Assumptions And Construction Sequence Outline Computer Science Essay

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How we made these assumptions was very interesting. A basic building process of wall should include the elements construction, the insulation and the furnishing. Wall construction is the first step, and insulation and furnishing of walls is the associated works. The assumptions based on these ideas are as below.

For a better construction process, to protect the tasks which have already finished and avoid overlapping work, the model is separately divided into three zones: the west zone, the middle zone and the east zone. Each boundary is based on the typical wall which separates the zones.

The construction sequences are from western zone, middle zone, then to eastern zone. The exterior wall will be constructed at the very end of the construction phase for material transportation convenience.

The basic components in the model were divided into these parts: slab, wall (including structure wall and partition wall), columns, beams, windows, and doors. And walls were also divided into interior walls and exterior walls.

A common sequence in construction should firstly focus on structure, then going on associated tasks and some decorations. For this 4D modeling processing, each wall (both exterior and interior wall) will be constructed with insulation and furnishing. So, the structure elements of the modeling will be finished first, like slab, columns beam, rebar, and structure walls inside. Then followed the structure walls are the partition walls which are the function elements of the model. For each zone, Combining with insulation and furnishing, the construction of interior walls are finished in each zone, and then switched to next zone.

The detailed construction sequences are designed as bellows:

Figure Scheduling Sequence

Further explanation of construction phases above:

As shown in Figure 1, we firstly built the slab beam of the lower floor and then the cast slab in place on the beams. After that, all the columns were set up. Then, starting from the western zone, we firstly assigned 2 crews to build the interior structure walls for interior walls require larger workload. In order to fulfill a fast-track construction phase, we made the crews to build the interior structure walls in the middle zone immediately following the completion of interior structure walls in the western zone. In this way, the structure wall labors can be fully utilized and keep learning curve at the peak. In the same way, we hired 2 crews for the interior partition and made the workers do exactly the same sequence as building the interior structural walls. As a result, the whole construction blueprint is completed which aims at achieving a fact-track construction.

Deciding Durations

The basic idea of deciding duration is that, for a standard crew, the construction tasks finished in a weekday are fixed or estimated in a certain level or in a certain production rate(daily output). According to the volumes of each task, the duration of each task was calculated and made some adjusted by the general idea. The general idea was that to ensure all the tasks finished in reasonable and humanizing circumstances. And the volumes of each task are measured in the Vico according to their type. The model measured here is the one which built in the Revit at the beginning of the project.

The computed duration table is as below:

Table duration of construction components calculation

Task Name

CSI code

Unit

Daily output

Quantity

Duration

Round Duration

Beams (Eastern)

CTDS production rate

Ea.

6

10

1.67

2

Beams (Western)

CTDS production rate

Ea.

6

14

2.33

3

Columns (Eastern)

CTDS production rate

CY

10.13

1.3

0.13

1

Columns (Western)

03 30 53.40 concrete in place 0720 columns, square(4000psi),average reinf.

CY

10.13

1.3

0.13

1

Doors(center)

08 51 13.20 Aluminum Windows 1000 stock unit casement

Ea.

10

4

0.40

1

Doors(eastern)

08 51 13.20 Aluminum Windows 1000 stock unit casement

Ea.

10

37

3.70

4

Doors(western)

08 51 13.20 Aluminum Windows 1000 stock unit casement

Ea.

10

45

4.50

5

Exterior Walls (Eastern)

04 22 10 34 concrete block 3050 Solid not reinf. 10'' thick

SF

350

1808.7

5.17

6

Exterior Walls (middle)

04 22 10 34 concrete block 3050 Solid not reinf. 10'' thick

SF

350

371.1

1.06

2

Exterior Walls (Western)

04 22 10 34 concrete block 3050 Solid not reinf. 10'' thick

SF

350

942.5

2.69

3

Exterior Walls opening

04 22 10 34 concrete block 3050 Solid not reinf. 10'' thick

SF

350

574.9

1.64

2

Interior Walls (Eastern)

04 22 10 34 concrete block 3050 Solid not reinf. 10'' thick

SF

350

11727.3

33.51

34

Interior Walls (middle)

04 22 10 34 concrete block 3050 Solid not reinf. 10'' thick

SF

350

11669.2

33.34

34

Interior Walls (Western)

04 22 10 34 concrete block 3050 Solid not reinf. 10'' thick

SF

350

14207.9

40.59

41

Slab

03 30 53.40 concrete in place 5700 ground slab(2000psi)

CY

107

993.7

9.29

10

Windows(center)

08 04 14.10 wood doors solid wood

Ea.

