Case Description Of A Ticket Booking Service Computer Science Essay

Published: Last Edited:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

The Use Case diagram above shows the structure of the new creating system and each aspect for different procedures. When Customers are going to make a reservation for your journey, they will have different choices to reach our sales department. Customers can use mail to post to our headquarter at Greentown station, address must be noted "ticket sales" department; Using telephone is another option by dialing 8677-7890 to our department office, our assistants will help customers to make or cancel reservation on the phone. Questioning for further information is available for telephone and e-mail. Customers can also purchase their ticket at the terminal, which is an easier way to get their tickets. After a reservation has completed, staffs will enter customer's detail and the ticket's detail into the Steam Railway System Database. For customer's detail, data should include customer's name, customer's address, customer's telephone and if available, customer's id too. On the other hand, ticket's detail must include ticket time, ticket prize, ticket type, ticket date and ticket destination. After a reservation completed, ticket will be printed by Steam Railway System and staff will start to prepare to send ticket to the customers. Staffs must double check the ticket content and if any error occurs on the tickets, make sure the staff request for ticket reprint and ticket should not have any error at all. Printing address label will only be needed when customers booking method is by mail or telephone. Online booking is available but no ticket will be printed, E-ticket will send directly to customer's e-mail account and customers have to print it out by themselves. Make sure the barcode of the ticket is printed. Customers will have different choices for picking up their tickets. Customers can request for mailing by post, it will take 1 business day to reach its destination; pick up at the headquarter will available on the day time from 9:00am - 8:00pm. Remind every customers, if any ticket loses or ticket damage occur by accidently, only for the customers who have make a reservation (means except buy at the terminal), can be request for a new ticket, a transaction fee of $1.50 will be apply for every ticket reprint. Website mail facilities is available if customers have any question.

-Page 3-

Railway Station Manager will place in each station. The job of Railway manager is to record the entire timetable into the system database and to control the steam engine. Record timetable is extreme important because time will usually changes by different situation, for example an signal error for the train will cost delay of the time, so it is important for Railway manager to keep updating the timetable into the system so that another manager in different stations can notices any delay or problem from other station immediately. Choosing which steam engine for line is an important job too. Just like the previous timetable, error may occur when it goes to work, steam engine may broke down and Railway manager should make sure all the steam engine which working on the line is healthy. If any broke down happens, manager should be able to switch steam engine from the system and call for technical repair staff immediately. When a healthy steam engine and a correct time is applied, train will run normally and customers will have a great trip.

-Page 4-

Use Case Description A1

Ticket Booking Services

The use case description above descripts the event of ticket booking service. Customers, Clerical Assistants and Station Master would be required in this process. The Goal of this process is to confirm how customers will order ticket by. Customers can contact the staff by using mail, website mail, telephone and go straight to the terminal. Clerical Assistants will take care all the booking from post and telephone. Station Master will take care every ticket sales at the terminal. None of the staff will work on the e-mail booking process, due to the fact that no staff had been hired for the computing process, so Clerical Assistants will temporary check for e-mail booking and answering e-mail from online. It is important to confirm which booking method customers use because when ticket is printed, only the customer who order via telephone and mail need to print address label but the one who bought from terminal or by e-mail do not require any labeling. If any wrong dial on the phone had picked, make sure every clerical assistants clearly explain the error to the dialer.

-Page 5-

Use Case Description A2

Ticket Booking

The use case description above descripts the event of ticket booking. Customers, Clerical Assistants and Station Master would be required in this process. The Goal of this process is to confirm a fully ticket booking, in other words, is to make a reservation for the customers. For this part, ticket booking process should include the ticket detail and customer's detail. Staff will go into the system database to check for available ticket sales and make reservation if the customers needed. If the ticket which the customer request is unavailable for this moment, staff should redirect the customer to choose another choice. After all the confirmation of the ticket detail and customer details, a reservation can be made and ticket will be ready to print. It is important to staff for check which state of sending method the customer request and make sure all the detail obtain from the customers are correct.

