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Nowadays machine to machine interaction is increasing which do not require interference of human being are in increasing trend to meet booming requirements of data-centric wireless services and its application. In order to support m2m communications mobile cellular network(MCN),wireless sensor network(WSN) and adhoc network(AN) are evolving from heterogeneous network to converged network.In this research paper we will do research and discuss key technical challenges , advantage and disadvantage for the convergence of MCN,WSN & AN. we come up with new idea of MCN act as both sensor nodes and gateways for WSN and AN for converged network. we calculate the performance & our simulation results show that better system permorfance & our simulation results show that better system performance , in terms of throughput ,delay and network lifetime can be achieved in WSN and AN by using interactive optimisation with MCN.
Keyword:Mobile cellular network,wireless sensor network,adhoc network
Apart from conventional communication between human being another emerging technology have been developed called machine to machine(m2m) communication.This emerging technology is very much application oriented used many application such as military application,in collaborative and distributed application,in health sectors etc.According to the problem statement the m2m communication have different designs accordingly.However nodes have less mobility in this technology.In some scenarios we when the nodes is stationary or less mobile can use Tx/Rx antennas inorder to increase its power.
M2M is widely used in many application such as in the field of telemedicine.for example some heart patient wear some instrument that gather information about how the heart is working.Tarffic control another area that can benefited from M2M communication.In business also M2M communication used for security and controlling the inventrory. M2M has a bright future.It is a new technology uses very simple devices and technology.
M2M is easy to implement and implemented through existing technology such as Mobile cellular network(MCN),wireless sensor network(WSN) and Adhoc network.(AN).WSN is advantage for smart application.Its main drawback are low mobility,less coverage and weak nodes,whereas MCN are robust,large coverage and powerfull nodes.And also adhoc network have also good mobility,less coverage area and strong nodes.
MCN act as a backbone network to both WSN and AN network.In hetrogenous network convergence will be advantage to both type of network.MCN will act as control to WSN and AN,increase the performance of both network and provide QoS for WSN and AN,whereas WSN and AN support smart application ,user level interface and real time application.
In early days there is no M2M communication , there is a technology called Telemetry.Telemetry is known as predeseccoer of M2M communication .The major difference between this two is instead using random radio waves for communication M2M uses existing wireless technology for communica-tion.Already many methods have published regarding improvement M2M communication such as Mobile cellular network(MCN) and wireless sensor network(WSN) :towards convergence.In which M2M communication is developed through the convergence of MCN and WSN.We come across a paper which will integrate MCN,WSN and adhoc network(AN ) .In this paper we study the technical challenges regarding in this integration and also study the results of integration.
M2M communication is application oriented technology.It has various application such in Traffic control,Telemedicine ,industrial automation,water resources automationetc.In this technology adhoc net-
work and sensor network nodes collect information and sent to a gateway which is directly connected to a base station ,which controls the data,this is called layered network architecture.In order to do convergence success full we have overcome following technical challenges.
The conventional architecture is a hierarchical achitectecture,all gateteways functions in a dual mode and have both the interface for both MCN and WSN.The sensor nodes and adhoc nodes compromises a data detecting plane and base station (BS) consist of control plane.BS control indirectly WSN and adhoc network through gateway.The gateway collect data from sensor nodes and adhoc nodes send data to BS.This communication use the gateway frequently which decreases the frequency of system .
In new proposed architecture the converged MCN,WSN and adhoc network developed from heirarchcal architecture to flat architecture which decreases signaling exchange between two network.In new converged architecture WSN and adhoc network both can hear downlink directly from MCN.so netwok architecture become flat.Sensor nodes and adhoc nodes directly controlled by BS,which leads to controlling the nodes efficiently.BS can help in find optimized routing path.Due to low range of WSN and adhoc nodes data is still routed through gateway when sent in uplink.
Information related to authorization is relayed through gateway,where gateways are already authorized by BS.The timing is independent in three types of network in a converged environment.so a converged timing scheme should be designed .Hence optimized coordination scheme is should be designed to get better efficiency of network..
The diagram given below is netwok architecture of M2M communication.In this diagram we have hierarchical architecture in left side of picture and proposed design in right side of the diagram.
The main solution of air interface in WSN and Adhoc network is narrow band technologies or spread spectrum transceiver,wheareas different technologies is used by MCN they are UMTS/LTE/Mobile wimax.They are quite different technologies so it is a big challenage in converged network .
The dual mode mobile nodes are the solution,however they also have some disadvantage ie frequently switching in mode while transmitting data from WSN ,AN to BS.OFDM and OFDMA is main technologies used in MCN which is solution for air interface.The system having different bandwidth that share radio resource ,here OFDM is best solution eg. Non-OFDM(NC-OFDM).NC-OFDM is an OFDM is beat for pooling technique.In future when there will be Higher data rate application is to be accomplished through WSN and adhoc network NC-OFDM will become main solution. In NC-OFDM each WSN and AN share a subset of carrier/subcarrier of OFDM.Multiple acess of AN and WSN is implemented in subcarrier.
Converged air interface is always difficult to design.The signal processing capability of three network is different and also bandwidth allocated to three network is different i.e large bandwidth is allocated to MCN while smaller bandwidth is allocated to WSN and adhoc network.some adaptive filter is to designed to aggregate the subcarrier in signal having three different frequencies.
Air interface of converged network
In case of converged MCN,WSN and AN data is gathered from the nodes is routed to BS through gateway.In this scenario data channel between two stack is accomplished to send information.the protocol stack should be highly convergred because network architecture and air interface is highly converged incase of MCN,WSN and AN.In this case data and algorithm are shared to increase the efficiencyin MCN as well as in WSN and AN also.
At the gateway crossMAC is to be designed and up link and downlink need to be designed.In downlink BS manages the entry and exit of WSN ,AN and gateway nodes.For uplink ,BS manages triggering of WSN nodes.In MAC layer of converged network two way allocation is used in scenarios such as heavy traffic in WSN and adhoc nodes.The data and resource request by sensor and adhoc is mapped by gateway to BS.then BS takes decision about those nodes.
In network layer sensor and adhoc choose their gateway nodes through re-selection and re-clustering of nodes.