14

4

0.29

1

Windows(eastern)

08 04 14.10 wood doors solid wood

Ea.

14

13

0.93

1

Windows(western)

08 04 14.10 wood doors solid wood

Ea.

14

18

1.29

2

Scheduling:

Level of Detail of scheduling

Basically we based our schedule on dividing the whole project into three construction zones-- the western zone, median zone and the eastern zone. For each zone, we first make 1 crew to build column, then 1 crew to build the interior structure wall following with partition walls, and finally beams. We apply line of balance scheduling into this whole process and the detailed sequence of activities is listed as following table

Detail of scheduling

The duration here is set as around 60 days (3 months). Based on the assumption and each tasks' duration, a Gantt chart which reflects construction sequences combining with time schedules, materials resources, labors plan and cost per unit has been generated in the MS-project. For each element component, the corresponded materials, labors, costs, the start time and the construction duration was assigned to it. And each component's construction is closely linked. The constructions for each component can be started and implemented at the same time if the crews allocated to them are not clash to each other. This schedule can make the duration a fast-track construction for the various dependencies and overlapping schedule. The activities dependencies of construction tasks are as below:

Table 2: Activities Outline and assumptions

Task Name

Duration

Start

Finish

Crew

Predecessors

Dependency

Start

0 days

Fri 03/01/13

Fri 03/01/13

1

Slab Beams

1 day

Fri 03/01/13

Fri 03/01/13

1

1

Slab

5 days

Mon 03/04/13

Fri 03/08/13

1

2

FS

Western Columns

1 day

Mon 03/11/13

Mon 03/11/13

1

3

FS

Eastern Columns

1 day

Mon 03/11/13

Mon 03/11/13

1

3

SS

Western Structural Wall Construction

15 days

Tue 03/12/13

Mon 04/01/13

1

4

FS

Western Structural Wall Rebar

15 days

Tue 03/12/13

Mon 04/01/13

1

4

SS

Western Structural Wall Insulation

2 days

Tue 04/02/13

Wed 04/03/13

1

6

FS

Western Structural Wall Furnishing

2 days

Thu 04/04/13

Fri 04/05/13

1

8

FS

Westerm Beams

2 days

Mon 04/08/13

Tue 04/09/13

1

9

FS

Western Partition Wall Construction

20 days

Wed 04/10/13

Tue 05/07/13

1

10

FS

Western Partition Wall Insulation

3 days

Wed 05/08/13

Fri 05/10/13

1

11

FS

Western Partition Wall Furnishing

3 days

Mon 05/13/13

Wed 05/15/13

1

12

FS

Middle Structural Wall Construction

2 days

Tue 04/02/13

Wed 04/03/13

1

6

SS

Middle Structural Wall Rebar

2 days

Tue 04/02/13

Wed 04/03/13

1

7

SS

Middle Structural Wall Insulation

1 day

Thu 04/04/13

Thu 04/04/13

1

14

FS

Middle Structural Wall Furnishing

1 day

Fri 04/05/13

Fri 04/05/13

1

16

FS

Middle Beams

1 day

Mon 04/08/13

Mon 04/08/13

1

17

FS

Middle Partition Wall Construction

2 days

Tue 04/09/13

Wed 04/10/13

1

18

FS

Middle Partition Wall Insulation

1 day

Thu 04/11/13

Thu 04/11/13

1

19

FS

Middle Partition Wall Furnishing

1 day

Fri 04/12/13

Fri 04/12/13

1

20

FS

Eastern Structural Wall Construction

15 days

Thu 04/04/13

Wed 04/24/13

1

14

SS

Eastern Structural Wall Rebar

15 days

Thu 04/04/13

Wed 04/24/13

1

15

SS

Eastern Structural Wall Insulation

2 days

Thu 04/25/13

Fri 04/26/13

1

22

FS

Eastern Structural Wall Furnishing

2 days

Mon 04/29/13

Tue 04/30/13

1

24

FS

Eastern Beams

2 days

Wed 05/01/13

Thu 05/02/13

1

25

FS

Eastern Partition Wall Construction

10 days

Fri 05/03/13

Thu 05/16/13

1

26

FS

Eastern Partition Wall Insulation

2 days

Fri 05/17/13

Mon 05/20/13

1

27

FS

Eastern Partition Wall Furnishing

2 days

Tue 05/21/13

Wed 05/22/13

1

28

FS

Western Exterior Walls

2 days

Thu 05/23/13

