Best Relational Database System Computer Science Essay

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In our study we have found that there are three main database management systems this are RDBMS, ORDBMS and OODBMS. After having brief analysis on all DBMS it is found that there are some advantage and disadvantage at the same time. Despite this our main goal was to find out the best DBMS which can be used as a model. We have analysed ins and outs of all system to find the best suit one. To do that, we have compared those systems by applying real data and finally have got an over view of all DBMS. And the comparison of one over another system helps us to pick up the best system among the systems. According to our organizational requirement we have focused on the best suit DBMS and proposed it for the organizational use.

A Database Management System is a set of programs that controls the organization, storage, management, and retrieval of data in a database. DBMSs are categorized according to their data structures or types. Every company whether it is big or small needs to deal with data may be huge or vast, so to keep updating all data and information there is need of an effective and suitable database system. In this regards DBMS is the only medium to manage the organizational data easily and effectively. When a DBMS is used, information systems can be changed much more easily according to the organization's information requirements change. New categories of data can be added to the database without disruption to the existing system.

Of all the database management system, there are three database management systems which are most popular these are Relational Database Management System (RDBMS), Object Relational Database Management System (ORDBMS) and Object Oriented Database Management System (OODBMS)

Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)

A database is simply a collection of one or more relations or tables with columns and rows. The use of set theory allows for data to be structured in a series of tables that has both columns and rows. Each column corresponds to an attribute of that relation, while each row corresponds to a record that contains data values for an entity.

RDBMS refers to Relational Database Management System. RDBMS data is ordered in database tables, fields and records. Each RDBMS table contains a database table rows. Every database table contain one or more data table which is called data field.

In RDBMS data is stored into groups of tables, which must be related to some common fields (database table columns). RDBMS is also provided relational operators to control the data which are store into the database tables. Most RDBMS use SQL as database query language.

There are many RDBMS models of all the most popular RDBMS are MS SQL Server, DB2, Oracle and MySQL.

Merits of RDBMS

1. Object Orientated Programming concept is used in Relational Database Management System.

2. Relational Database Management System is highly secured then other database system.

3. In Relational Database Management System multi user access can be possible which is not possible in DBMS.

4. It is relational that makes easy relation to each data table.

5. A Relational Database Management System avoids data redundancy problems by using normal form.

6. It performs all DML operations which is impossible with ordinary DBMS.

7. Data Independence id supported by Relational Database Management System.

8. Dynamic Database Management System is supported by Relational Database Management System.

9. Data repitation is possible in RDBMS.

10. Relational Database Management System avoids data concurrency.

Demerits of RDBMS

Any complex object or data for example documents, images, audio, video, spatial or time series data is not supported yet by RDBMS but ORDBMS supports those.

It has repeatedly poor support for complex object to store.

It still does not have any effective and efficient integral support for thing like as searching text with in the fields.

Benefits of RDBMS

RDBMS is such a system which is simple, flexible, and productive. Because the tables are simple, data is easier to understand and communicate with others. RDBMS are flexible because users do not have to use predefined keys to input information. Also, RDBMS are more productive because SQL is easier to learn. This allows users to spend more time inputting instead of learning. More importantly, RDBMS's biggest advantage is the ease with which users can create and access data and extend it if needed. After the original database is created, new data categories can be added without the existing application being changed.

Limitation of RDBMS

There are limitations to the relational database management system. First, relational databases do not have enough storage area to handle data such as images, digital and audio/video. The system was originally created to handle the integration of media, traditional fielded data, and templates. Another limitation of the relational database is its inadequacy to operate with languages outside of SQL. After its original development, languages such as C++ and JavaScript were formed. However, relational databases do not work efficiently with these languages. A third limitation is the requirement that information must be in tables where relationships between entities are defined by values.

Object Relational Database Management System (ORDBMS)

An object relational database is also called an object relational database management system (ORDBMS). This system simply puts an object oriented front end on a relational database (RDBMS). When applications interface to this type of database, it will normally interface as though the data is stored as objects. However the system will convert the object information into data tables with rows and columns and handle the data the same as a relational database. Likewise, when the data is retrieved, it must be reassembled from simple data into complex objects.

