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This report analyzes the benefits of Linux operating system recommendation for these facts. They are
- The comparative Networking features of Windows and Linux.
- Interoperability features of Ubuntu with the existing Microsoft Windows workstation.
- Configure network services for Windows and Linux.
- The various costs associated with the performance, security, support and maintenance of the Ubuntu.
The Comparative Networking features of Linux and Windows
Linux use the Network File System (NFS). The native Macintosh protocol for accessing network files which is part of the Apple Talk protocol suite is Apple Talk Filing Protocol and Novell Net Ware uses.
Windows use the Common Internet File System (CIFS) which is just a newer version of the Server Message Block (SMB).
Linux can start and stop individual services (such as Web, file, and e-mail services) without rebooting or even interrupting the work of any other users or features of the computer.
Windows also can start and stop individual services but it's not convenient about Linux.
In Linux, all storage devices are fit into the file system hierarchy. So, the fact that all of /usr may be on a separate hard disk or that /mnt/rem1 is a file system from another computer is invisible to the user.
In MS-DOS and Windows file systems, drive letters represent different storage devices (for
example, A: is a floppy drive and C: is a hard disk).
In Linux, three-character suffixes have no required meaning in Linux. They can be useful for identifying a file type. Many Linux applications and desktop environments use file suffixes to determine the contents of a file.
In Windows, filenames almost always have suffixes in DOS (such as .txt for text files or .doc for word-processing files).
Every file and directory in a Linux system has permissions and ownership associated with it.
Windows began as single-user systems; file ownership was not built into those systems when they were designed.
Interoperability features of Ubuntu with the existing Microsoft Windows workstation
The interoperability features of Ubuntu with the existing Microsoft Windows workstation are
- DHCP Server
DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. DHCP is used to provide network configuration information to the computer systems on a network that is configured to retrieve information dynamically. DHCP is based on an earlier protocol for retrieving the information required to boot specific hosts known as BOOTP. DHCP is a flexible system that responds to requests from essentially random clients. DHCP also provides a configurable mechanism for reallocating IP addresses to hosts that already have them and recovering network addresses that are no longer in use through its concept of limited-duration leases.
- Samba Server
Samba is an interface that can communicate using the SMB protocol, most notably Windows systems that provide networked access to files, directories, and printers. Samba enables Windows users to access Linux file systems and resources just like any other Windows shared file system or networked resource.
- Connecting to Windows Using VNC
Virtual Network Computing (VNC) makes it easy to work on multiple graphical computer systems that export their graphical displays across a network to another machine. TightVNC is a small, highly optimized VNC client and server. TightVNC makes efficient use of network bandwidth through some clever tricks using JPEG compression for the display and differentiating between local cursor movement and cursor movement that needs to be communicated back to the VNC server. TightVNC also provides security features that RealVNC does not, including automatic SSH tunneling for security purposes. Although RealVNC clients and servers are available for Windows.
Configuring Network for Ubuntu
There are two ways to start network-admin first thing is we can use our terminal to type "sudo network-admin" it will start up or we can go to System--->Administration --->Networking
Once it opens we should see the following screen
And select suitable connection and click on properties tab. We want to configure the Static ip address we need to select drop down box under "Configuration" select static ip address and need to make sure "Enable this connection" tick box is checked.
And then select the static ip address, subnet mask, gateway address and click on ok. We click on "General" tab and enter hostname, domain name.
Next we click on "DNS" tab to configure our system's DNS settings, hostname, or DNS search path. Click the Hosts tab, and then either click the Add or Properties button to create or edit an entry.
Highlight an existing entry, and then click the Properties button to change /etc/hosts entries in the Hosts tab of the Network Configuration screen. We can also assign different locations, just select the gray bar at the top of the network-admin window and select Create Location. Enter a name, such as Home and then repeat this again to create another location, Work.
Ubuntu Linux and Windows File Sharing
To begin the process of sharing, open a file browser window by selecting. Navigate using the file browser until the folder to be shared is visible. Right click on the icon for this folder and select Sharing Options from the resulting menu.