Fri 05/24/13

1

29

FS

Northern and Southern Exterior Walls

4 days

Mon 05/27/13

Thu 05/30/13

1

30

FS

Eastern Exterior Walls

2 days

Fri 05/31/13

Mon 06/03/13

1

31

FS

Windows

2 days

Tue 06/04/13

Wed 06/05/13

1

32

FS

Doors

2 days

Thu 06/06/13

Fri 06/07/13

1

33

FS

Note: FS: Finish-Start. SS: Start-Start

Gantt Chart

The Gantt Chart is as below:

Graph 1: Gantt chart for 4D modeling

Further Discussion on the Gantt Chart

The Gantt chart for the schedule generated is based on the assumptions and requirements. And it is logical, clear, and very flexible to change at any time. Construction sequences were settled down after all the assumptions and requirements discusses in group. The sequences will match the requirements and assumptions mostly and generate Gantt charts in the MS-project. Since Gantt charts is generated and imported into Synchro, construction sequence points of view were first viewed and detected by the designers, any confused step could be adjusted and modified in the Gantt chart then reflected in the 4D modeling. In the Synchro, each component in the same tasks of the model will be assigned to the related duration bar, then the model can automatically reflect the construction process in a visual style.

Contractibility Issues and Improvement Opportunities

In order to achieve a fast-track construction process, the type of contract between contractors and subcontractors still need to be further considered. For instance, a design-build type of contract can be adopted so as to optimize the duration with implementation of the project.

Given the assumptions of the group, the 4D simulation.AVI file is largely matching the images expected after finished the 4D modeling, but not very detailed as the group expected, since only the elementary components constructions were considered at the first beginning. The insulations, the painting and other basic associated tasks were not considered very comprehensively. After adding the associated tasks, amending the assumptions and realized in the 4D modeling, a new 4D simulation AVI file was finally correct.

For further consideration and application in real life, there are many details need improved in the modeling process. Since the software Synchro cannot detect their errors in time scheduling itself. The time scheduling must be modified specifically manually because of its limited in updating itself. Otherwise another new MS-project must be generated then imported Synchro, but the tasks have to reassign to time schedules again. It's a time waste. Additionally, if given more detailed information, we can better manage the material and labor used in the project.

When the model is large, the construction sequences are complex and hard to be detailed. Accompanied with errors, the data for the model is also limited in display in this software. As same as the duration, the database for modeling and durations are also limited. How to solve these problems will be a challenge in future.

For further consideration, if the modeling is large and complex, but the duration is limited in a certain period, it is better to add the number of crews, and making some tasks working together to make sure the duration is shorter. Some structures' construction can be working associated with some decoration works. This can remain us plan a better and shorter duration.

4D modeling in case of change order

In face of change order and modification of the project, basically we can simply add or remove an activity in the MS project and then assign new or remove no longer needed components from the model assignment process. What's more, we can compare our real and planned schedule to determine whether the project is going well and make modification of our strategic time frame.