An object-relational database can be said to provide a middle ground between relational databases and object-oriented databases (OODBMS). In object-relational databases, the approach is essentially that of relational databases: the data resides in the database and is manipulated collectively with queries in a query language; at the other extreme are OODBMS in which the database is essentially a persistent object store for software written in an object-oriented programming language, with a programming API for storing and retrieving objects, and little or no specific support for querying.

Merits of ORDBMS

Object Relational Database Management Systems gives the supporting capacity of massive storage, which is a very essential for web based system development.

It is very easy and quick to access the data in ORDBMS.

ORDBMS has such scalability which is large and robust.

ORDBMS possess tremendous manipulation power of object in a database.

ORDBMS supports object functionality by adding separate APIs and server subsystems

In ORDBMS it is very easy to redesign database and database engine is complete.

ORDBMS supports rich data types by adding a new object-oriented layer.

Apart from these advantages, an object relational database management system has some drawbacks. One of the major disadvantages is its incapability for high-speed internet applications. However, ORDBMSs are designed to manage large amounts of information, an important aspect in the development of website. The IDC opines that the ORDBMS market has the potential to surpass the size of ODBMS in the next couple of years in web based development.

Demerits of ORDBMS

The ORDBMSs approach has the obvious disadvantage of complexity and associated increased costs.

There are proponents of the relational approach that believe the essential simplicity and purity of the relational model are lost with these types of extension.

There are also those that believe that the RDMS is being extended for what will be a minority of applications that do not achieve optimal performance with current relational technology.

Instead of discussing object models, terms like 'user-defined data types' are used. The terminology of object-orientation abounds with terms like 'abstract types'. 'class hierarchies', and 'object models'. However, ORDBMSs vendors are attempting to portray object models as extensions to the relational model with some additional complexities.

This potentially misses the point of object-orientation, highlighting the large semantic gap between these two technologies.

Benefits of ORDBMS

The main benefit to this type of database lies in the fact that the software to convert the object data between a RDBMS format and object database format is provided. Therefore it is not necessary for programmers to write code to convert between the two formats and database access is easy from an object oriented computer language.

Limitation of ORDBMS


Increased costs

Unclear if the ORDBMS will actually combine relationships and encapsulated objects to correctly and completely mirror the 'real world

Provision of a language(s)which will front end to SQL and will provide a migration path for existing SQL

Object Oriented Database Management System (OODBMS)

Object-oriented database management system (OODBMS) the shorter form is ODBMS that stands for object database management system, which is also a database management system (DBMS) that offers the modelling and creation of data as objects. This contains some kind of maintain for classes of objects and the inheritance of class properties and methods by subclasses and their objects. There is presently no broadly agreed-upon standard for what constitute an OODBMS, and OODBMS products are considered to be still in their immaturity. In the intervening time, the object-relational database management system (ORDBMS), the idea that object-oriented database concepts can be apply to on relational databases, is more commonly encountered in available products. An object-oriented database interface standard is being developed by an industry group, the Object Data Management Group (ODMG). The Object Management Group (OMG) has already standardized an object-oriented data brokering interface between systems in a network.

Main Features of OODBMS

Complex objects: It deals with complex data and object which cannot deal other database management system.

Object Identity: It also can identify the data or object which is relevant or not.

Encapsulation: Data encapsulation is possible by OODBMS as a result it compact the large data into small data.

Classes: It defines class so that any complex data can be broken into classes.

Inheritance: Data inheritance is possible with OODBMS.

Overriding and late-binding: OODBMS offers data overriding and late binding and is a convenient way to classify data.

Extensibility: Data extensibility is the main feature of OODBMS

Computational completeness: The main beneficial side of OODBMS is computational completeness.

Persistence: By persistency it is possible to reserve data from the database.

Concurrency: Data concurrency is more flexible in OODBMS

Recovery: It is no harder job to recover lost data form database by using OODBMS.

