Cad Cam User Interface Designs Computer Science Essay

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Computer-aided design, also design processes; drafting, documentation, and manufacturing processes. CADD output is often in known as computer-aided drafting and design (CADD), is the use of computer technology for the process of design and design-documentation. Computer Aided Drafting describes the process of drafting with a computer. CADD software, or environments, provide the user with input-tools for the purpose of streamlining the form of electronic files for print or machining operations. The development of CADD-based software is in direct correlation with the processes it seeks to economize; industry-based software (construction, manufacturing, etc.) typically uses vector-based (linear) environments whereas graphic-based software utilizes raster-based (pixelated) environments.CADD environments often involve more than just shapes. As in the manual drafting of technical and engineering drawings, the output of CAD must convey information, such as materials, processes, dimensions, and tolerances, according to application-specific conventions.CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional (2D) space; or curves, surfaces, and solids in three-dimensional (3D) objects.CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications, including automotive, shipbuilding, and aerospace industries, industrial and architectural design, prosthetics, and many more. CAD is also widely used to produce computer animation for special effects in movies, advertising and technical manuals. The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that even perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using techniques unheard of by engineers of the 1960s. Because of its enormous economic importance, CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational geometry, computer graphics (both hardware and software), and discrete differential geometry.The design of geometric models for object shapes, in particular, is often called computer-aided geometric design (CAGD).

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Computer-aided design is one of the many tools used by engineers and designers and is used in many ways depending on the profession of the user and the type of software in question.

CAD is one part of the whole Digital Product Development (DPD) activity within the Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) process, and as such is used together with other tools, which are either integrated modules or stand-alone products, such as:

Computer-aided engineering (CAE) and Finite element analysis (FEA)

Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) including instructions to Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machines

Photo realistic rendering

Document management and revision control using Product Data Management (PDM).

COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING (CAM) -

Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of computer software to control machine tools and related machinery in the manufacturingof workpieces. This is not the only definition for CAM, but it is the most common; CAM may also refer to the use of a computer to assist in all operations of a manufacturing plant, including planning, management, transportation and storage. Its primary purpose is to create a faster production process and components and tooling with more precise dimensions and material consistency, which in some cases, uses only the required amount of raw material (thus minimizing waste), while simultaneously reducing energy consumption.

CAM is a subsequent computer-aided process after computer-aided design (CAD) and sometimes computer-aided engineering (CAE), as the model generated in CAD and verified in CAE can be input into CAM software, which then controls the machine tool.

Over time, the historical shortcomings of CAM are being attenuated, both by providers of niche solutions and by providers of high-end solutions. This is occurring primarily in three arenas:

Ease in use

For the user who is just getting started as a CAM user, out-of-the-box capabilities providing Process Wizards, templates, libraries, machine tool kits, automated feature based machining and job function specific tailorable user interfaces build user confidence and speed the learning curve.

User confidence is further built on 3D visualization through a closer integration with the 3D CAD environment, including error-avoiding simulations and optimizations.

Manufacturing complexity

The manufacturing environment is increasingly complex. The need for CAM and PLM tools by the manufacturing engineer, NC programmer or machinist is similar to the need for computer assistance by the pilot of modern aircraft systems. The modern machinery cannot be properly used without this assistance.

Today's CAM systems support the full range of machine tools including: turning, 5 axis machining and wire EDM. Today's CAM user can easily generate streamlined tool paths, optimized tool axis tilt for higher feed rates and optimized Z axis depth cuts as well as driving non-cutting operations such as the specification of probing motions.

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Integration with PLM and the extended enterprise

Today's competitive and successful companies have used PLM to integrate manufacturing with enterprise operations from concept through field support of the finished product.

To ensure ease of use appropriate to user objectives, modern CAM solutions are scalable from a stand-alone CAM system to a fully integrated multi-CAD 3D solution-set. These solutions are created to meet the full needs of manufacturing personnel including part planning, shop documentation, resource management and data management and exchange.

Modern CAD/CAM/CAE practice

Information from all product lifecycle activities is available from

1. CAD/CAM AND USER INTERFACE DESIGN

The goal of Computer-aided Design of User Interfaces (CADUI) is to enlist the computer to aid an interface designer in constructing an interactive interface to be eventually used by an end-user. This point of view is by analogy to Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD or CAD/CAM). CAD traditionally refers to tools to visualize, describe, edit and test manufactured artifacts, which are now an indispensable part of all manufacturing and production processes. Computer-Aided Design systems are successful in manufacturing because they replace the specifications of numerical parameters, a task difficult for humans to perform reliably, with the visualization and editing of visual representations of virtual objects, which is much more natural for humans to perform. Computer-Aided Design systems can be successful in user interface

design because they replace specification of programming language constructs, which are difficult for humans to perform reliably, with the visualization and editing of visual representations of virtual interfaces, which are more natural for humans to perform.

