Basic Network Topology And Communications Media Computer Science Essay

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Q1:- A IT form is building a two storey building that is four blocks. You have been appointed to assist them in selecting a basic network topology and what communications media to use. The plans for the building are not complete, but Williams want to begin discussions on different options for networks that can be used. On your visit with Williams, he tells you he would like to know about some basic network designs. Draw four examples of the basic network topologies for Simon. Then, summarize this topologies

To Simon

IT company

As per the designed structure of the building informed by Mr. William. I have presented the technical explanation of the network that can be configured in the building.

Star Network topology

C:\Users\Dell\Desktop\star.jpg

Figure 1.1

Star Network Topology

In star topology, each computer in the network is connected to the central host computer which is called the sever. In this kind of network topology each computer in the network is independent of the other computers. This is one of the most widely used network topology at the current time.

Required communication media

Cat45 cables

Network Interface Card (NIC)

Switch/Hub

Router

Server

Advantages of the topology

Flexibility

The network architecture is very flexible. Computers (NODES) can be added and drawn out off the network easily without disturbing other computers (Nodes) on the network.

Reliability

It is the most reliable network topology and mostly used topology in the market. Moreover failure of any one computer (Node) in the network does not affect the performance of the other Nodes in the network or network as a whole. There is no problem of the data collusion as every computer (Node) has its own cable connected to the server

Easy maintenance

It is very easy to find the error and fix the error in the network

Low cost of operation in the long run

Though it may seem quite expensive to establish the network in the short run, the cost of operating the network is very low.

Disadvantages of the star network topology

The initial cost of cabling can be very expensive as each computer (Node) requires a separate cable to be linked to the server over the two storey building. Cabling cost can be the substantial part of the overall cost of installing the network

Whole network goes down if the central hub fails

The performance and scalability of the network depends on the capabilities of the hub

Size of the network depends open the connection available on the central hub.

Bus topology

In bus topology all the devices in the network are connected by single cable. Data can be sent to either direction of the computer. It contains a terminator at the either end of the cable to dismiss the data that is not used by the any devices in the network. The performance of the system is good until it is too heavily loaded. Instance if the used at the all the nodes try to access the information for the networks storage at the same time the performance of the network degrades significantly.

C:\Users\Dell\Desktop\bus.jpg

Figure 1.2

Bus Network Topology

It is a passive type of network and the computers in the network only listen to the signal and they do not contribute to move the data ahead in the network. When computer needs to send the data to the particular computer in the network then it must make sure that no any other devices in the network is sending the data packet over a network. The particular computer in the network responds to the data packet signal only if it is sent for them. This types of network is suitable for temporary and small network which doesn’t require much speed.

Required communication media

Cable

T connectors

Terminators

Network Interface Card

Advantages of Using Bus network Topology

IT is the most easiest topology to install and also the most inexpensive network topology

Easy to add the computer without disturbing the other computers in the network.

Easy identification of the cable faults.

Disadvantages of using Bus network topologies.

(i)Whole network crashes if the main cable in the network fails.

It is very difficult to isolate the cable failure

Cost of maintenance can increase in the long run

The length of the cable and the number of the computer is limited

Performance of the network degrades open the increase the load and the number of the computer

Only one data packet can remain in the bus during the one pulse clock time.

Data transmission rate is slower than the other network topologies.

It has a significant capacitive load

Ring Topology

In ring network topology computers in the network are connected together in a ring format and there is no central computer controlling the network, meaning that any computer in the network can send data to any other computer in the network by addressing the location of the destination computer.

(refered from computing 4th editin, P.M HEATHCOTE)

C:\Users\Dell\Desktop\ring.jpg

Figure 1.3

Ring Network Topology

In this kind of network topology data can transmit at only one direction .It uses a special technology called the Token Ring where by data sent form one computer in the network to the other devices in the network and so on around the network until it arrives back where it started. It also uses a network passing protocol meaning that the machine in the network can only use the network if it has control over the network passing protocol. It also helps to ensure that there is no data collusion noted that only one computer in the network can use the network at a time.