Ad-hoc querying: OODBMS satisfy the Ad-hoc querying.

Merits of OODBMS

In RDBMS, there was enough wastage of time when objects had to be mapped with tables and vice versa. This is completely avoided with OODBMS. 

In OODBMS, data is described easily through class hierarchy. 

IN RDBMS, users have to face problems when identifying the records. They had to ensure that no two records had the same primary key. OODBMS completely avoids this aspect because of its unique OIDs.

Since interaction between objects and database is done transparently, there is no need for a query language to access data from an Object Oriented Database Management System. But one can still use queries in OODBMS. 

In OODBMS, a large class can hold several medium-sized classes, which can hold even more medium-sized classes. This means that OODBMs has the ability to handle complex data compared to RDBMS.

Benefits of OODBMS


If there exists many of many-to-many relationships, tree structures or network (graph) structures then Versant's OODBMS solutions will cover up those relationships greatly sooner than a relational database.


For numerous applications, the most demanding characteristic is to deal with complex data, OODBMS is the best answer. Architectures, that mixes technical requirements which cause adversity. OODBMS solutions let us develop a system which use objects and need only domain behaviour, release us from determination concerns.


It is difficult, time uncontrollable, will be costly, and expensive at run time, to map the objects into a relational database and feat can be endure. OODBMS solutions put down up objects as objects - yes, it's as easy as 1, 2, 3,4. Versant's object database solutions has been designed to store many-to-many, tree and network relationships as it is named bi-directional associations without having the require for JOIN tables. Hence, Versant's object database solutions save time of programming, and objects can be stored and retrieved faster. Modern O/R mapping tools may make things easier many mapping problems, however they don't provide not to be faulted data allotment or the performance of Versant's OODBMS solutions.


The difficulty of telecommunications communications, transportation networks, simulations, financial instruments and other domains must be under control. Architectures that mix technical requirements such as persistence (and SQL) with the domain model are an provocation to catastrophe. OODBMS solutions let us build up using objects that need only be full of the domain performance, freeing us from determination concerns.

Demerits of OODBMS

Lack of a universal data model

Ad-hoc querying compromises encapsulation.

Locking at object-level impacts performance


Lack of support for views

Lack of support for security

Comparison of RDBMS, OODBMS and ORDBMS:





Solution to impedance mismatch between Relational and Object Oriented Domain Model


Reachability Persistence.

Latency Improvement



(For some navigational and associative lookups, object graphs can be pulled up as is)


Improve Scale and Solve Scalability Issues


Yes (if Ready to Spend$$$$$on Scaling UP + DB-Cluster s/w like Oracle RAC)



Easy Integration to RDBMS (entrenched source of truth)




Better Support for Fast Changing Domain Models (Agile)



Heterogeneous Application/ Stack Support.


(Typically you storestrongly-typed objects in the database, which makes sharing across Apps/Heterogenous stacks difficult)

(Data is ultimately in relational form)

Implementation Maturity



Common Standard



Recommendation and Selection of Database System

After a brief study I have decided to recommend Object Relational Database Management System for the organization. Of course there is certain reason behind that, the reason for selecting ORDBMS is described below.

First of all as it is an organization there may have huge amount of data that need to be stored. That was the first focus how data can be managed. ORDBMS supports SQL-3 (Structure Query Language) which is said to be fourth generation query language. It can handle complicated data as well as object oriented data. Now most of the programmer use object oriented program and most program platform is based on object so it is easy to handle by ORDBMS.

Secondly, ORDBMS makes Large and complex application can be handled easily. Also complex query application is possible by the help of it. It is very convenient now to exception handling of data.

Finally, it allows quick data access, manipulate and retrieve data. The most suitable part of ORDBMS is it can be re design data base after once it is built. It also works as a bridge between RDBMS and OODBMS.


Based on different circumstances have been proposed ORDBMS for the organization to use for maintaining daily data and update data time to time. In certain moment when data storage will be very huge and there will be need of re engineering on that system, it will be easily being done. This will make the organization's work more effective and efficient.