Chelsea Airline Reservation System Computer Science Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Chelsea Airline Reservation System is a Nigerian based company, which began its operations in 1995 in the federal capital of Abuja, Nigeria. It began with local flights in nine difference states in Nigeria (kaduna, Abia, Owerri, Port-Harcourt, Ogoni, Uyo, Anabara , Osun and Kogi state).

Chelsea Airline has received so many awards for safety, punctuality, and best customer service. Chelsea Airline strives to be the best and is making itself an example for all other airlines to follow.

In 2004, Classic Airline announced its first international flight to South Africa, and in 2008, it's added eight more international destinations to its routes, which include Audtralla, China, UK, Germany, Ghanna, England, Texas and Italy.

Chelsea Airline is growing and rapidly becoming an international standard for airliners. Due to the affordability, punctuality and customer service given to her customer's, Chelsea Airline has made a huge significant in the airline reservation industries, in that more and more people around it's region are choosing it, in terms of air travel to their various destination.

Chelsea Airline has a static website which shows a little information about the company. It does not interact with the customers in anyway which is not advisable for an industry of any kind in this modern world, where technology is growing rapidly.

Chelsea Airline reaches her customer's and member of the public mainly through point of sales systems at airports, news papers, and other media, which may be complicated because information might not be able to reach everyone at the same time and it is also very time consuming and inconvenient for customers.

Chelsea Airline makes use of old version of software and hardware for its operation and there is no central server to manage or organize the flow of information within the industry. As a result of this, Chelsea Airline has suffered a lot and lost a lot of money, due to poor implementation or no implementation of an advanced online database and operating devices that will enable fast and easy flow of information and transaction and great customer experience.

In 2005, Classic Airline Reservation System was able to launch a new website that is sophisticated with all the required technology and equipments, which allow her customers or members of the public to make their request online, and to interact with the system better.

1.2 BACKGROUND

The new website has an introduction of the reservation system, how it operates and carried out its functions. It also enables her customers or members of the public to interact with the system in their own convenience time, by creating a forum such as FAQ, where interesting questions and answers are being discussed.

Chelsea Airline as a reservation system has it database that store every record, details or information of the managements, staffs, customer and other. This helps in improving the system, by reducing the work load of the staff.

The new system also enables customers to make their booking, reservations and enquiries (such as time of flight, what is require of them, the cost fee to their destination, etc) online. When booking, the system is able to give preference to her members, in that they don't need to enter their details or information as often as they travel, because its provides them with ID, which contain every vital information of the customers.

Also, the new system and database allows the management to keep track of every information of the company, because it is being connect to a central server. It also helps customers to know if their request are being process or what stage is their request, by given them feedback.

3. IDENTIFYING INITIAL ER MODEL

In a database their are tables and inside the table will contain all the information in rows. An object or an event that a simple table represent is known as an entity. In order for us to create a database we must have entities. Hence we will have to figure out the entities in our company in order for us to create a database and below is the entire list of entities of our company.

Entity Flight

Entity Reservation

Entity Passenger

Entity Airport

Every entity consists of attributes; all entities need to have at least one attribute in order to have a table in a database. An attribute is information that can describe an entity. Below is the list of entities with it's respective attributes.

Entity: Flight

Attribute: Flight-Code, Flight-Number, Origin, Destination , Airport-code, Fare, Seat.

Entity: Passenger

Attribute: Passenger-ID, Name, Gender, Passport Number, Country, Email, Age, Address, Phone Number.

Entity: Reservation

Attribute: Passport-Number, Reservation-Code, Flight-Date, Origin, Destination, Flight-Number, Departure-Time, Ticket, Arrival-Time, Passenger-Name, Seat-Number, Agent.

Entity: Airport

Attribute: Airport- code, City, Terminal, Counter.

A relationship connects two entities. It represents an important dependency of two entities. Relationships are represented by a line, connecting to two entities. A solid line is represented as a mandatory line while a dotted line is represented as an optional line. The Entity Relationship Diagram below is to show the relationship between different data in the airline reservation system, and how data from different objects relate to each other.

4.1 Entity Specification

An entity can be considered to be a class of data. Every entity has a name, definition and a type. Each entity must have a set of attribute that describe the different characteristics of the entity.

The following shows the standard of how to identify an entity.

Entity must have a unique name

The entity name must not have any relationship name

No two entity should be about the same thing

Avoid using more than three word to describe an entity

Proper description of an entity must be created

Constantly check the entity names

Do not assign same field in different entity

Entities

Description

Airport

The entity airport denote the name and place where the flights take off

Counter

The entity Counters represent the location or place of the different flights and enables passengers to know his/her flights counter.