4d-4 Feature I liked in 4D modeling is the animation part. It is a general model visualization process with respect of the scheduled time frame. Also the general user interface of Naviswork is friendly and easy to get used to. We can do split screens of the model as well as the general Gantt Chart. We can also manage the material and resource of the project.

Benefit and Impediment of 4D modeling

By creating 4D model, the construction teams are presented with a vivid visualization of how the whole construction process can be implemented. For one thing, 4D BIM modeling significantly the clarity over traditional Gantt Chart, which is rather difficult and time consuming to analysis especially for huge and complex project. For another thing, 4D modeling can better simulate the whole process of implementing different construction activities. For instance, people can get a general idea of the location, surrounding environment, transportation condition of the construction site. With these basic concepts in mind, they can make reasonable modification to the construction process to achieve optimal production rate and better balance the triple constraint - cost, scope and time of project construction. Additionally, in face of change order, 4D BIM modeling can enable users to better explore options and make informed decision based on the general model. It also enhances communication and make face-to-face meeting more efficient.

However, 4D BIM modeling is not without its limitation. In a lot cases, design professionals are not used to produce documents based on sequence of different activities. 4D Modeling is still evolving and they tend to stay in their safe zone and do critical path analysis and managing. Moreover, for small to median projects, some people may think 4D modeling is not necessary and it can be fully managed without 4D modeling.

In this sense, for very large and complex projects, 4D modeling is significantly useful to manage all the resources. It combines all the factors together and generates as many options to help make forceful decision. Integrated with time, 4D modeling can better help users to analyze the whole building process. With improved communication and productivity within the group, project can be optimized and reach its best construction profit.

Desired features and wish list for 4D modeling software

Feature I liked in 4D modeling is the animation part. It is a general model visualization process with respect of the scheduled time frame. Also the general user interface of Naviswork is friendly and easy to get used to. We can do split screens of the model as well as the general Gantt Chart. We can also manage the material and resource of the project.

Things can be improved:

We need to firstly divide the project into different components in MS project and then import it from the NavisWork. If facing some changes, we need to go back to MS project and fixed it then reimport to NavisWork.

When assigning the schedule to the model, if the schedule can not to automatically linked to certain component groups in the model which makes assigning a lot of work\

We need to decompose the activity to very tiny parts to smoothly visualize the animation.

No error checking functionality of NavisWork.

When the activities is very detailed, it's hard to represent very activity on certain component of the model

WishList of 4D modeling:

Can automatically decompose a same activity so the animation can be smooth as much as the user wants.

Can do scheduling inside NavisWork or NavisWork can be automatically linked to scheduling software such as MS project. If change is made in MS project, the scheduling in Naviswork change automatically.

Can generate some functionality that can better visualize detailed activities on the same component of the model. For example, can visualize construction the concrete masonry of a wall as well as the insulation and finishing of the wall.

When assigning schedule to the model, the components in the model can be selected as a group

Highlight the most common functionality in 4D modeling software to get a steeper learning curve.

Add some error checking functionality to avoid omission or mistakes.

Clash Detection:

A project model is usually developed in various phases. The model is first split into Architecture, Structure and Mechanical model which form the three basic parts of the construction project. These models are initially developed by the people skilled in their field of expertise in Auto-Desk Revit and then joined together used Revit work space to form the final complete model. But since the individual model are built without consideration of each other model, this final model is prone to have some errors and discrepancies from the actual model which is to be used for project completion. The Clash Detection is done in BIM in order to resolve these clashes or discrepancies.

