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Artificial intelligence is making computer programs behave intelligently. It is the ultimate goal of computer programming in many ways. There is an ongoing research to make more intelligent computer that are easy-to-use. Computer programs, over all, are designed for problem solving. Designer should do so, because intelligently is a logical goal. Below will illustrate what it means for intelligently behaved computer program and give some example of uses of intelligent programs.
Recognizing Artificial Intelligence
Most people can give the abstract definition of Intelligence, anyone can look at it in the dictionary. However, the traditional definition of intelligence, like many popular expressions, is too ambiguous, and can be directly and efficiently applied to the computer. It is impossible to describe artificial intelligence, or to measure our progress in this area, without know how the wisdom applies to a computer. Computer science has begun to improve, for artificial intelligence people have developed new goals and purposes, as well as the development of new technology for the realization of these goals. Intelligent systems must not designed to deceive a human judgement. Nor is such a facade necessarily desirable. This may be a better study of artificial intelligence and computer program designed to respond flexibly to unforeseen circumstances. A computer program can produce some delusion of intelligence, if it is plan on doing as a rational response to a large number of possible and impossible case. This is also similar to how we judge human wisdom, a person's ability to solve problems and to cope with a variety of situations. In this case, it dispensable for an intelligent program in the development of the original problem solution.
However, it can be said that a computer program should rationally respond to the case, or that it should be smart enough to respond. Weak artificial intelligence computer program design with added functionality while reducing user intervention intention. Many modern word processor, designed to point out misspelled words or even the user is not required to do so. Some programs will even automatically correct spelling. This is an example of weak AI. A strong artificial intelligence designed computer program, which can be regarded as a self-contained intelligent. The intelligence of these programs is defined in terms of human thinking. Their design philosophy is based on the thinking of the human mind. In this article will be mostly discuss a strong AI ethical issues. However, the most useful applications in the realm of artificial intelligence is weak AI
Applications of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial intelligence is useful in many area, and its coverage is constantly growing. The first step that taken in artificial intelligence development is automated reasoning. Automated reasoning is a convert that takes encoded knowledge from the world as input and provides computed conclusions based on that knowledge as output. Nowadays, automated reasoning has used in video games, air traffic control systems, and the Mars rover. Obviously, the skills needed for these programs is usually natural intelligence. Some things seem very simple, like driving a sand planet's surface. Nevertheless they all have their use, and they represent what we consider to be intelligent agent. The research we stretch the nature limit of computing devices continues to challenge each other to create more intelligent system.
Impact on human society
1. Impact of the artificial intelligence on the economic
Artificial intelligence system has been created considerable economic benefits, example of the expert system is a typical. With computer prices continue to drop, No doubt artificial intelligence technology will be further promoted and generate greater economic benefits. The success of the expert system can bring significant economic benefits for its founders, owners and users.
More economical method to perform tasks without the need for experts with experience, people can greatly reduce labor expenses and training costs. Because of the knowledge in expert system is easy to distribute, so the expert system is able to widely disseminate the expert knowledge and experience, spread the use of a limited number of expensive professional knowledge. If it can be properly protected, the software can last for a long period and complete retention; therefore, the experience of the human experts can be last since then, without the limitations of human expertââ‚¬â„¢s lifetime, which in turn is a great asset. Professionals in the field, such as doctors having difficulty acknowledge the latest practical recommendations (Treatment programs and methods), while the expert system was able to quickly update and save such a proposal, so that end users such as patients benefit from it. Artificial intelligence research has generated and will continue to have a greater impact on various aspects of computer technology. For instance, in the late 1950s, with the development of programing language, the knowledge of symbolic programming structure is becoming the mainstream of programming language, also brings the some advanced programming environment, to adapt to the needs of the artificial intelligence research. AI applications require large among of calculation, which boost the development of parallel processing and application-specific integrated Circuit. Since the algorithm generator and neat data structure has been applied, automatic programming techniques will begin to have a positive impact on software development. All of these new technologies developed in the study of artificial intelligence, boosts the development of computer technology, thereby enabling mankind to create greater economic benefits from computer science.It is on the basis of artificial intelligence, humans may be raised and proceed on intelligent computer systems research.