The next step is to share a folder. Once again, open a file browser, locate a suitable folder, right click on it and select Sharing Options. This time the Sharing Options dialog will appear with a number of configuration options available for editing. To access the folder, open the Windows Network browser and navigate to Workgroup where any Ubuntu systems with shared folders should be listed.
Double click on an Ubuntu system to access the shared folders, entering a suitable username and password. Once a valid username and password have been entered, any shared folders configured on the Ubuntu system will be listed in the Windows Explorer dialog ready for access.
Adding Linux network printer
Navigate to System -> Administration -> Printing and then choose Server -> New -> Printer from the Printer configuration window.
The New Printer wizard will be displayed. We can add either local or network printers. Expand the Network Printer tree item and choose Windows Printer via SAMBA.
Click on the button labeled Browse which will display a list of servers on the network. Find corporate print server or Windows system that the printer is connected to. Choose the printer and click OK. We will need to select the manufacturer of the printer so that the appropriate driver can be installed. Make selection and click on the button labeled forward.
Once you have chosen the printer manufacturer and then click Forward. Click Apply after doing so. Finally, you will be greeted with a prompt to print a test page.
Various costs of changing the Ubuntu operating system
According to the following facts, the Bank decides to change Windows operating system to Linux operating system is a rightful idea. Linux operating system is more secure, cheaper price than Windows. Over all performances of Linux operating system are better than Windows. I think changing Windows to Linux operating system is better for the bank. If you have any questions about the report, please give me a call.
Sai Ye' Yan Naing Aye
Overview of VPN technologies (Wired and Wireless)
There are two ways to get access to the Internet. These communication technologies are
- Wired, and
Cabling networking systems
There are two types of network cables. They are
- Copper cables, and
- Fiber optic cables.
Copper cables include coaxial and twisted pair cables.
Coaxial cables are relatively inexpensive and quite easy to install. A coaxial cable consists of a single copper conductor at the core surrounded by an insulating layer. Both these layers are enclosed in a braided metal shielding which is surrounded by another covering sheath (usually made of plastic).
Inflexible - However, coaxial cables can be difficult to install as they are inflexible (especially thick coaxial cable).
Twisted pair cabling
The most basic form of twisted pair (TP) wiring consists of one or more pairs of insulated strands of copper wire twisted around one another. The twists cause the magnetic fields that form around a conducting wire to wrap around one another and improve the interference resistance of TP. And also, they limit the influence of signals travelling one over another (called crosstalk).
There are two primary types of twisted pair cables;
- Unshielded twisted pair (UTP), and
- Shielded twisted pair (STP)
Unshielded twisted pair cable (UTP)
UTP is the most common form of twisted wiring. It is most commonly used in telephone systems.UTP is used in Ethernet 10Base- T and 100Base- T networks, as well as in home and office telephone wiring.UTP specifications govern the number of twisted per foot (or per meter).However, voice telephony is much less demanding than networking in terms of bandwidth and signal quality.
Shielded twisted pair cable (STP)
As its name indicates, STP includes a shield to limit external interferences and to reduce crosstalk. In STP cables, the wire is enclosed in a foil wrap around each wire pair and a wire braid is included inside the cladding or sheath material.
Whether STP or UTP, twisted pair network cabling most commonly uses registered jack 45 (RJ-45) telephone connectors to plug into computer network interfaces or another network devices. RJ-45 looks much like the RJ-11 connector on modular telephone jacks but it contains eight wire traces rather than the four housed in RJ-11.
Fiber optic cabling
A fiber optic cable use light pulses instead of using electronic pulses to transmit information down copper lines. As no electrical signals ever pass through the cable, fiber optic media has no interference at all. This characteristic also makes fiber optic cables highly secure and also, fiber optic cable is a good medium for high-bandwidth, high-speed, long-distance data transmissions due to its lower attenuation characteristic and vastly higher bandwidth.