-Page 6-

Use Case Description A3

Recording Customer Detail and Ticket Detail

The use case description above descripts the event of recording Customer's detail and ticket's detail. System Database, Clerical Assistants and Station Master would be required in this process. The Goal of this process is to update all the customer's/ticket's information into the Steam Railway System Database. When staffs try to log into the system database, login protection is needed for this section. Database is a highly secure system and it will not be allow strangers to even touch it. Login account and password should be provided when each staffs are being hired. After the login of the database, customer's detail and ticket's detail will apply to the system. Customer's detail should include customer's name, address, telephone and customer's ID if needed. Ticket's detail should include Ticket type, Date, Time, Price, Destination and the order amount. Customer's ID will be able to use as a primary key to link the ticket information to customers. Staff will be easier to check for customer's order. If any Invalid login and date input occurs, system will automatically notify and prevent staff typing in error information.

-Page 7-

Use Case Description A4

Confirmation of Reservation

The use case description above descripts the event of confirming and canceling reservation. Customer, Clerical Assistants and Station Master would be required in this process. The Goal of this process is to confirm booking or cancel booking twhich customer made. When making reservation, customers need to be confirming their reservation. Otherwise, if no confirmation has been made, the ticket will the cancel automatically. Customer can also cancel their order by contacting our staff. If customers do not cancel their ticket after they had ordered within 24 hours, no refund can be claim for cancellation. Ticket detail can be change if customers wanted, but detail can only be change before 48 hours of the trip.

-Page 8-

Use Case Description A5

Ticket Printing

The use case description above descripts the event of ticket printing. System Database, Clerical Assistants and Station Master would be required in this process.

The Goal of this process is to print out a correct ticket for customers. Ticket printing is very important part of the ticket sale process. If a incorrect ticket is printed, customers will unable to take the train and it will cost a big trouble. Staff must check into the database for correct customer's information and ticket's information before they start printing. After the System has confirmed the use of details, staff will manage the system to start printing the ticket for customers. Make sure the staff double checked the ticket for error and correct information. If any invalid ticket is printed, staff must check is the error occur in the database itself or is by the printer hardware itself. Checking for the error procedure and fix the part is one of the jobs for the railway staff.

-Page 9-

Use Case Description A6

Ticket Sending

The use case description above descripts the event of ticket Sending. Customer, Clerical Assistants and Station Master would be required in this process. The Goal of this process is to send ticket to customers and using customer's requiring method to send the ticket to its destination. Customers can choose different sending method when they order ticket. For example, customers can pick up their tickets by passing the railway headquarter at Greentown; directly buy at the terminal will also hand over to customer in person; customers can also request for using mail to send the ticket to their home by post. Online Booking allow customers to book ticket online and instead of send a ticket by post, tickets can be transmitted to a E-ticket which including its unique barcode. The only problem is customer need to be print out the ticket by themselves. If any ticket unable to reach the customers, please contact the headquarter department and railway staff will help customers to track the mail back. If the mail loses, staff will confirm to resend the ticket to customers. Make sure customers receive the ticket.

-Page 10-

Use Case Description B1

Choose Stream Engine

The use case description above descripts the event of steam engine choose. Railway manager and steam engine would be required in this process. The Goal of this process is to choose which steam engine work on the line. Steam Engine is a heavy machine for boosting power to the train. If no steam engine works, no train will be able to run. Steam Railway Company owns three steam engine which is Morning Sun, Moonlight and Daybreak. Railway manager will choose a healthy steam engine to work on the train line. If any bad condition for the steam engine, railway manager will switch steam engine depends on situation and engineer will be called for maintainments.

-Page 11-

Use Case Description B2

Record Timetable

The use case description above descripts the event of record timetable. Railway manager and system would be required in this process. The Goal of this process is to record a correct timetable into the system. The timetable includes all the station departure time and the total time for the entire trip. There are 5 stations - Greentown, Riverdale, Midtown, Countyville and Marketborough. Railway must record all the time in the timetable into steam railway system database. Then system will confirm the data and share the timetable to other station system. It is important to record correct timetable for the train system and this should be update continuously in a day. Because the time of departure would be change if any error occurs, such as a train signal error will delay the departure time for the whole line. Railway manager have to confirm any changes of time and update the system as always.