2. Artificial intelligence co impact on society
Artificial intelligence bring economic benefits to its creators, sellers and users, at the same time, like any new technology, its development will bring a lot of problems, and make some people feel worried or upset. These issues include:
a) Labor employment problems
Artificial intelligence can be used to replace humans for a variety of mental work. For example, expert system can be instead of managers or doctors for decision-making, diagnosis, or treatment of the patient's disease, therefore, this will let some people had to change their type of work, or even unemployment
Applying artificial intelligence in science and technology and engineering field, make people lose the involvement in information processing activities such as planning, diagnosis, understanding and decision-making, and those who have been affected has to change their working field.
b) Changes in the social structure
The one hand, people want to artificial intelligence and intelligent machines can do variety of labor for human, on the other hand, they worried that their development will lead to new social problems. In fact, over the past decade, the social structure is undergoing quietly changing. People and machine, this social structure will soon be replaced by the social structure of people, machine and intelligent machines. Intelligent robots is one type of the intelligent machine.
From a development perspective, a doctor from the hospital, a nurse that take care of patient, attendants in hotels ,restaurants and shops, office secretary, police who directing traffic, even handyman and nanny and so on, will be held by robots. Therefore, people will have to learn to live in harmony with intelligent machines, and making social structure to adapt to this change.
c) Changes in the way of thinking and ideas
Development of artificial intelligenceââ‚¬â„¢s way of thinking as well as changes in the concept, will affect the human way of thinking and traditional concepts and conduct changes. For example, the traditional knowledge generally printed in books, newspapers or magazines, which are fixed. Artificial intelligence system knowledge base of knowledge is constantly revised, expanded and updated. Another example, once the expert system users are beginning to believe that the judgments and decisions made by system of intelligent machines, then they may be reluctant to rack their brains become lazy and lose their sense of responsibility and sensitivity on problem solving. Those students who are over-reliance on calculators, their active thinking ability and computing power will be significantly decreased, and misunderstanding will be increased. When designing and developing an intelligent systems, consideration should be given to the above-mentioned issue, system should try to encourage usersââ‚¬â„¢ initiative in problem solving, let their intelligence to actively participate in the problem solving process.
d) Psychological threat
It is generally believed that only human beings have the perception and spirit, but as with the machine are different. If one day, these people began to believe that the machine is also capable of thinking and creativity, they may all be disappointed, or even feel threatened. They worry that, one day, the artificial intelligence of the intelligent machine will exceed the natural intelligence of human beings, and the human descend to slaves of intelligent machines and intelligent systems. More specifically refers to the concept of the human spirit and the machine and the relationship between artificial intelligence and human, there has been controversy between philosophers, theologians, and other people. In accordance with the view of artificial intelligence, human are likely to use AIs to plan their future. When some people in the community are accepting this new perspective, and others found this new concept is arouses annoyance and cannot be accepted, especially when contrary to the beliefs and ideas of this concept with their beloved.
e) The dangers of technology
The greatest danger of any new technology is nothing than lose control of it, or it falls into the hands of those who seek to take advantage of the new technology against humanity. The invention of gunpowder from China has used by foreigners for bomb-making, chemical science results were used in the manufacture of chemical weapons, biological latest achievements could be a major breakthrough for the manufacture of biological weapons, nuclear physics research led to development of the atomic bomb and the hydrogen bomb. No wonder that some people worry that robots will one day become masters, and enslave their creators - human.
3. AI impact on human culture
AI not only may change the way people think and the traditional concept it may also produce the following positive effects on human culture.
a) Expand human knowledge
In the process of restating our historical knowledge, philosophers, scientists and artificial intelligence scientists have the opportunity to efforts to resolve the vagueness of knowledge as well as to eliminate the inconsistency of knowledge. The results of such efforts, it may lead to certain refinement of knowledge in order to be able to relatively easily infer more interesting new truth. For example, in process of the robot study and learning introduce new method that has formalized and validity of knowledge, including not only the inductive inference, rules formalization and combinations, but also "recognition" and the new method illustrate knowledge of rationality and interpretation of knowledge. It is possible to create a "knowledge refinery", to boost the production of high-quality knowledge database. These institutions can play their role in the commercial, it can also be used for education or government research institutes. If knowledge management can be fully automated, then people can think of such computer network, that are able to produce their own media, improving, trading and changes of knowledge, like the management of commodity or electricity.
b) Improve the human language
The human language is accompanied by the evolution and development of humankind. It plays a crucial role in human intelligence activities. According to the linguistic point of view, the language is an intermedia to express of thinking, the laws of thinking can be studied by using linguistics methods, but the preconscious and the subconscious often "can only be felt, but not explained." As a result of applying the artificial intelligence technology, the comprehensive application of the syntax, semantics and forms of knowledge representation method, we may improve knowledge of natural language, describing knowledge applicable in the form of artificial intelligence. With the principles of artificial intelligence is increasingly widely disseminated, people could use artificial intelligence concepts to describe the current status and the process of solving problems in their life.