For the detection of clash in the given model, firstly the architectural and structural Revit model and Mechanical Revit model were combined together using Revit workspace. This combined model, after exporting to required format, was imported into Navisworks which is used for clash detection. So, when the model is first tested for Clashes, 32 Clashes were determined. All the clashes are numbered for future reference as shown below:

Table Clash Specifications

ID

Clash

ID

Clash

ID

Clash

1

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\1.jpg

2

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\2.jpg

3

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\3.jpg

4

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\4.jpg

5

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\5.jpg

6

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\6.jpg

7

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\7.jpg

8

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\8.jpg

9

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\9.jpg

10

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\10.jpg

11

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\11.jpg

12

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\12.png

13

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\13.jpg

14

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\14.jpg

15

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\15.jpg

16

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\16.jpg

17

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\17.jpg

18

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\18.jpg

19

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\19.jpg

20

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\20.jpg

21

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\21.jpg

22

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\22.jpg

23

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\23.jpg

24

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\24.jpg

25

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\25.jpg

26

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\26.jpg

27

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\27.jpg

28

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\28.jpg

29

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\29.jpg

30

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\30.jpg

31

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\31.jpg

32

C:\Users\Avinash\Dropbox\Courses\BIM\BIM project\Initial clashes\32.jpg

Classification of Clashes:

These clashes can be classified into real clash or false clash depending on weather it is due to the components occupying the same space or a due to modeling errors. From the first run of clash detection the clashes which belong to real and false clashes categories are:

Real Clashes: (Clash #) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 19; which are 16 in total

False Clashes: (Clash #) 15, 16, 18, 20 and above; which are 16 in total

Resolving:

In order to resolve the clashes, they were first classified into three different groups based on the type of components involved in the clash. The clashes which involved architectural components are grouped as architectural clashes, and clashes which involved structural components are grouped as structural clashes and components which involved Mechanical clashes are grouped as mechanical clashes. This facilitates the individual groups which are responsible for the each of these components to work on them in their respective models to avoid clashes.

In case of real clashes where more than two components of different types are involved, the clash is classified based on the component which has more flexibility for change in the model and also on the type of component where preference order to changing the components follow, where mechanical components generally being most flexible are followed by architectural and structural components. Then the type of change which be implemented in each of individual models is decided. Some examples of these changes include modifying the layouts of fittings and plumbing in mechanical model, adjusting the wall heights in architectural walls and creating openings for mechanical system in structural and architectural walls which are done in structural and architectural model. The following table shows the summary of the type of clashes and the method which was implemented to resolve them:

Table Clash detection summary

Clash ID

Problem

Components Involved

Method implemented to resolve clash

1

Duct intersects architectural wall

Architecture & MEP

Basic Wall TypeInteriorWall5". Top constraint of wall is "Up to level 2nd floor". Top constraint changed to Unconnected. Unconnected Height changed to 8.337' to avoid duct.

2

Duct intersects architectural wall

Architectural & MEP

This clash was resolved when problem #1 was resolved

3

Duct intersects architectural wall

Architectural & MEP

Opened a hole (1' x 8 1/2") on the architectural wall

4

Duct intersects structural wall

Structural & MEP

Opened a hole (8 3/8" x 10 1/4") on the structural wall

5

Duct intersects structural wall

Structural & MEP

Opened a hole (11 5/8" x 7 5/8") on the structural wall

6

Duct intersects structural wall

Structural & MEP

Moved the duct 1 ' 4 29/32" east to avoid structural wall

7

Duct intersects structural wall

Structural & MEP

Moved the duct 0.48' away from the wall

8

Duct intersects architectural wall

Architectural & MEP

Opened a hole (1' x 10.5") on the architectural wall

9

Duct intersects architectural wall

Architectural & MEP

Opened a hole (1.026' x 0.69') on the architectural wall

10

Duct intersects beam

Structural & MEP

Lowered all ducts (6") to avoid elevation of beams

11

Duct intersects architectural wall

Architectural & MEP

Opened a hole on the architectural wall

12

Beam intersects architectural wall

Architecture & Structural

Architecture wall resized (1.325' shorter) to avoid structural beam

13

Doorframe intersects adjacent architectural wall

Architecture

Doortype changed from 34"x84" to a type that measures 30"x80"

14

Doorframe intersects adjacent architectural wall

Architecture

This clash was resolved when problem #13 was resolved

17

Duct intersects architectural wall

Architectural & MEP

Opened a hole on the architectural wall

18

Doorframe (type Double-FlushDoorWith4') too close to adjacent architectural wall

Architecture

Duplicated doortype; new doortype width edited from 4' to 3'

