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1) Greve, et al. (2007) says in their research that there are different levels of perception for immigrants, which causes hurdles for their employment. This was the case in Canada, where the Chinese immigrants face problems; as employers perceive them less competent; therefore immigrants who had high qualifications were having poor jobs that were below their. So the PRC community has to alter the way, used to search for job and providing their information to employers. This in turn depends on the level of awareness they have with regard to the job search methods. In this study there are three primary methods of search which are scrutinized with respect to the employer and the job searcher. Among the three method i.e. social networks, employment agents, and the internet, internet was found to be the best way. This was based on the survey conducted online with large sample of Chinese immigrants amongst which 303 people responded accurately, expert opinion was also taken by conducting formal interviews. The survey results show that the immigrants got better job through internet as compared to those who used other means. Therefore this reveals a possible opportunity to compare the case of immigrants in UK for online job search.
2) Now another research by Munger (2002, pg 276-290), targeted to aware the technical communicators about the latest recruitment practices conducted online. The employers realize the efficiency in terms of cost and effective hiring of workforce through internet. Employers are trying to develop well structured websites with capacity of uploading and maintenance. These job portals are also incorporating keywords for accessing the resumes, including online job applications, online recruitment assessment, even employee referral programs, and affirmative actions are shifted online. These changes are assured as selecting appropriate candidate only through posted resumes were quite costly and ambiguous in the past. This study identifies certain mistakes that the searcher need to be aware for, which are relevant to understanding the employers reservations, protecting one personal information, only utilizing a single job site, not realizing the current strategies employed by employers for online job search. This advocates the importance associated with the level of awareness regarding online job search, which shapes the utility and effectiveness of an online job search portal.
3) A research by Lovic et al. (2006), explains the utilization of expert systems to improve the search engines efficiency in localized implementation. This study provides a guidance with which the performance of the online job search engines can be improved, keeping in view the context in which these search engines are used. A problem that arises is the scope of search engine, is usually limited, similarly in the online job search this can cause a fatal problem, the more scope is broader, the more effective results recruiters can reap. Therefore if a search engine is support with an expert system that encompasses the knowledge of human experience, it can yield better performance; same context is applicable for the online job search engineâ€™s performance. Localized search issues based on the spelling mistakes, query syntax error, synonyms, relevancy issues, and missing content, are also a problem which can be resolved through expert system. The results of the study from survey and feedback revealed that expert system helped the user to attain the required results more effectively. Therefore the awareness issue can be minimized if the online job search engines are supported with expert system; as this will help the job search to find relevant results they are looking for.
4) De Meo et al. (2007) have advocated the use of a multi-agent recommender system backed by Extensible Markup Language (XML) for support of online recruitment services. The utilization of internet as an online recruitment mechanism is based on classical information retrieval system (IR). The employer needs to rethink the usage of IR system as this can generate possible options for the searcher that are irrelevant to his search; leading to inefficiently designed portal. In context of the recommended solution for designing effective search portals this study suggests an agent system based search engine. Agent system is used for each user, and XML is standard language along with the basics of database management system can provide a user friendly site, which can be effective. Therefore the results of the study reveal that the user can get the required results more easily arranged in a hierarchical order. The job search portals if therefore, designed on this pattern are also another means of addressing the low level of awareness among the job searchers. And provide an efficient means of recruitment for the employers.
5) Lee and Brusilovsky (2007) stated in their research different methods for the user to search for a job. Therefore they have suggested the use of a proactive job recommender system; enabling the user to gather multiple open choices for the job. This system is mostly used for information technology related jobs, and it can find and post job options within 24 hours. The targets of this system are either students who are searching for a career in information technology, or already employed people searching for another job. The interface of this system is aimed to meet the needs of the searcher categorizing the search into four categories Most recent Jobs, advance search, recommended jobs, and preferred jobs. This system will provide a comprehensive and user friendly mechanism which can impact the online job search positively.
