Analysis Of Routing Protocol Computer Science Essay

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ABSTRACT : The VANET is an next version of mobile ad-hoc network(MANET), Those protocol used in MANET that also applicable for VANET, The earlier VANET communication is discussed only for communication among vehicle using RSU for preventing traffic accident and traffic jam, also used standard 802.11 for VANET model considering mobile nodes of the city environment, In this paper the latest VANET technology 802.11p and construct the vehicular model in which the node are moving outside of the city environment, without using the RSU's and cluster, In network each vehicle acts as a router communicate with neibouring vehicle, The SHM and latest VANET technology 802.11p are used to study the performance of routing protocol, the standard routing protocol of VANET technology is applied to the above model and their characteristics are compaired with the use of NS 2.34 version simulator and result is presented.


1.INTRODUCTION: The wireless network required some source of energy and availability within specified range to form network and hen it start communicating with each other with no wires, Furthermore, these wireless networks are classified as wireless infrastructure and wireless ad-hoc networks. In the fied mode in wireless require firm infrastructure arranged device can start communication with each other. Node are then come in contact of centrally placed bridge or router and send and receive data,

Node do not require any preinstalled setup it directly establish their communication by using services of other co-joined nodes as a router for send and receive data in between node wireless ad-hoc network (Fig 1.2). with the manipulation of WLAN (802.11) standard and its built-in support in various devices of use has introduced the notion of inexpensive and cheap communication models.

This paper is an emerging application of an Ad-Hoc network where vehicle serving as an nodes It is an Ad-Hoc network of vehicle that's why it is Known as 'Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network(VANET)'.

1.1 Problem Statement : Constraine to movement of vehicle on roads is because of different condtion such as speed zones, traffic congestion, road work, etc. Because of these kind of constrain allow vehicles to form a group of cluster among them to manage traffic flow in all direction smoothly, another condition is varying speed of vehicle abrupt move without any notification because of this condition sometime it is not possible for the vehicle to establish the direct link with another vehicle with single hope for that the internetworking between different cluster is needed for making link with vehicle at out of ranged vehicle different routing protocol is involved, the routing protocol are already supported by MANAT but above mention condition is not reliable for this protocol so there is need of some improvement.


2.1 Vehicular Ad-hoc Network : This section covers the fundamental concept and issue in VANET reliability and mobility, It will cover the various mobillity models, traces, and patterns along with available tool.

2.1.1 Mobillity Model and pattern in VANET : According to Chia-Chen(2008), the architectural model for vehicle to vehicle services in an VANET environment has a range of factor, The variable factor because of its multi-Hop delivery mechanism with different network involvement. Therefore, instead of single network, concept of heterogeneous vehicular network (HVN) is introduced. The clusters of VANET with wireless metropolitian area network are incorporated for observing different mobility patterns. The induction of Mobility Pattern Aware Routing Protocol (MPARP) and HVN gave progressive outcomes. Karnadi-2007 discussed a simulation tool for generating rapid mobillity pattern in real world mobillity scenarios of VANET. The tool is known as MOVE (Mobillity model generator for vehicular network) that provide simulation environment for VANET The development of this tool made on top of open source micro traffic simulator SUMO which includes the functionality of map and vehicle movements editing.

2.1.2 Reliabillity and congestion in VANET: The communication mode depend on reliability, congestion formation and their controlling mechanisms, They are discussed in the following literatures.

According to Chen (2007), the performance of TCP in VANET with respect to transmission power of the network is elaborated. It is highlighting, how increase in transmission power can boost the poor performance of TCP in ad hoc networks to the level of improvement. In VANET there are cases mostly within non-safety applications, where on-the-fly internet connective, file sharing, message forwarding, and other likewise communication facilities are desirable. In all of these enforcements, a reliable connectivity via TCP is important. For this purpose, the authors have used SWAN simulator to gather network statistics and then analyze the susceptible of power loss. Their scope of maximum power transmission is limited to the vehicle and the road side access point. According to similar studies, in VANETs, power issues are more manageable via internal vehicle sources.

2.2 Network Layer and Routing Protocol : In This section review of some network layer protocol suitable for routing in the environment of ad hoc networks of vehicles.

2.2.1 Routing protocol in VANET:. It manifests the working of complete forwarding and sharing approaches and is reviewed along with their issues in formation, deployment, and implementations from major studies of the following literatures.

According to Victor (2009) , movements of vehicles are described in the form of distinct clusters, communication within group depend on the wireless range, where source vehicle from a group is unreachable in contact with destination vehicle from other group creates the communication discontinuity. To overcome the problem like these terminations, various routing protocols are employed for continuous communication manageability purposes. Hence, the concept of hopping where destinations achieved by mean of relaying on other intermediate node is used specifically.

2.3 Simulator : This section will be reviewing the important aspect of this research including the parts concerned with the simulation tool.

2.3.1 Network Simulator-2 (NS-2) : The network simulator is an simulation tool used for replicate networking environment and their working and adjoining standards respectively. It work with combination of different tool and language, The backend by default object oriented and scripting languages used by simulator are the „C++‟ and „TCL There are some other tools with NS such as Network Animator (NAM) and Ad-Hockey used for visualization.

2.3.2 Simulation Componant : There are some basic components used by NS for establish different simulation scenarios, such as node,agent and link

2.3.3 Simulation Operations :

The simulation operations performed by the NS-2 can be broadly categorized as follow:

1. Event Scheduler: Event related operation done, For example: Create scheduler(), scheduler event() and start scheduler().

2.Creating Network: In this operation Node with their link and queue operation done. 3.Creating Connection: The actual connection Scheme, Ex: TCP or UDP. 4.Creating Traffic: In this operation traffic flow mentioned, 5.Tracing: Read the NS-2 simulation generated output file display different output result in the form of graph.


3.1 Result Analysis

Table1: Overall Evaluation Matrix

4.CONCLUSTION: In this proportional study of specified routing protocol in VANET environment, certain and realistic approaches of Ad-hoc network are examined. The simple highway model play a vital role in tracing a vehicle tracing in a vehicular network of city and highway, representation of these model along with their variable density levels have generated fraction wise practical result, these result now could be used for the selection of routing protocols for specified domain.

5.FUTURE WORK : The next gradual and continuing approach of future work can be made with the help exponential mapping, 1.Google Maps can be a good start from first to last,this can be a comparises of plans from regional to national and also from national to international road maps and traffic study, these mapping schemes will further lead towords the geographical constraint in between digital and physical scopes, For example, Quality of service(QoS) issues, reliability check,security concerns, and likewise reflection to ponder upon in VANETs.


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and Services, WONS '07.]

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