Required Communication media

Cables

Network Interface Card(NIC)Advantages of Ring network Topology

High rate of data transmission is possible

Each computer is independent to the other computer in the network, there is no central computer controlling the network.

Disadvantages of Bus network topology

If any one computer in the network fails then the communication to the computers next to that particular computer in the network is interrupted.

It is difficult to trouble shoot the ring network topologies.

The network is totally dependent to the ring cable.

Packets of data should pass through the every computer that lies between the sending and the receiving devices and decreasing the data transmission speed of the network.

Tree topology

Tree topology is the combination of the star and the bus topology. Computers connected in star patterns are connected with the bus cable giving the figure like of a tree. This types of network topology facilities the easy expansion of the existing computer. It is also called the hierarchy topology as it contains least three level of hierarchy which works being based on the root nodes. Nodes can be added to any level of the hierarchy and there are limitations on it until the total number of computers do not exceed.

C:\Users\Dell\Desktop\tree.gif

Required communication medium

Cat45 cables

Network Interface Card (NIC)

T connecters

Hub

Advantages of Tree Network Topology

It provides the facility of point to point connection

Computers can access their immediate network and the whole larger network

As generally the tree networks are larger it may become difficult to configure after the certain points.

Disadvantages of the tree network

The length of the networks is dependent open the capacity of the cable used.

It is difficult to configure and wire

If the main backbone of the network which is alo called the main trunk fails then the whole network goes down

With respect to the various to the computer system, briefly explain each of the following computers and identify its application area.

Micro Computer

Microcomputers are generally the small computers specially designed for home and small business organization. These computers use microprocessor (integrated circuit) as their central processing unit. Examples of the micro computers include desktop computers, laptop computers, which are also called the personal computers. These types of the computers support one user at a time.

C:\Users\Dell\Desktop\microcomputers.jpg

Application of Microcomputers

Due to its portability and economical feasibility micro computers have a wide range of application. They have been used in the hospitals for storing and processing the information of the patients, they have been used in the college as a educational kit and also for storing and processing the information about the students and the professors. Use in the home for surfing the internet, they are also used in the offices and small business organization for general purpose like word processing, for accessing the database and other minor works.

Mini computers

Mini computers are more powerful and larger than the microcomputers but less powerful and smaller the mainframe and the super computers. Unlike the microcomputers minicomputers can support up to 400 connected users at a time.

Application of Mini computer

Super Computers

C:\Users\Dell\Desktop\supercomputer.jpg

Super computers are the most powerful, fasted and the most expensive computers which are capable of processing more then 64 billions of instruction in a second.

Application of the super computers

Super computers are used in the areas where very large and complicated data need to be processed in a very short period of time, such as Statically and mathematical calculation. Examples include whether forecasting departments, NASA, Stock Exchange and very large commercial organization.

Laptop computers

C:\Users\Dell\Desktop\images.jpg

Laptop computers are a type of microcomputer which contains microprocessor as its central processing unit. It is designed to be portable and light weight targeted for the mobile users. It contains almost all the features of the desktop computers and   it is powered by main electricity via an AC adopter. It also contains a rechargeable battery which can store energy required for running the laptop for 3 to 5 hours without ac.

Application of the laptop computers

Laptop computers are generally used by the people who need to travel a lot using computers

General the users of the laptops include students, business man scientist and the researchers.

Q3.

Append a check digit for the student id 336137, using modulus 11 and 7 check digit system.

Answer

(I) appending a check digit by Mod 11:

Step 1: Multiply the digits

3 3 6 1 3 7

*7 *6 *5 *4 *3 *2

------------------------------------------------------------

21 18 30 4 9 14

Now,

Adding the product we get,

21+18+30+4+9+14=96

Now divide the number by 11 to get the remainder,

96 mod 11

Remainder(R)=8

Check digit =11-8=3

Therefore

(II) Appending the check digit by Mod 7:

Step 1

3 3 6 1 3 7

*7 *6 *5 *4 *3 *2

------------------------------------------------------------

21 18 30 4 9 14

Now,

Adding the product we get,

21+18+30+4+9+14=96

Now divide the number by 11 to get the remainder,

96 mod 7

Remainder(R)=5

Check digit =7-5=3

Therefore

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