-Page 12-

Activity Diagram

The Activity Diagram above shows the ticket sale system by separating into four sections - Customers, Clerical Assistants, Station Master and System. The advantage by using activity diagram is the diagrams can clearly shows different procedure in different sections and it is set up by orders. From the top to the bottom, the diagram shows ticket booking will separate to mail phone and station. Clerical Assistants handle mail and phone and station master will handle the terminal counter sells. After the ticket request has made, both clerical assistants and the station manager will check for ticket available. After that, a choice will appear. If there are no available tickets for the customers, then the customers will have to go all the way back and choose again, for worst, customers will leave. If there are tickets available, customers will go straight down and make a reservation. At the same time, customer details and ticket detail will be record into the system database too. Customers also have a choice to cancel reservation too. After the confirmation of reservation, system will print out the ticket and address label for customers and send it to the customers hand by the method customers requested.

-Page 13-

The Activity Diagram above shows the train hauling system by separating into two sections -Railway Manger and the Railway System. Railway manager will record the railway timetable and input into the system database. After that, Railway manager has to choose a Steam Engine for each line on the station. The system will record which steam engine is used and when will the time the engine being used. At last the train will be able to run normally and reach every station without any mistake.

-Page 14-

Task 2 - 15 Marks

Analyze the required system using object-oriented methods and produce a Structural Model including

Class diagrams

The Class Diagram on the above shows the integer/string type of input in each section and clearly show which processing work in each aspect. Customer required the data of name: string, address: string, phone: int, three of these data combine will equal a customer in this class diagram. The reason why name and address uses string but phone uses int is because name and address are usually input with words and number, with mixed combination; telephone number can only be int is because telephone number only has number combination, there are no such words phone numbers exist in the public society. Booked customers required the ticket amount, and reservation request. Staffs such as Clerical Assistants and Station Masters are processing between booked customers and reservation. Each Staff has their own staff id and staff information. Reservation will separate two options for customer,

-Page 15-

cancellation or confirmation. After that, the ticket Info and customer info is need to record into the system database including amount: int, ticket type: string, prize: int, date: int, time: int and destination: string. System is required for login protection, which means staff will log into their account and update information into the system database. At Last, the System will printed out tickets which obtain ticket type, prize, time, date, destination and a barcode (for protection) and send it to customers.

The Class Diagram on the above shows the integer/string type of input in each steam engine hauling section and clearly show which processing work in each aspect.

Railway Manager will have its personal information typed into the system, and when the choose of steam engine and the timetable is done, railway manager will use the information to log into the system database. Log account must be in string and password must be in integer. On the diagram above there are some unknown numbers and words appear. These represents the choose of aspects can be made just like one to one, one to many or many to many type. For example, when railway manager choose the steam engine, there are only have 0 to 5 choices for railway manager to choose, which means the option is one to many type. (1 Railway manager can control many steam engines but 1 steam engine can only be control by 1 railway manager.)

-Page 16-

Task 3 - 18 Marks

Analyze the required system using object-oriented methods and produce a Behavioral Model including

Sequence diagrams

The sequence diagrams on the above shows how the ticket sale system works in a railway company structure. First, customer will request for ticket, staff notice and go to the system check for and ticket available. After the ticket available information appears, staffs will quickly shows the customers about the ticket information. If everything goes right, customers will make a reservation and staffs will record down all the customer info and ticket booking info. After the customers confirm their ticket with the railway staff, then the staff will request for printing out tickets from the system. The System Database quickly searched the reservation details and print out as a ticket. If the booking method is via telephone and mail, the printing of an address label will be needed. After the tickets are printed, staff will make a double check for error on the ticket. If everything is goes right, ticket will be send to customer's inbox.