19

Duct intersects architectural wall

Architectural & MEP

Opened a hole on the architectural wall

15, 16, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32

Duct intersects duct

MEP

Reconnected the ducts and changed the tolerance level value used for clash detection to 0.1

Assessment

Modification Order

For a collaborative work, one of the most important challenges is the coordination of different participants. In order to solve the clashes, the priorities of each part of model should be determined first. For our project, we considered the structural components should be the first priority due to their functionality and construction sequence. Structural walls, beams, and columns are usually the first to construct, which would take the role of constituting the fundamental frame of the building. And the second priority is the architectural components, which are usually constructed right after the structural components. When all of the structural and architectural components are built, the mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems could follow, which is the third priority in our project. When the priorities are determined, all of the participants would modify the model. In general, we can avoid conflicts among various parties involved in the project in deciding the order based on the construction sequence of the project and the ease of installing components of each of the parties.

Clash Identification

The hard and soft clashes which are obtained through the clash detection of the model are differentiated through visual judgment. The hard clashes are comparatively easy to identify since they usually have two different elements involved in them and the clashes whose reason of clash cannot be visually identified might be hard clash or a soft clash. When the later are resolved by decreasing the tolerance level of the model during clash check, then they can be termed as soft clashes while the remaining are the hard clashes.

Construction environment

From our points of view, complex construction environments would benefit most from Navisworks. For the complex projects, the Navisworks could automatically detect the clashes which would save both time and money, because the manual work is avoided when comparing to the traditional way of detecting clashes. However, it should be noticed that the Naviswork is totally based on the model, which means the precision of model would determine the precision of clash detection. Therefore, efforts are necessary in the process of building the model.

Experience

When we were doing the clash detection work, for the features in the Navisworks, automatically clash detection and the measurement tool are the most useful ones, because the automatically clash detection could not only save the time for detecting clashes, but also provide a table listing all of the clashes with the descriptions of each clash. When we got the results, the measurement tool in Navisworks could help us to precisely identify the quantities of errors, so that we can modify our model in the Revit.

For the limitations, Navisworks does not provide a standard or criteria for guiding us how to resolve the errors. Therefore, the modifications are made completely based on our experience, which means the model may have some errors and this type of errors cannot be identified by Navisworks. Another limitation is that it would be more complicated when people from different groups working together, due to the different views for the errors. The third limitation is that the Navisworks does not provide a server with which different groups can synchronize their work, because when different groups are working separately, the combination of each work would usually produce some new conflicts, such as the opening made by structural group cannot match the plumbing made by MEP group. If the Navisworks could provide a server like Revit, then different groups can work in one model and such conflicts can be avoided.

Wishlist features for an ideal clash detection environment.

Table Wishlist

Features

Functions/benefits

Standard

Provide users solutions for resolving the clashes

Connection between Navisworks and Revit

Save time on importing / exporting issues

More Detailed Description for Clashes

Provide the information that how the components are conflicting

Contemporary topics in BIM : BIM and Integrated Project Delivery

Important aspects of BIM and IPD

Traditional construction approach

There are many traditional processes of a project delivery system. A few of them are (http://www.iit.edu/arc/workshops/pdfs/integrated_project_delivery.pdf):

Design-Bid-Build

Design-Bid which sometime referred as Design-Bid-Redesign-Rebid-Build

Design-Build

Construction Manager (CM)-at Risk, or GMP (Guaranteed Maximum Price)

Turnkey Project Delivery

The Design-Bid-Build involves three phases and three prime players namely the owner, architect, and contractor. There are two independent contracts. The first independent contractual relationship is between the owner and architect, another is the contract of the owner and the contractor. This type of project delivery creates a linear sequence of work that the architect and contractor do not have a contractual relationship.