6) A recent research study explains that employers and potential employees are in search of most compatible employees and jobs respectively. Malinowski et al. (2006) experimented on recommender system which assists customer for a customized product search based on customer preferences. This research focuses on the use of recommender system in finding the best combination between the job and the candidate. For applying this system in recruitment process the researcher identified two important dimensions; first the compatibility between person and the job and second the compatibility between person and the environment. The first dimension refers to the fit between the tasks that a job has and the personâ€™s capabilities to do those tasks. The latter refers to the compatibility between the applicant and the employer; both are very integral dimensions of recruitment. The ultimate focus of the study was on the person job compatibility in online recruitment through applying recommender system in online job search portals. For this purpose a CV recommender is designed which increases the probability of the match between the employers requirement for a particular job. To address the issue of the candidate preferences, researchers designed job recommender which will suggest appropriate jobs to candidate. This system provides us a way through which the candidates and the employers can get appropriate results. This can help in enhancing job portals functionality effectively.
7) Another study by Liteckly et al. (2010), explains a different technique for online recruitment. With the help of web content mining application, researchers developed software. This software extracted job skills from thousands of applications fed in the system. These job skills were categorized on programming, technical, basic, and soft side of business and job demands. On the basis of cluster sampling among the set of different skills which had moderate frequencies of occurrence, 20 job definitions were identified. These job definitions included the job title, job description, and relevant skills. Through this software the demand for the job were identified, rendering the demand for IT job managers at the top. These IT jobs were divided into different clusters like web developers, database developers, software developers, and project analysts. This helps the employees to review their skills and look for development opportunities in light for the demand in the current market. Therefore, job searcher understands latest job trends to meet the labor market needs. This software helps the organization to understand the changes in the jobs description due to the changes in the skills requirement. So the organizations can review their needs for the employees on the basis of the updated skill requirement. This is on the basis of the skills updated by the software.
8) Another study by Maltais (1997), explains that internet can be used as an effective mode of online job search for the employee. However there are several issues associated with online job search. These issues can be categorized as security and complexity of online job search process. But the employee can overcome these problems and effectively search for job by following certain parameters. The potential employees need to increase their visibility over the internet. Also they need to focus on preparing their resume in such a manner that is compatible or rather made in the latest running application software. The resume needs to be structured in proper language. The candidate must utilize specific keywords that reflect the core skills required by the employer. Employees must avoid fatal errors by poorly structuring their resumes which is another cause of decreasing the effectiveness of online job search. To get desired results; employees must submit their resume with online job search sites after noting the clients of the web portal. This helps the employees to get employer of their choice. The employee must be fully aware to protect his or her privacy. Therefore as the online submitted resumes and job applications can be retrieved easily employees must be careful not to submit information that can be use fraudulently. This research provides a substantial number of awareness; that online job search portals can implement to make their recruitment process user friendly and secure. This would put more confidence in the candidates to utilize online job search. Further more the rapid technological advances are increasing the dynamism of online job search; therefore the e recruiters must capitalize on it. The potential candidates must learn the competitiveness of online job search, to get themselves hired effectively.
9) According to Jamil (1996), the advancements in the communication mechanism provides an opportunity to the employers and employees for recruitment. Therefore the employers directly ask potential employees to access on their websites. Many universities capitalized this opportunity, and maintain resumes of their students in online databases; accessed by potential employers. This change was accompanied by many issues which were discussed previously. Some of these issues were resolved in the past and some are still to be resolved. This article helps us to understand the basic concept that was behind emergence of online recruitment. That is to select best possible combination between the employers and employees in search of each other. By saving time, cost, and gaining the synergy yielded by the large pool of candidates generated through online job search portals.
10) Filman (2006) realized the problem which was dropped in the earliest studies, when web browser emerged. These web browsers pleased their creators and not their users. This caused complexity in these web portals which caused them to be less effective, than these portals were supposed to be. This raised an issue of controlling the content of the web browser by the users to remove the unwanted pages, scripts, ads etc. The same case can be applied in the online job search portals. The web browser content controlling can be made effective through Greasemonkey. Greasemonkey is a way through which specific java scripts, HTML can run for different sites or generic for all sites. This allows the user to run and block the content as desirable. The user can go to the target site, repress advertisements, restoring the sessions, preventing the session time outs, changing the fonts size, type, and comparing prices, comparing jobs etc. Greasemonkey scripts can either be run or converted from the older formats of the web contents. This can be an important implication for e recruiters. Thereby providing another dimension that can be undertaken in this research, to decrease the complex and distracting elements arising when employers attract an employee online.