-Page 17-

The sequence diagrams on the above shows how the railway manager manage

The steam engine and the record timetable process. Railway manager will first check for time and then choose which steam engine is available for that time. Then the railway manager will record the chosen steam engine and the timetable into the system database. The steam engine will be use for the line and railway manager will activate it. Then Railway will request for run the train, and system will finally allow the run of the train.

-Page 18-

State Machine Diagram

The State Machine Diagram on the above shows having a system of ticket sale will be work in this format. The diagram shows two destinations with black spot which represent each process ends. When customers request for tickets, ticket will be checked in the database and if it's available, it will past to reservation and if it's declined, customer will have to choose other available tickets or reach the first destination - leave. After ticket is available for the customers, reservation will be made and customer/ticket detail will be create and record into the system database. If any customers cancel the reservation booking, they will reach the "leave" destination again. If the reservation has been confirmed, system will print out the ticket and send it to customer and reach their final destination.

-Page 19-

The State Machine Diagram on the above shows the behavior of a train running system. Timetable must be check and steam engine will be chosen for the line. When the system receives the data from timetable and steam engine, system will check for available if the steam engine can run at this time. If the selected engine is not available, system will declined and choose another engine to replace its job. After the steam engine has success placed in the line, then system will activate the train and the system will run.

-Page 20-

Communication diagrams

The communication diagram on the above shows the order for each procedure between customer, staff and system. First, customer request for ticket and staff will check for available from the system database. Customer make reservation and staff will record the details. The System will print the ticket out and staff will send it to the customers

-Page 21-

The communication diagram on the above shows the order for each procedure between railway manager, steam engine and system. Railway manager will record the timetable and choose steam engine. After recording the detail of steam engine then system will run it. Railway manager will then activate the engine and run the train.

-Page 22-

Task 4 - 12 Marks

Research the data protection issues that apply to the system (based upon data protection laws in your country):

Outline the data protection laws, regulations and best practice in your country. [4 marks]

Data protection is one of the most serious issues with compute using, especially for managing system. In Hong Kong, data protection is covered by "Personal Data (Privacy) Ordinance", legislated by "Privacy Commissioner for Personal Data" as known as (PCPD).The department's mission is to rise up the awareness of public data use from private or public organizations. Some private/public organization may obtain user's data/info when customer did registration. Unfortunate, there are many dishonest organization are using illegal method to earn money from user's data. For example, "On July 15, 2010, the issuer of Octopus cards in Hong Kong admitted it made $44 million dollars in the past half decade by selling data from its card holders to a third party partners."(Canapé, 2010) This is illegal to sell user's data to a third party and the prize for this is having a great time in the jail. Although it is important to aware of ethical issues (The use of personal data), to avoid hacker's steals public data is also an important job. Personal Data Privacy Ordinance also protects the public by setting up hash penalties.

State how these would apply to the computer system being developed. [4 marks]

Since the data protection law in Hong Kong had been set up to warn these dishonest behaviors by organizations, still it is not easy to keep secure in nowadays. Heavy punishment must be set to threaten the thieves from stealing. There are a variety of offences for challenging the laws: "Non-compliance with an enforcement notice served by Privacy Commissioner carries a penalty of a fine at Level 5 (At present $HKG 50,000) and imprisonment for 2 years. An Individual who suffers damage, including injured feeling, by reason of a contravention of the Ordinance in relation to his or her personal data may seek compensation from the data user concerned."(PCPD, 2001)

Under these kinds of strong laws and punishment, organization that obtains public user's data or a new system which newly developed will feel safe and comfort.

-Page 23-

c) Recommend methods that should be utilized to ensure that data protection best practice is implemented in the new system. [4 marks]

Although laws can protect the system from the outside, the system itself should also be well-protect by an extremely strong program. One of the best ways to ensure the protection of a new system is to install a data protection manager. Microsoft System Centre Data Protection Manager (as known as DPM) is a good choice. Microsoft DPM not only manages in Window environment, but also can manage in SQL, SharePoint, Dynamic AX, Essential Business Server, Window Server and Small Business Server. (If the new system or database is created by one of the above, congratulation!) Data Protection Manager back up data by continuously protecting changed files at the byte-level to a secondary disk, which can be back up to tape. This also enables rapid and reliable recovery from accessing disk instead of waiting to locate and mount tapes. (A technology called 'Shadow Copy' is used for continuous backups). There are so many types of data protection program to protect your system or database too, but this is not over yet. Strong Firewall is needed to defend hacker's attack to the new system.