c) Improve mental and cultural life
Artificial intelligence technology has inspired many new way for the cultural life of humankind. The existing intellectual consoles will be developed as a means of culture and entertainment with a higher intelligence. Surreal representation of machine vision technology can provide a new method let people to "see", may have a particular image transformation of the corresponding picture, can produce a similar status hallucinations. People have begun to vigorously research on virtual reality technology. Visual system is also able to reconstruct the scene in particular technic of multimedia technology, these technologies. This technology has entered applied research phase, it will surely have a far-reaching impact of communication technology, graphic arts, advertising and social education sector, for example, will change the appearance of television, let people have a more enjoyable living environment. In another example, the rise of electronic publications is causing a new revolution in the publishing industry, electronic newspapers, electronic magazines, electronic books and electronic advertisement has begun to replace traditional books, newspapers and periodicals, and will growing account for a growing share of publishing market.
Impact on Human
Some people worry that artificial intelligence robots and other products that threaten human security. To this end, the famous American science fiction writer Isaac Asimov (I. Asimov) proposed the "three robots Code":
(1) A robot must not harm humans, but also not allow it to stand watch while the human victims.
(2) A robot must obey human beings except where such obedience harmful to humans.
(3) A robot must protect itself from harm, except to protect human or human order it to make sacrifices.
We believe that this "robot three Code" to the entire intelligence machinery, to become "intelligent machines three Code", then human society will be more receptive to intelligent machines and artificial intelligence.
Artificial intelligence technology is an information technology that can pass extremely quickly. We must maintain vigilance to prevent the artificial intelligence technology has been used against human beings and crimes against society (some people call it "smart criminal"). At the same time, human beings have enough wisdom and confidence, able to develop prevention, detection and detection of criminal activities in a variety of intelligent behave.
How will artificial intelligence affect our lives
Application in Warfare
When science and religion may be abused to pursue their own interests, intelligent machines can also be misused. There are all sorts of alert being proposed by others concerning the danger of machines with type of strong artificial intelligence. As the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and ground-based Sword robots already been used by the military, The Pentagon wants to be able to further improve of their robot warriors when they have no being remotely controlled by an operator but by their own sense to determine their actions, including the use of deadly weapon. This raises the anxiety as to what would the intelligent military weapon achieve at this starting stage. Though it can be predicted in the future that, these machines can think beyond human thinking and decision-making ability to make their own decision. In addition to this, these machines may also be independent of the will and the ability to take action, without requiring human intervention. This shows that it can be dangerous, if these machines are abused by humans. A extend use of AI in war is the defending systems that protect warships. The efficiency and effectiveness of these complex systems can be provided, which are far superior to the human beings capability.
However, people should not only blindly fear, we need take a look at these cases, because throughout the history of mankind, some people tried to limit the impact of war among the human. One good example is the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, which was agreed by the Soviet Union and US that boosts the end of the cold war.
Another example, regards to Concerns of the survival of human beings is the "Kyoto Protocol", it is signed by 165 countries as well as to enforce, in order to reduce GHG emissions. Although Australia is not one of the signatories, but may be added to other signatory countries in the near future. Obviously, these measures show that the governments of most countries really care about their future generations.
Impact on Employment
Some people worry that artificial intelligence will allow office automation causes the labor decrease in demand, resulting in unemployment. AI will greatly reduce the people's hard work, compared to we present work, most of us might like to utilize our time for other activities, which may be a basis of boosting enthusiasm of the application of artificial intelligence.Additionally, the world had several decade of extensive industrialization to examine and represent.
It was emphasized that artificial intelligence can increase productivity through the use of automation technology, like electronic and mechanical engineering industries. These industries enjoy of development of the economy in recent years, thereby bringing more employment opportunities. In addition, supporters continue to believe that artificial intelligence, that advanced artificial intelligence technology will not reduce the overall employment figures, but would rather cause substantial changes in work type. This view is quite strange, because these proponents forget the needs of overcoming economic, political and social barriers before such steps.
On the Other side, arguments raised by opponents of AI include, for example, automated factory, they see a rising unemployment in the community. They stressed that no one can compete with these intelligent machines, they have uninterruptible superior accuracy and speed. The ATMs are on good example that preform services, that are bringing away the employment opportunities of many humans.
It seems to be obvious that AI cannot be seen as a major threat to employment in the current world. ââ‚¬Æ’