11) Sweeney (2006) tells that one of the reasons that employee still donâ€™t have much confidence in the online recruitment process is of security. The most common security issue that arises is possible identity theft. Identity theft has given birth to different cyber crimes. Through this, criminals can impersonate another person by acquiring his or her identity. This means getting hand on the candidateâ€™s social security number, credit card details, and other factors. As a solution to these severe problems softwares like identity angel were developed to minimize the problems. This software helps to locate and gather the insecure elements embedded in job applications or resumes; submitted online. And notify the candidates to remove such vulnerable information from their applications or resumes. This mechanism can provide a very important element to protect employees and get their confidence. The e-recruiters or the job search portals, incorporate such software in their e-recruitment system or portals respectively. This would yield candidates trust towards the site and its genuine concern about its customers. Also improve the quality of genuine and interested candidates for the employers.
12) A natural language based agent is another way identified by Yang et al. (1997). This system refines the traditional query based system. This is most common method behind the search engine working. To a system which works to solve the user query based on his or her question and not on keywords. These researchers developed an agent called NIAGENT. This agent served as an intelligent agent that can work for the search engines, it identifies and responds relevantly to the queries of the searcher. This agent on the basis of experimentation yields 90% precise results. Also it reduces information overload till 85% that is responsible for irrelevant results, system crashes, or time outs. It can also increase the working of genetic algorithms in solving communicating sequential process (CSP). This system helps to increase the scope of the query. NIGENT provides another dimension which is specific to web search engines. This dimension can be expanded to encompass online job search portals, which can provide accurate results for the employee and employers alike. To address the problems related to level of awareness and technical limitations that affect online job search; this intelligent system can be a solution.
13) Laumer et al (2009) introduces a unique system for the e recruitment process. These processes are based on using online games for the employees to apply for job. Since the usage of internet in the online recruitment different methods have been applied. Starting from job applications, online resume submissions which were considered traditional approaches. Another age of recruiting considered a holistic approach for employer, employee, and job. Now after the advent of virtual gaming online, another dimension is explored. This dimension applies virtual online gaming as a tool to recruit employees. Just like job application, interviews, written tests etc, are tools of recruitment. Search engine marketing based survey reveals that companies are motivated to use online gaming as a recruitment tool. Candidates abilities such as; cognitive and planning, problem solving, are explored. As well as the candidates deductive, analytical, and problem solving competence is judged easily. This helps the employers to identify and select desired candidates. Through online gaming, e-assessment and self assessment of the potential employees are conducted. These assessments provide decision support and recruitment facilitation respectively. Results revealed that this system provides ease, efficiency and effective recruitment. The biggest motivations for employers are quality improvements; cost and time savings, that are expected to arise from the proposed system. These increase perceived usefulness of the system, which increases the intentions of employers to use it as a recruitment tool. This study is exploratory in nature and limited supporting evidence from literature is available. However on the basis of the rigor and quite positive results; employers can add this dimension to their recruitment system. This supports the notion that information technology impact the way online job search is carried out.
14) Kohavi and Roger Longbotham (2007), summarize the positive and negative impacts of online experimentation. These experiments include the way web searching, online job searching was innovated. The Recommendation system, used for personalized or customized searches, expert systems, artificial intelligence based technology etc were explored. These experiments were evaluated on the basis of evaluation, time duration, and analysis. A major drawback behind these experiments was the evaluation criteria. Not single stand evativation tool ather different sets of evaluation tools were used. To assess the impact of these experimentation randomization; to control nuisance factors were used. These included server fleets, representative environment, opt in/opt out, which helped in stabilizing the overall experimentation criteria (OEC). Similarly time duration that was the minimum time required to run an experiment, impact the validity of results. To solve this issue power calculation, overlapping experiments, and concurrent univariate experiments were used. These methods were quite effective in yielding substantial results. The analysis reveals that online experiments are to be conducted in real time and have high failure rate due to new dimensions introduced in them. Bugs, primacy and newness effects, secondary metrics, data cleansing, and falling for features; helps understand certain features of failure and possible solutions. These experiments provide proof for substantial return on investment. This interesting research provides a foundation for us to conduct an online experimentation for our desired model of online job search. This can help us realize generate statistics that are helpful for us to understand the impact of information technology on online job search. Also the impact of level of awareness can be generated.