There are three types of fiber optic cable commonly used. They are
- Single mode
- Multi mode, and
- Plastic optical fiber (POF).
Fiber optic cable characteristics
In some cases, the use of cables limits the mobility of users or distance. And so, wireless technologies are becoming more reasonable, and the use of wireless is exploding in marketplace. As the Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) is continued to undergo development, manufacturers of wireless networking devices have brought inexpensive, reliable, wireless LANs to homes and businesses.
Wireless extended LAN Technologies
Certain kinds of wireless networking equipment extend LAN's provide connectivity across areas where cables are not allowed (or able) to transverse.
Wireless extended LAN characteristics
Topology for the requirements for the company
Requirements for the VPNs
There are many requirements for a VPN to work. The following are some of the essential requirements for a company' VPN.
- Existing hardware (Servers, workstations, etc...)
- Software to create and manage tunnels
- VPN - Router/Switch
- Internet connection
- Security Device such as firewall
Advantages and Disadvantages of a VPN topology
VPN Components: Protocols
l IP Security (IPSec)
• Transport mode
• Tunnel mode
l Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)
• Voluntary tunneling method
• Uses PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)
Types of VPNs
There are three kinds of VPNs. They are
- Remote Access VPN
- Intranet VPN
- Extranet VPN
Design outlining the Communications technology for the company
Hardware and software requirements
Lenovo ThinkCentre M57e - 6179 - 1 GB RAM - 2.2 GHz - 160 GB HDD
Lenovo ThinkCentre M57e - 6179
- 1 GB RAM
- 2.2 GHz
- 160 GB HDD
- Tower Type
- Win XP Professional
- Intel GMA 3100
- 1 MB cache
Computer and processor
Lenovo ThinkCentre M57e - 6179
- 1 GB RAM
- 2.2 GHz
- Two 160 GB HDD
- Tower Type
- Win XP Professional
- Intel GMA 3100
- 1 MB cache
Canon PIXMA IP90v
- High Resolution: Precision ink nozzles create high resolution photos-up to 4800 x 1200 color dpi.
- Fine detail: Microscopic 2-picoliter sized color ink droplets produce finely detailed and sharp photos.
- Snap and print, wirelessly: Print wirelessly right from your nearby infrared-enabled mobile camera phone!
- Print wirelessly: Print from a compatible Bluetooth device in a nearby room, using our optional USB bluetooth adapter.
- Click-Connect-Print: Just capture an image with a PictBridge ready digital camera/DV camcorder, then connect and print!
- Real-life photos: Canon print head technology helps to create real-life photos you'll be proud to share.
- Enhance your digital photos: Easy-PhotoPrint software makes it simple to enhance and print amazing-looking digital photos through your computer.
Nokia N810 Internet Tablet
Nokia N810 Internet Tablet, signifying a new phase in portable internet communication. It has ability to connect this pocket-sized device to the nearest Wi-Fi hotspot or over your Bluetooth mobile phone. The Nokia N810 allows internet calls; check e-mail or watch the latest videos or update blog using the device's slide-out keyboard along with its stunning touch screen. Its support built-in maps and satellite navigation.
the ability to check emails, read the latest gossip online or IM, share on social sites; call via internet, or get closer by the video chat - with the integrated VGA camera
The Nokia N810 has an integrated GPS receiver which allows pinpoint position and find a wide variety of points-of-interests
Fiber Optic Cable (Multi mode cable)
Monster Cable M1000 High Resolution Digital Fiber Optic Cable M1000 DFO-8 - Digital audio cable (optical) - Male TOSLINK to M TOSLINK
Monster Cable M1000 High Resolution Digital Fiber Optic Cable
With its advanced construction and superior materials, M1000DFO Digital Fiber Optic raises the bar for high-performance optical cables. An InsuLight jacket protects the optical signal from cable vibrations, while graded-index fiber ensures an ultra-wide bandwidth and maximum bitstream transfer. Plus, Monster hand polishes the fiber ends within a fraction of a lightwave for minimal internal reflections. It's a costly, labor intensive process, but it dramatically reduces cable-induced jitter for more realistic, detailed digital music and movie surround sound.