With three layers of protections (Laws, Program back up, Firewall), the system should be safe and well-protected.

-Page 24-

Task 5 - 15 Marks

Describe in detail how the system will print tickets and address labels based upon customer requirements.

Explain how the system will deal with the following issues:

ยท Producing tickets that is not easy to forge or copy. (5 marks)

By the advance of technology, it is much easier to forge document, ticket and even passport. For a large cooperation such as Steam Railway Company, to prevent forge ticket is one of the topic priorities on the working list. By the past, tickets are used to be unprotected; the only way to identify is to use the eye and by touch the texture. Nowadays, many companies are using barcode or chips to prevent ticket forge. The ticket from Steam Railway Company will use an advance barcode program called "Ticket Creator 5.1".This program provide a unique 10-digit number on each ticket. (Depends on the customer's volume, digit can be expand to a larger level) Barcode ticket cannot be forged and copied because each barcode can be only be used once to enter. Our Staff can easily identify the ticket by using Barcode scanner on the train. Also, each station will install entrance machine which available to scan barcode before customer entering the platform. On the other hand, chips are also very good to prevent forge but the cost is way too high, so this will not be include in the ticket sale system

Allow customers to select multiple tickets of different types. (5 marks)

The best way for customers to select multiple tickets of different types is to enlarge the ticket sale process from the system. When customers request for tickets, the Staff will record the ticket detail and print it out.

The thing which is needed to do is to allow multiple tickets detail input to the system database and multiple ticket printing in one time. Different type of ticket had already been applied by the system because staff can type in the type of ticket which customer wants into the system. If customers are still unhappy to the way of Steam Railway Company selling method, a high-tech ticket machines can also be place at each station. Ticket machines are available for customers to choose multiple tickets of different types. Customers only need to press some button and ticket will be

-Page 25-

purchase easily. Steam Railway Company will consider if ticket machines are really need for customers or remain the same selling ways. (By post, by website, by mail, by terminal, by phone) Different idea will put on hold until the day when expand of company is needed.

Research hardware and print media available for printing labels and tickets for the railway. State which hardware and media you recommend and quote prices for these based upon hardware purchase and yearly use of consumables in the printing process. (5 marks)

To prevent forge ticket from the thieves, especially a Railway Company which uses huge amount of tickets, a high class printer is need to protect company's prosperity. Datamax is a well-known cooperation which sells high class printer. Their product is specially designed for printing labels, tag materials and tickets. Their network is more than 65 countries worldwide. Datamax S-Class Ticket Printer is the best choice for option. It have a metal looking cover which can protect printer being destroy by thieves; Auto loading tickets speed up ticket sale process and prevent diagram of paper path to lose and it is very easy to use, which can reduce training time, more intuitive. Ticket Creator5.1, which had mention at the previous question, will use for create ticket barcode. With these two combinations of protection, ticket protection will not be a problem anymore. Let's check out the prize for the product. The newly Datamax S-Class Ticket Printer cost around $HKG 9,000 per each and the program of Ticket Creator 5.1 cost $HKG 3,700 with their enterprise barcode version. If each terminal places at least 10 Ticket Printer at the counter for the ticket sales staff, it will cost around $HKG100,000 per station. Headquarter provide telephone booking and mail booking, so headquarter office must install at least 5 of these printers, this can allow staff to mail printed tickets to customers or let them to pick up at the headquarter. The printer can also print labels easily. Online booking do not need the use of ticket printer but E-ticket must be create by using Ticket Creator's barcode and send to customer's e-mail address.