Flight

It shows the details of the flights and enables passengers to make their choice from it.

Fare

It denotes the information about the cost fee of the flight, from origin to its destination.

Seat

It denoted the information about the cost fee of the flight, from origin to its destination.

Passenger

The entity passengers denoted the information of the passengers in an orderly manner.

Reservation

It contains the details of passengers that are making reservations or about to travel.

Tickets

The entity ticket signifies that the passengers has pay for his/her fees

Agent

The entity Agents, represent persons that assist passengers to bought their flights

4.2 ATTRIBUTE SPECIFICATION

Attribute specification is the application of a previously defined attribute to a declaration. An attribute is a piece of additional declarative information that is specified for a declaration.

The example listed below shows the standard of how to identify an attribute of each entity.

Attribute must not have the same name as any entity

An attribute is an the property of an entity, not a relationship

Attribute is like a piece of data of an entity

Avoid using more than three words to describe an attribute

The format of the attribute will be such as character string, number, date, picture and sound.

Below shows the symbols of the primary key and unique key of an attributes

The "#" symbols is an unique key(Primary key) attribute

To understand what you are talking about, you need to find, for every entity, a value or a combinations of that uniquely indentifies the entity instance. This value or combination is called the unique identifier for the entity.

The "*" symbols is a mandatory attribute

It is realistic to assume that for every instance of the entity the attribute value is known and available when the entity instance is recorded and that is a business or an organisation need to record the value.

Attributes of "Agent"

Attributes

Type of key

Data type

Data Size

Agent -ID

#

VACHAR

10

Name

*

TEXT

20

Email

*

VACHAR

30

Phone- Number

*

NUMBER

20

Country

*

TEXT

30

Address

*

TEXT

30

Attributes of "Airport"

Attributes

Type of key

Data type

Data Size

Airport - code

#

VACHAR

10

City

*

TEXT

20

Terminal

*

TEXT

15

Counter

*

TEXT

20

Attributes of "Counter"

Attributes

Type of key

Data type

Data Size

Counter_code

#

INTEGER

10

Name

*

TEXT

5

Terminal

*

TEXT

Attributes of "Fares"

Attributes

Type of key

Data type

Data Size

Flight Fare

#

INTEGER

10

Code-Number

*

TEXT

5

Restrictions

*

TEXT

50

Amount

*

NUMBER

8

Attributes of "Flight"

Attributes

Type of key

Data type

Data Size

Flight-Number

#

INTEGER

10

Departure Time

*

TIME

8

Arrival Location

*

TEXT

30

Destination

TEXT

30

Departure Date

*

DATE

8

Seat

*

NUMBER

50

Origin

*

TEXT

30

Airport-Code

*

VARCHAR

12

Attributes of "Passenger"

Attributes

Type of key

Data type

Data Size

Passenger -ID

#

INTEGER

12

Name

*

TEXT

40

Gender

*

CHAR

30

Age

*

INTEGER

3

Passport- Number

*

INTEGER

22

Country

*

TEXT

30

Email

*

VACHAR

50

Address

*

VACHAR

40

Phone Number

*

NUMBER

11

Attributes of "Reservation"

Attributes

Type of key

Data type

Data Size

Passport- Number

#

NUMBER

12

Date

*

DATE

8

Reservation Code

*

INTEGER

12

Origin

*

TEXT

20

Passenger Code

*

INTEGER

10

Flight Date

*

DATE

9

Destination

*

TEXT

30

Flight-Number

*

NUMBER

9

Departure-Time

*

TIME

6

Ticket

*

TEXT

20

Arrival-Time

*

TIME

6

Passenger-Name

*

TEXT

20

Seat-Number

*

NUMBER

12

Agent-Number

*

NUMBER

9

Attributes of "Seat"

Attributes

Type of key

Data type

Data Size

Seat-Numbeer

#

NUMBER

6

Seat-Capacity

*

NUMBER

300

Attributes of "Tickets"

Attributes

Type of key

Data type

Data Size

Ticket-No

#

NUMBER

10

Name

*

TEXT

30

Flight-Name

*

TEXT

20

Phone-Number

*

NUMBER

14

KEYS: A key has only one meaning in relational theory: it is a set of one or more columns whose combined values are unique among all occurrences in a given table. A key is the relational means of specifying uniqueness.

Primary Key, Foreign Key and Unique Key

Primary, Foreign and Unique keys are the most basic components on which relational database theory is based.