Ordinary fiber optic connectors don't always ensure perfect alignment between a cable's fiber termination and an AV receiver's optical lens. This creates a gap that can lead to lightwave contamination, light dissipation and signal loss. And that means smeared, inferior sound. M1000DFO features a flexible spring-loaded connector for precision optical alignment and optimum, low-loss data transfer. When it comes to your home entertainment system, you don't cut corners. You use the highest performance components. When it comes to fiber optic cable performance, there's one leader: M1000DFO Fiber Optic.
Hub or Switch
NETGEAR ProSafe GS108 8 Port Gigabit Desktop Switch Switch - EN, Fast EN, Gigabit EN
NETGEAR ProSafe GS108 8 Port Gigabit Desktop Switch Switch
External, Firewall protection, auto-sensing per device, Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI), DoS attack prevention, Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
Now you can have a powerful, high-speed network on a small scale. NETGEAR's GS108 Gigabit Ethernet Switch lets you build a system that provides a full, dedicated 1000, 100, or 10 Mbps connection so you can move very large files across your network instantly. The GS108 also lets you painlessly integrate 10, 100, and 1000 Mbps devices. This potent switch is packed with ease-of-use features to simplify your workday experience. It's compact design fits neatly into small work spaces and, since it's self-cooling without a fan, it runs silently and unobtrusively.
The GS108 moves huge files fast! It features a high-speed, auto-switching 10/100/1000 Mbps Ethernet connection. And because Copper Gigabit Ethernet is a full duplex standard, you can get up to 2000 Mbps on each port. The GS108 integrates 10, 100, and 1000 Mbps devices on the same network. Every port automatically senses the right speed and full/half duplex mode, while Auto Uplink technology automatically adjusts for straight-through or crossover cables. LEDs embedded in each of the 8 RJ-45 jacks make for easy monitoring. Space-saving dimensions are ideal for desktop or wall mounting in home and small office environments. Strong, durable metal case securely protects the switch's working parts.
Access Point (Router)
Cisco Systems Cisco Small Business WRV200 Wireless-G VPN Router - RangeBooster Wireless router - EN, Fast EN, IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11g
Cisco Systems Cisco Small Business WRV200 Wireless
External, Linux, firewall protection, DMZ port, VPN support, VLAN support, Syslog support, Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI), DoS attack prevention, firmware....
The Linksys Small Business Series is the affordable, reliable, high quality networking solution that helps you do business smarter. Secure and easy to install and maintain, it's built to grow with your business.
Enable a wireless network in a reliable, intelligent and SNMP managed way for your Small business. The intuitive web based interface allows you to easily set up the features of the WRV200. SNMP gives you the ability to remotely manage and monitor the device.
Windows Server 2003 (Standard Edition)
Small businesses are doing more with less in today's business environment. Information technology (IT) professionals can help small businesses do more by deploying Windows Small Business Server 2003 to provide security-enhanced, reliable IT infrastructure. Windows Small Business Server 2003 provides a complete business server solution with messaging and collaboration, security-enhanced Internet access, protected data storage, reliable printing, the ability to run line-of-business applications, and faxing. And its end-to-end administration features help technology providers set up, run, and maintain their networks productively and efficiently.
The premium edition includes Windows Server 2003 and Exchange Server 2003 technology, and in addition, has SQL Server 2000 and ISA Server 2000. The premium edition is ideal for small businesses with more demanding IT needs, such as data-intensive line-of-business applications.
Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 (SP1) enhances security infrastructure by providing new security tools such as Security Configuration Wizard, which secures your server for role based operations, improved defense-in-depth with Data Execution Protection, and a safe and secure first boot scenario with Post-Setup Security Update Wizard
Windows Server 2003 (Datacenter Edition)
Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Datacenter x64 Edition w/SP1
- pricing: Volume
high levels of virtualization, scalability, and reliability
- enables critical solutions for databases, ERP
- high volume real-time transaction processing
- Server consolidation
Windows XP Professional (SP2 and above)
Microsoft Windows XP Professional w/SP2 - 1 user
Upgrade package, English, CD-ROM, pricing: Standard
Microsoft Windows XP Professional is the next version of the Windows operating system, which is designed for businesses of all sizes, and for individuals who demand the most from their computing experience. Windows XP Professional goes beyond the benefits of Windows XP Home Edition with advanced capabilities designed specifically to optimize productivity using the latest advancements in the digital world. Built on the solid foundation of Windows 2000, Windows XP Professional provides improved reliability, security, performance and ease of use, setting the new standard in efficient and dependable computing.
Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2 (SP2) provides an enhanced security infrastructure that defends against viruses, worms, and hackers, along with increased manageability and control for IT professionals and an improved experience for users.
Microsoft office 2007 (Enterprise Edition)
Microsoft Office Enterprise 2007 is the most complete Microsoft toolset provided for people who must collaborate with others and work with information efficiently, regardless of location or network status. Office Enterprise 2007 builds on the strengths of Microsoft Office Professional Plus 2007, providing two additional tools - Microsoft Office Groove 2007 and Microsoft Office OneNote 2007 - that enable people to collaborate and efficiently gather, store, organize, find, and easily share any type of information. Office Groove 2007 provides a rich and more secure collaboration environment for teams to work together, regardless of location, with minimal IT support. Office OneNote 2007 provides complete information-management capabilities for virtually any type of content, so teams can deliver better results faster
Schedules for the Implementation of Network
The schedules will be started with planning the networking design stage. After that, analysis for the requirement stage will be started simultaneously with the first stage. After these two stages, requirements that are the outcome of the second stage must be brought. Immediately after this stage, the stage of setting cable format inside the head office will be started. And then the PCs and server will be located and arranged. Next stage is installation of the required softwares.
And then, the stages of data entry for the database server and setting up VPN will be started at the same time. Setting up VPN stage will be completed while the data entry stage still carries on. So the next stage, setting up wireless extended LAN, will be started during the data entry stage is running. After this data entry stage, the whole system will be tested. The testing stage will be started since the stage of locating and arranging the PCs and servers. The configuration stage also starts at the same time with testing stage and end when data entry stage is completed two days earlier than testing stage.
All of the stage will complete within 30 days.
Schedule table for implementing VPN
Network Manager's Role
Approximate right and responsibilities
The main responsibilities of the network manager is to make sure all users can access resources they are allowed to access, and to prevent users from accessing resources they don't have permission to access or shouldn't allowed to access. Creating user accounts and groups should also do by a network manager. Group accounts are used to assign rights and permissions to several users at one time. Assigning permissions with group accounts rather than user accounts is preferable because group accounts are easier to keep track of.
Some examples for domain local groups in Windows Server 2003 are Administrators who has complete control over the computer and domain, Account Operators who can administer user and group accounts for the local domain, Backup Operators who can backup and restore files that user normally cannot access, Print Operators who can add, delete, and manage domain printers, Server Operators who can administer domain servers and User has default access rights that ordinary user accounts have.
He or she must understand levels of security also. The managing of securing access to data is also important. In fact, authentication and authorization, encryption, decryption, VPNs, Firewalls, virus and worm protection. Many network administrators use encryption technology to safeguard data as it travels across the internet and even within the company network. The other responsibility is to implement wireless security with the method of Service set identifier (SSID), Wire Equivalency Protocol (WEP), Wi-Fi Protect Access (WPA) or 802.1i.
MAJOR NETWORK SECURITY ISSUES
In modern world, the security issues of networking are really important. Because we don't have any security system, the powerful viruses infect our network or computerized system and then we must face many problems. Here are the things I learned for network security.