-Page 26-

Task 6 - 12 Marks

Create a relational database design for the system including:

A set of fully normalized tables showing the normalization process for each. [6 marks]

Steam Engine



Working Stat


Morning Sun












Customers Detail













By Post














Pick Up


Tickets Detail

Ticket Barcode
























Staff Detail


Staff ID






Railway Manager




Clerical Assistants




Station Master

-Page 27-

Data Dictionary entries for all items included in the database design. [6 marks]

-Page 28-

-Page 29-

-Page 30-

Task 7 - 5 Marks

Describe how the object-oriented approach to the design of the system in tasks 1 - 3 differs from using a structured methodology. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of both the object-oriented and structured approaches using the system you have designed to illustrate this.

When object-oriented approach to the designing of system, object-oriented method obtain more information and is more detail then structured methodology. In other word, 'friendliness'. Object-oriented obtain a functional, structural and behavioral method. It have attribute that describe more information about the object and have behaviors that specify for available use. Object-oriented have better build-in features in each language. Comparing to structured methodology, larger data detail will be stored but harder the job and structural format. Let's take a look at structured methodology. It is a quality, structured, well-organize and user-friendly module. It has a quality systems, good communication, organized project management and well documentation etc. The disadvantage of structure methodology would be losing small transaction detail. It is too general and do not cover every small part of the system. By using Task 1-3 as a comparison for object-oriented and structured methodology, the big difference will be shown. Object-oriented can separate as functional, structural and behavioral. Each Style have different diagram to use, such as activity diagram, class diagram, sequence diagram etc. These diagrams can breakdown general processing into even smaller part. For example, in class diagram, each aspect shows the data have to be type in and which type of input system allow to input. Unfortunate, structured methodology do not like to breakdown so deep, which reduce the informational amount of this method and something will be missing when user notice. In the other word, if the system required a large environment and database, object-oriented will fit for larger system; if the system is for small uses or a small company, structured methodology will be their best choice to choose.

-Page 31-

Task 8 - 5 Marks

Create a comprehensive, professional standard report describing your system design for the new system.

This should include the details of Tasks 1 - 7 and details of the required hardware.

The New Steam Railway System is combined by two main frames- ticket sales structure and steam engine haul. In ticket sales, customers will have 4 ways to reach the contacting department - at the terminal, dialing telephone, mailing and online booking. Clerical Assistant at the headquarters will receive booking from telephone, mail and station master will receive booking at the terminal face to face. The Online booking service will be temporary manage by the clerical assistant until a computing engineer is hired in the future. Ticket available for customers will be check and reservation will also be made if the ticket customers request is available. Customers can cancel any ticket they reserve but no refund can be claim. During the reservation, ticket record will be input into the Steam Railway System database and customers detail will also be stored. When a reservation has been confirmed, ticket will be printed and send to customers. Only customers who book ticket via mail and telephone receive an address label. Online booking will not be receiving any ticket but an E-ticket document will be send to the customer's e-mail box. Customers must print out the E-ticket including a 10 digit barcode for staff checking. Normal ticket will be printed by using Datamax S-Class ticket printer and the barcode which the tickets obtain will use TicketCreator5.1 to create unique barcode combination. Each ticket must be double-checked for error before send it to customers. Customer can request different method to receive their ticket by- pick up at the headquarter at Greentown, receive ticket at any station customer wanted, mailing to customers destination within 1 to 3 business days or send an E-ticket to customers e-mail box. If tickets are unable to reach customers, please phone the ticket sale department at Greentown.

Train haul system will be managed by Railway manager. Railways manager will record all the departure time in the timetable and record it into the system database. After choosing which steam engine will use for each line, the railway manager will activate it and run the train. Error of the steam engine must be checked carefully. If any delay with the train arrival time, railway manager must make sure keep updating time into the database, prevent the incorrect timetable which could cost incorrect time display and will affect ticket sales.

-Page 32-

Task 1 375+179+182+151+181+114+162+185+114+151+198+84 = 2630

Task 2 225+159 = 384

Task 3 156+88+131+92+56+52 = 575

Task 4 183+136+199 = 518

Task 5 192+186+269 = 647

Task 7 271+384 = 655

5409 words

-Page 33-