Primary keys : Is a key that is uniquely indentified in a table. Primary key is one of the unique keys defined on a table, but is selected to be the key of first importance. There can be only one primary key on a table.

A unique key is a key that is constrained so that no two of its values are equal. The columns of a unique key cannot contain NULL values. For example, a Student number column can be defined as a unique key, because each value in the column identifies only one Student. No two Student can have the same student number.

Foreign keys A foreign key usually refers to the primary key of a table, but may also refer to a unique key Foreign key value must be unique or null or match an existing primary key. The tables below show how foreign keys are being recognised;

From this tables (Passengers and Reservations), Passport No is a foreign key in Passengers table and a primary key to Reservations table. Which means, a foreign key most appear as a primary key in another table,

4.3 Relationship Specification

A relationship represents a significance dependency of two entities. It expresses how entities are mutually related and it exists between two entities (or one entity twice). It always has two perspectives and is named at both ends. Also represent something of significance to the business.

Relationship can be defined as mandatory or optional, in the same way as attributes. Mandatory relationship is drawn as a straight line and optional relationship is drawn as circle

Mandatory:

Optional:

Several types of relationships can be defined in a database. Below are three main groups of relationship;

One to Many (1 : m)

One to One (1:1)

Many to Many (m : m)

43.1 one-to -many (1:m) and many-to-one (m:1) relationship

In database design, a one-to-many relationship occurs when one entity has a multivalued relationship with another entity.

Book by

Makes

Description:

One Reservation must be book by one or more Passengers

One or more Passengers must book a Reservation

Relationship Type: 1: m; Mandatory relationship

Flies From

Has

Description:

Many or one Flights take off from one Airport

One Airport has many or one Flight.

Relationship Type: 1: m; Mandatory relationship

Includes

Involves

Description:

Many or one Flights includes Fares

Fares involves many or one Flights

Relationship Type: 1: m; Mandatory relationship.

Many-to-Many (m: m) Relationship

A relationship that is multi-valued in both directions is a many-to-many relationship. It occur when each record in Table A may have many linked records in Table B and vice-versa.

Book by

Book

Description:

Many Reservations book by many Agents.

Many Agents book many reservations.

Relationship Type: m: m; Mandatory relationship and 1:0; Optional relationship.

Consists

Inside of

Description:

Many Flights consists of many Seats.

Many Seats inside of many flights.

Relationship Type: m: m; Mandatory relationship.

One to One (1: 1) Relationship

In database design, one-to-one relationships are a bidirectional relationship, which means that they are single-valued in both directions. In one-to-one relationship, two tables are associated in such a way that each record in first table can have only one matching record in second table, and each record in second table can have only one matching record in first table.

Consists of

Involves

Description:

One Reservations consists of one Flights

One Flight involves one Reservation.

Relationship Type: 1: 1; Mandatory relationship.

BUSINESS RULES

All passengers have to buy or purchase a ticket before making reservations

All passengers have to enter their details before purchasing ticket

Passengers have to specify the number of reservations they are booking

All flights that are in the airport must have a flight code and the following information's are required; e.g. origin, destination, departure time, arrival time etc.

Passenger's information has to be store in the company database for future used or in case of eventuality.

Every payment has to be receive before tickets are being issues out.

Passengers can make their payment online by using ATM, MASTER CARD, CREDIT CARD and cash payment only.

Passengers can't change their flight schedule.

The company has the right to change the flight time.

If there should be any eventuality that may stop the passengers from meeting his/her flight schedule, he/she has to inform the office in advance.

When making reservations, passengers have to enter their information completely, for better clarification.

Every flights must be in there various counters and terminal for easy identification.

All reservations have to be made or book in advance. E.g. minimum of three days or one week.

NORMALIZATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP

NORMALIZATION

It is a process of efficiently organizing data in a database or converting complex data structures into simple, stable data structure. Normalization consists of two major reasons;

Elimination of redundant data (e.g. storing the same data in more than one table)

Ensuring data dependencies make sense ( only storing related data in a table).

These two methods help to reduce the amount of space a database consumes and ensure that data is logically store.

RULES / STEPS FOR NORMALIZATION

Usually, normalization is explained or emphasis base on the first, second and third normal form. Normal form is a way of measuring the levels, or depth, to which a database has been normalised.

In normalisation, each subsequent steps taken has to depend on the previous normal form, e.g. to normalised a database using the second normal form, the database must first exist in the first normal form.