SIGNS OF A COMPUTER INFECTION
- Computer functions slower than normal
- Computer responds slowly and freezes often
- Computer restarts itself often
- See uncommon error messages, distorted menus, and dialog boxes
- Notice applications on the computer fail to work correctly
- Fail to print correctly
GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT COMPUTER VIRUS
A Trojan horse is a program that does something else that the user thought it would do. It is mostly done to someone on purpose. The Trojan Horses are usually masked so that they look interesting. A Trojan horse differs from a destructive virus in that it doesn't reproduce. The malicious functionality of a Trojan horse may be anything undesirable for a computer user, including data destruction or compromising a system by providing a means for another computer to gain access, thus bypassing normal access controls.
A worm is a program which spreads usually over network connections. Unlike a virus which attaches itself to a host program, worms always need a host program to spread. In practice, worms are not normally associated with one person computer systems. They are mostly found in multi-user systems. The worm may do damage and compromise the security of the computer. It may arrive via exploitation of system vulnerability or by clicking on an infected e-mail.
· Boot Sector Virus
A virus which attaches itself to the first part of the hard disk that is read by the computer upon bootup. These are normally spread by floppy disks. Boot sector viruses often spread to other computers by the use of shared infected disks and pirated software applications.
- Macro Virus
Macro viruses spread from applications which use macros. The macro viruses which are receiving attention currently are specific to WordBasic and Excel. However, many applications, not all of them Windows applications, have potentially damaging and infective macro capabilities too. Once a macro virus gets on to the computer, every document will become infected. This type of virus is relatively new and may slip by antivirus software if it doesn't have the most recent version installed on the computer.
- Memory Resident Virus
Memory Resident Viruses reside in a computers volatile memory (RAM). They are initiated from a virus which runs on the computer and they stay in memory after its initiating program closes.
- Polymorphic Virus
A polymorphic virus not only replicates itself by creating multiple files of itself, but it also changes its digital signature every time it replicates. This makes it difficult for less sophisticated antivirus software to detect.
HOW TO PROTECT VIRUS
- Best way to protect is to prepare the computer against viruses in advance.
- One way to protect the computer is to use updated anti-virus program. There are many good anti-viral programs. Most knows programs are Data Fellows F-Prot, McAfee Scan, Microsoft Anti-Virus, Bitdefender, Kaspersky, Symantec Norton Antivirus and S&S Dr Solomon's AVTK.
- One can protect the computer against boot sector viruses by setting the BIOS to start from a hard disk rather than from a floppy disk.
NETWORK SECURITY POLICY
The goal of network security is to secure the network" (or "the computers"). Securing the network is easy, but it's not our goal. Our real goal â€• and a more difficult job â€• are securing the business. The goal of network security is to support the network and computer business requirements, using methods that reduce risk. Security policies describe what we must secure, and the ways we secure them, to support our business or mission. Firewalls, intrusion detection systems, anti-virus (AV), backup and restore strategies, locked doors, and system administration checklists are all some of the things we might use. Security policies provide the blueprint for using them: the what, how, why, when, and by whom.
THE ROOT SECURITY POLICY
It will probably include the following subordinate policies:
- Computer Acceptable use
- Mobile Computing and Portable Storage
- Remote Access
- Incident Response Plan
ACCEPTABLE USE POLICY
List the assets we must protect. They are
- Desktop computers
- Mobile computers
- Email systems
- Application data
The review process is the final effort in creating and maintaining a security policy. There are three things, we need to review: policy, posture, and practice. Reviewing the existing policy against known Best Practices keeps the network up to date. Also, check the web site for useful tips, practices, security improvements, and alerts that can be incorporated into our security policy.
There are lots of viruses in the world and new viruses are coming up every day. There are new anti-virus programs and techniques developed too. It is good to be aware of viruses and other malware and it is cheaper to protect our environment from them rather than being sorry. Finally, practice is defined as a drill or test of the support staff to insure that they have a clear understanding of what to do during a security violation. Often, this drill is unannounced by management and done in conjunction with the network posture test. This review identifies gaps in procedures and training of personnel so that corrective action can be taken.