While manufacturing CAD systems are oriented towards describing the size and shape (and perhaps associated attributes such as materials or cost)of products, user interface CAD must not only describe the appearance and form of the user interface, but also the behavior of the interface. If, for a given interface, each interface element can have its own independent behavior, then a user interface often can be defined simply by combining and connecting pre-defined behavioral elements. But if there are interactions between the elements, if there is state to be maintained, or particular actions to be taken, then some other method for describing the behavior must be found. The usual approach is for the interface designer to write code in a traditional programming language, like C or Java, or text in a high-level interface description language. But writing and debugging in these languages is a difficult cognitive task for most people. To make the CAD analogy complete, it would be better if we could specify dynamic behavior by visualizing and editing virtual objects visually represented on the screen than by writing textual specifications, no matter how high level the language.

Computer-Aided Design (CAD)

Stores data relating to mechanical and electrical design, for example, buildings, airplanes, and integrated circuit chips.

Designs of this type have some common characteristics.

Data has many types, each with a small number of instances.

Designs may be very large.

Design is not static but evolves through time.

Updates are far-reaching.

Involves version control and configuration management.

Cooperative engineering.

Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM)

Stores similar data to CAD,plus data about discrete production

CAM software plans, manages and controls the operations of a manufacturing site

Nuts and Bolts

Essentially the collection of computer technologies used in manufacturing is by following…

• Computer Numerical Control (CNC)

• Direct Numerical Control (DNC)

• Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS)

• Robots

• Automated material Handling Systems

1. Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC)

• Machine that is controlled by computer

• Utilizes monitor and keyboard for operator interaction

• Facilitates greater control over quality

• Allows machine to monitor the maintenance of its parts

2. Direct Numerical Control (DNC)

• Each machine contains own microprocessor

• Entire bank of machines controlled by a single central computer

• If used with automated material handling, considered to be a flexible manufacturing system

3. Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS)

• Numerous computer-controlled machines fed by automated material handling system

• Allows for broad and deep product mix

• Minimal setup times enable small lot sizes

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4. Robots

• Mechanical manipulators that can be accessed programmatically

• Consistent, repetitive-motion tolerant

• Ideal for tasks that are hazardous to humans

5. Automated Materials Handling System

• System where raw materials are automatically fed into machines

• Examples: Conveyor belts

Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV)

- Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRS)

How It Works….???

General way of Working…

1. Product is conceived by engineer

2. Product is designed using CAD software

3. CAD data is transferred to manufacturing machine's memory

4. Machine uses the CAD data to produce the product, with little human

Intervention

# Old System (without CAM)

• Product is designed with CAD software

- • Each production machine is programmed individually

OR

if not automated :

Employees are trained on proper production of the product.

# New System (using CAM)

• Product is designed with CAD software

-

` • Product specifications are sent over the plant network to each machine

• Machines have 'intelligence' to produce the products without human intervention.

Computer-Aided Design (CAD)

Use of computer systems to assist in the creation, modification, analysis, and optimization of a design

Typical tools:

Tolerance analysis

Mass property calculations

Finite-element modeling and visualization

Defines the geometry of the design

Computer-Aided Design Process:-

Two types of activities: synthesis and analysis

Synthesis is largely qualitative and hard to capture on computer

Analysis can be greatly enhanced with computers

Once analysis is complete, design evaluation- rapid prototyping

Software packages for design optimization

Components of CAD/CAM Systems

Major component is hardware and software allowing shape manipulation

Hardware includes graphic devices and their peripherals for input and output operation

Software includes packages that manipulate or analyze shapes according to user interaction

Hardware Configuration--1

Hardware Configuration-2

Software Components-

For CAD- - -

CAD software allows the designer to create and manipulate a shape interactively and store it

For CAM- - -

CAM software plans, manages and controls the operations of a manufacturing site

Windows-Based CAD Systems

User interface is similar to Windows.

Employs component technology, in which best key software elements are selected from among available software.

Use object-oriented technology, which modularizes the program.

Capable of either parametric or variational modeling.

Internet support.

Q.What is Rapid Prototyping in Language of Computer Aided Design…??

Layer by layer fabrication of three-dimensional physical models from CAD is known as Rapid Prototyping.

Rapid Prototyping Cycle is as Follows…

Existing CAx software companies

4M

IDEA Architectural

CAD

Vertical CAD Application for 3D BIM Architectural Design

FINE MEP

CAD

Vertical CAD Application for 3D BIM Mechanical Design, Electrical Design & Plumbing Design

ACERI, S.A.

Electrical Designer

CAD

Software for electrical design and engineering

Alibre Inc.

Alibre Design

CAD

Mechanical design, engineering and manufacturing applications

Altinex Inc.

AVSnap

CAD

Audio visual system design, GUI design, Control Logic design, terminal emulation, Remote support platform

ASHAMPOO

Ashampoo 3D CAD Architecture

CAD

Design family homes, shopping malls, high-rise buildings, or just a simple apartment; interactively, in a realistic 3D world

Ashampoo 3D CAD Professional

CAD

Meets the total requirements of architects, construction engineers, draftsmen and craftsmen.

Mechanical Desktop

CAD

Autodesk Inventor

CAD

Alias StudioTools

CAD

Originally by Alias Systems Corporation

AVEVA

AVEVA Plant

CAD

Celeritive

PEPS

CAM

Chief Architect

VoluMill

CAM

High speed machining toolpath engine that runs embedded in other systems or as a standalone

Cimatron

Cnc Code Maker

CAD/CAM

Free 2D CAD/CAM