FIRST NORMAL FORM (1NF)

It sets the very basic rules for an organised database;

Eliminate repeating groups in individual tables

Create a separate table for each set of related data

Identify each set of related data with a primary key.

SECOND NORMAL FORM (2NF)

It addresses all the concept of removing duplicative data;

Meeting all the requirements of the first normal form ( i.e. identify all functional dependencies in 1NF)

Remove subsets of data that apply to multiple row of a table and place them in separate tables

Relate these tables with a foreign key.

THIRD NORMAL FORM (2NF)

The aim/objective is to remove data in a table that is not dependent on the primary key;

Meeting all the requirements of the second normal form

Creating one relation for each determinant in the transitive dependency

Remove columns that are not dependent upon the primary key

Make the determinants the primary keys in their respective relations.

NORMALIZATION DURING DATA MODELING

Although normalization is a relational database process, it is a technique that is used when designing and redesigning a database. That meant, when an entity model is being created, it harmonies to the table created during design.

NORMALIZATION

UNF

1NF

2NF

3NF

PASSENGER

Passenger-ID

Passenger-Name

Gender

Passport-Number

Country

Email

Age

Address

Phone-Number

Flight-Code

Flight-Number

Origin

Destination

Airport-Code

Fare

Seat

Airport-Code

City

Terminal

Counter

Passport-Number

Reservation-Code

Flight-Date

Origin

Destination

Flight-Number

Departure-Time

Ticket

Arrival-Time

Passenger-Name

Seat-Number

Agent

PASSENGER

Passenger-ID

Passenger-Name

Gender

Passport-Number

Country

Email

Age

Address

Phone-Number

FLIGHT

Flight-Code

Flight-Number

Origin

Destination

Airport-Code

Fare

Seat

AIRPORT

Airport-Code

City

Terminal

Counter

RESERVATION

Passport-Number

Reservation-Code

Flight-Date

Origin

Destination

Flight-Number

Departure-Time

Ticket

Arrival-Time

Passenger-Name

Seat-Number

Agent

PASSENGER

Passenger-ID

Passenger-Name

Gender

Passport-Number

Country

Email

Age

Address

Phone-Number

FLIGHT

Flight code

Flight type

Origin

Destination

Departure time

Arrival time

Airport code

FARES

Flight fare

Code number

Restrictions

Amount

SEATS

Seat No

Seat capacity

RESERVATION

Passport number

Name

Zip/post code

Phone number

Country

City/town

Flight code

Payment

TICKET

Ticket_No

Name

Flight name

Phone number

AGENT

Agent ID

Name

Email address

Phone number

Country

AIRPORT

Airport code

Name

Location

Terminal

Counters

PASSENGER

Passenger-ID

Passenger-Name

Gender

Passport-Number

Country

Email

Age

Address

Phone-Number

FLIGHT

Flight code

Flight type

Origin

Destination

Departure time

Arrival time

Airport code

FARES

Flight fare

Code number

Restrictions

Amount

SEATS

Seat No

Seat capacity

RESERVATION

Passport number

Name

Zip/post code

Phone number

Country

City/town

Flight code

PAYMENT

Payment code

Amount

Confirmation

TICKET

Ticket_No

Name

Flight name

Phone number

AGENT

Agent ID

Name

Email address

Phone number

Country

AIRPORT

Airport code

Name

Location

Terminal

COUNTERS

Terminal

Counter name

Counter code

ERD OF CHEALSEA AIRLINE RESERVATION

CONCLUSION

As a result of the initial analysis of the information vital to business, the initial Entity Relational E-R Model diagram was regulated. The initial E-R Model was able to identify the 4 major entities of business, the importance to Chelsea airline reservation system.

After exhaustive analysis of the initial E-R Model, relationships in the initial ER Model were further adjudicate into yet more specific entities. The final ER Model is organised when no more relations can be purposed. To check for errors in the final ER Model, normalisation is used by bring the entities and its attributes into the Third Normal Form (3NF). The 3NF corresponds with the final ER Model suggesting that the final ER Model is correct.

With this final E-R Model, Chelsea Airline Reservation System will be capable to enforce an exact and efficacious database system to provide assured, reliable information to enable efficient procedures of the company. With the database system enforced, staff in the office can be capable to retrieve information quickly and accurately to reply client's inquiries. Interchange of information will also be faster. Overall, the successful implementation will indefinitely facilitate Chelsea Airline Reservation System.

REFRENCE

C2028_Assignment_guide

Google Images Airline Reservation System

http://www.videcom.com/general_overview.htm

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.