In another type of project delivery system, the Design-Build, which separate the design and construction to two different entities. The Design-Build design expertise may be hired by the contractor if he does not have an in-house team. Since owner assigned the design responsibility to the contractor which means he is fully responsible for that, the Guaranteed Maximum Price (GMP) can be determined.

Each system has their pros and cons. The Design-Bid-Build cons are lengthy process of design, review and redesign, more likely of changes order, and lowest competitive price. Design-Build is the improvement of Design-Bid-Build as it allowed one entity in charge of the design and construction thus reduce the discrepancies, it brings several potential threat to the project. The main concern is who will take care the interest of the owner, and the high potential that owner has to compromise in term of cost and quality.

A summary of the deficiency in traditional processes are:

Project usually hard to be coordinated

Re-design will demand various parties and huge amount of work.

Owner is always at the risk for the architect design and contractor's construction.

Such waste in construction is estimated to not less than 399 billion dollar yearly.

As such the improvement in construction industry especially the construction productivity is crucial through the usage of better tools such as BIM and Integrated Project Delivery (IPD).

Conceptual Approach for Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) & Building Information Modeling (BIM)

BIM may be commonly known as tools which is information rich and collaborates and shares the database, with the main idea to build virtually in 3D before build real.

Users of BIM usually comprise of the owners, contractors, professional like architects and engineers, and it extents to the level of various trades and fabricators.

The key concept of Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) in BIM is to improve project efficiency by creating the opportunity for collaboration in the early stage of pre-design, Schematic-Design (SD), and design-development.

How BIM Differs from Traditional CAD

The traditional system design demonstrates a series of 2D projections, which typically include plans views, elevations views, and sections views, accompanied by 3D drawings for friendly interpretation purpose.

A typical BIM store not just the model but the information of all project participants in a single database. This communication among all professionals and trades with enormous details are meaningful as they are assessing consistent and up-to-date information.

A typical BIM also allows any tiny changes from any participants synchronize with the main model, make possible the changes as an early stage of preliminary design. That is the significant dissimilarity and advantage of BIM compare to the approaches before BIM.

Benefit of IPD using BIM

BIM outperforms the traditional system in too many areas that a few of the significances are:

Friendly for presentation purpose.

BIM is outstanding compares to 2D and 3D CAD drawings. BIM integrates the architect, structural, MEP and other trades into a single MODEL. A non-technical people can understand BIM easily.

Collaborative Outcome

The act of working together and jointly of all disciplines focus on a same single model compare to the traditional approaches which need visualization by imagination..

Predictability in 3D Modeling

The model which can be visualized before the construction allows everyone especially the owner a clear picture of the outcome. The build virtual environment also allows rehearsal, and changes according to financial ability and needs, re-planning and optimization of all design and build.

Limitations

Initial Cost

A BIM software with greater functions is expensive compare to the traditional CAD software. If the company already owns a 2D or 3D CAD drafting software, upgrading the existing software will only cost a small amount of money compare to purchasing BIM.

Cost of Training for New Users

Accordingly there are fundamental differences between BIM and CAD, so new BIM purchasers must consider allocation for training even though their staff are professional CAD users.

Compatibility between Software Platforms

BIM is relative new in the market. In a typical situation, new product such as BIM has the issue of inter-product interoperability with other established software. As BIM is growing rapidly with new and newer version, this issue should be considered until BIM is popular.

Conclusions

There are lots and more ground for us to adopt BIM but only one reason that is the cost factor which hinders its usage. Though integrated Project Delivery can be made by traditional methods, it required highly efficient people who have knowledge in multiple fields to work together, but using BIM reduces the need of having multi-disciplinary skills in individuals responsible for the project delivery. Fewer people having such qualification can handle multiple teams whose knowledge is limited to their own field of expertise to guide them and monitor the progress of project. BIM gains importance in the aspects of life cycle such as in the aspect of asset management, facility management, facility energy conservation, and more we trust to exist but not yet explore, Integrated Project Delivery through BIM can be more improvised to adopt these concepts into a project delivery. Hence this industry shows a tremendous scope for improvement and be assumed to be widely practiced in near future.

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