (BSC). The BSC provides the control functions and physical

links between the MSC and BTS. It provides functions such as handover, cell configuration data and control of RF power levels in base transceiver stations. A number of BSCs are served by a MSC.

Mobile switching center (MSC). The MSC performs the telephony switching functions of the system. It also performs such functions as toll ticketing, network interfacing, common channel signalling, and others.

Home location registers (HLR). The HLR database is used for storage and management of subscriptions. The home location register stores permanent data about subscribers, including a subscriber's service profile, location information, and activity status.

Visitor location registers (VLR). The VLR database contains temporary information about subscribers that is needed by the mobile services switching center (MSC) in order to service visiting subscribers. When a mobile station roams into a new mobile services switching center (MSC) area, the visitor location register (VLR) connected to that MSC will request data about the mobile station from the HLR, reducing the need for interrogation of the home location register (HLR).

Authentication center (AC). The AC provides authentication and encryption parameters that verify the user's identity and ensure the confidentiality of each call. The authentication center (AUC) also protects network operators from fraud.

Operation and administration (OAM). The OAM is the functional entity from which the network operator monitors and controls the system. The purpose of operation and support system is to offer support for centralized, regional, and local operational and maintenance activities that are required for a CDMA network.

Software study before Setup of Antenna

HORIZONTAL PLOT

VERTICAL PLOT

EC/IO PLOT before choosing the geographical area

REFERENCES

1. (2009). CDMA. Available: http://www.dolcera.com/wiki/index.php?title=CDMA_Basics . Last accessed 11 March 2010.

2. (2007). CDMA. Available: http://in.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070125190847AAuHFfQ. Last accessed 10 March 2010.

3. (2005). CDMA Technology. Available: http://www.cdg.org/technology/cdmatechnology.asp . Last accessed 14 March 2010.

4. (2009). CDMA Technology. Available: http://www.cdg.org/resources/acronyms.asp. Last accessed 24 March 2010.

5. (2008). CDMA Moodulation. Available: http://www.pangolinsms.com/images/cellular-standards/cdma-large.gif Last accessed 1 April 2010.

6. (2002). Technology. Available: http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Importance-of-Technology-in-Our-Daily-Lives&id=2218150 Last accessed 4 March 2010.

7. V. Garg, K. Smolik, and J. Wilkes, Applications of CDMA in Wireless/Personal Communications, Prentice Hall, 1997

8. J. Holtzman, CDMA Power Control for Wireless Networks, Kluwer,1992, pp. 299-311.

9. W. Lee, "Power Control in CDMA (Cellular Radio)," IEEE VTC, 1991, pp.77-80.

10. E. Hepsaydir and W. Yates, "Performance Analysis of Mobile Positioning Using Existing CDMA Network," Proc. IEEE ISSSTA, 1994, pp.190-92.

11. S. Hara and R. Prasad, "Overview of Multicarrier CDMA," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 35, pp. 126-133, 1997.

12. Aidarous, S. and T. Pleyak, 1994. Telecommunications Network Management in to the 21st Century. IEEE Press, New York

13. A. Salmasi and K. Gilhousen, "On the System Design Aspects of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Applied to Digital Cellular and Personal Communications Networks," Proc. 41st IEEE VTC'91, 1991.

14. Hsiao-Hwa Chen, A. J. Han Vinck, Qi Bi and F. Adachi, "The Next Generation ofCDMA Technologies," in IEEE Journal of Selected Areas in Communications (Editorial), VOL. 24, NO. 1, pp. 1-3, January, 2006

15. Hsiao-Hwa Chen, The Next Generation CDMATechnologies, 1st EditionJuly 2007, 468 Pages, Hardcover, John Wiley &Sons.

16. M.Naidu and C.Wingert, "CDMA 1xRTT Security Overview", Qualcomm Inc., August 2002.

17. Sam, A. E., Stofanik, V., Balaz, I.: Evaluation Board for Frequency Hopping-CDMA systems, Proceedings of the 13th International Scientific Conference "Radioelektronika 2003", Brno, Czech Republic, 2003, pp. 411-414.

18. S. Kaiser, Multi-carrier CDMA mobile radio system-analysisand optimization of detection, decoding, and channel estimation, Ph.D. thesis, University of Munich, Munich, Germany, 1998.

19. J. Dunlop, D. G. Smith. "Telecommunications Engineering, 3rd Ed". Chapman & Hall, 1994.

,

CONCLUSION

With our sincere efforts on the assigned work, today we have come to the end of the project with its successful completion. All the group members gave their best efforts for the completion of the work. By working on this project, we have got a thorough knowledge about the CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access). CDMA is radically new concept in wireless communication. It has gained widespread international acceptance by cellular radio system operators as an upgrade that will dramatically increase both their systems capacity and the service quality. Moreover it spread spectrum technology is both more secure , less probable to intercept and jam, highly private and offer higher transmission quality than TDMA because of its increase resistance to multipath distortion .

This article is to help the reader understand the about the CDMA. It introduces and explains the most common terminology and addresses some of the performance related aspects. As a result, an application might spend a considerable amount of time waiting for data.

After a happy start we at last, have reached at a happy end of this group assignment. We have found this group assignment to be very interesting & knowledgeable. Hope our efforts in this group assignment will prove to be useful. So, at the end we wind up with this project for now with the promises of making it better in future.

MINUTES OF MANDATORY MEETINGS 1

GROUP NO: - COM # 11

PROJECT TITLE: - TELECOMMUNICATION

DATE OF MEETING: - /2010

VENUE: - Syndicate Room

TIME: - 3.30PM to 4.30 PM

AGENDA OF MEETING

We started the discussion about the question given in the Assignment of Telecommunications.

We have divided the work between our group members so that the project can be submitted on the given span of time.

Group Members:-

Zeeshan Siddiqui ………………………….

Ojasvi Bhatia …………………………..

Suman Kumari …………………..............

Kundan Kumar ..........................................

MINUTES OF MANDATORY MEETINGS 2

GROUP NO: - COM # 11

PROJECT TITLE: - TELECOMMUNICATION

DATE OF MEETING: - /2010

VENUE: - Syndicate Room

TIME: - 4.00PM to 5.00 PM

AGENDA OF MEETING

Planning of how the project will go on throughout was done.

We have finally decided to work upon CDMA technology.

Date and time for the next meeting was decided.

Group Members:-

Zeeshan Siddiqui ………………………….

Ojasvi Bhatia …………………………..

Suman Kumari …………………..............

Kundan Kumar ..........................................

MINUTES OF MANDATORY MEETINGS 3

GROUP NO: - COM # 11

PROJECT TITLE: - TELECOMMUNICATION

DATE OF MEETING: - /2010

VENUE: - Syndicate Room

TIME: - 4.00PM to 5.00 PM

AGENDA OF MEETING

Members searched their respective topics through different sources.

Starting of documentation.

Date and time for the next meeting was decided.

Group Members:-

Zeeshan Siddiqui ………………………….

Ojasvi Bhatia …………………………..

Suman Kumari …………………..............

Kundan Kumar ...........................................

MINUTES OF MANDATORY MEETINGS 4

GROUP NO: - COM # 11

PROJECT TITLE: - TELECOMMUNICATION

DATE OF MEETING: - /2010

VENUE: - Syndicate Room

TIME: - 4.00PM to 5.00 PM

AGENDA OF MEETING

Check the work done by the group and pace up the working

Final Documentation is planned and looking forward for submission on the given span of time.

Group Members:-

Zeeshan Siddiqui ………………………….

Ojasvi Bhatia …………………………..

Suman Kumari …………………..............

Kundan Kumar ..........................................

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.