An Introduction Of Networking Computer Science Essay

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Networking is a grouping of computer hardware, software, cabling, topology and protocol that used jointly to let computer to communicate with one another. The purpose of computer network is to let several computers to exchange a few messages.

A person who build a computer network, base as a network engineer, produce network by brushing the 5 things bring up in the prescribed explanation of network:

Networking hardware is reflect on all the computer boundary or section of equipment that be able to connect to an computer that require to present data processing and relations surrounded by the network. There are some of the basic parts or component of hardware such as:

Routers is a hardware tool, two or more computer a connected or be linked in a computer network to share raw of data between them. Each raw of data contain with address details the is used by the router to make sure that the source the they relocate are at the same network, or the raw of data is transfer network to another.

several router has used in the higher value collection of interconnected network, router helps to transfer information accordingly to the system address required ,as a result the router be able to build up the table to viewing the prefer paths among the two system on the interrelated to network. Router is a networking device that including software and hardware that modified the task of direction-finding and forwarding the information. Router have more then two network interface, were it is a various type network, for example copper cables, fiber cables and wireless or various network standards. Each one network interface contain a small number of computer specific that exchanged electric signals form one to another.

Router will not share a ordinary network address, it is join with more then two logical subnets. Subnet is in the router is not automatically map one-to-one. the subnet have 3 switching that used normally to interchangeably with the routing.

Router can be a direct signal traffic resourcefully, is a communication between any two or more them two protocol; router can be a network topology such as linear bus, star and ring. Router is communicated crossways fiber optic, coaxial and twisted-pair cable.

1.1.2 Concentrators or hubs:

A hubs is a device that offer a central connection cable with servers or workstations. Most commonly a star topology, twisted-pair wire are used, this wire helps to run from the workstation to the central concentrator. Hubs are components of concentrators that can be joining to a number of multiple port card to present the additional access according to the development of the network size.

Some of the hubs are inactive, that let the signal to connect to one computer to another with no changes. Most of the hubs are dynamic, they are apply by electrically intensify to move from one device to other.

Hubs are used go over to enlarge the length of the network. Concentrators or hubs are usually indentified such as 8 port, 12 port, 24 port, RJ-45 ports. Hubs are normally used star topology or ring topology. It will sell according to the particular software for the particular port management. Generally it is installed in the same metal frame that lay up net modems, bridges or routers.

1.1.3 Repeaters:

Repeater is a single with the cable, that credible to drop power. Repeater is a tool that substitute network signal when they going trough. The repeater is processed by the electrically amplify the signal so that they can be given and redistribution it. Repeaters can be disconnected or can be incorporated into hub. The standards or relevant cable are used when the length of the network cable are increased.

The best example of repeaters that is second-hand a local area network, star topology by means of twisted pair cabling in a length of 100 m. Most general relationship is for the workstation to get connected by the twisted- pair cable, this cable are used to multi-port hubs. The hubs are restart the signal that go through that let the total length for cable to network to exceed 100 meter limit

1.1.4 Bridges:

Bridge is a tool that let anyone to segment a big network into 2 parts, more often well-organized network. As an alternative, it depends on the process and examination of the source addresses that get headers unknown location device. When a device has been placed is recorded in a table were the MAC address is stored that need by the broadcasting. The usefulness is limited according to flooding and also used at LAN.

Bridges is same like repeater or hubs, this device are connect to network section at the physical layer, still with bridges the traffic between network is work relatively than the simple rebroadcast to correct the network segment. Bridges always check the traffic information by both side of network and pass the message correctly to the correct location. Bridges are used by different type of cabling or physical topologies; however the network will use the same type of protocol.

1.1.5 Network interface cards:

The network interface cards are give the physical relationship between the network and the computer workstation. NIC is a main reason to formative speed and performance of network. NIC is a faster network cards. There are 3 types of network cards such as Ethernet cards, Local Talk, and Token Ring.

Ethernet cards

Ethernet cards a sold separately from computer. Some of the computer are include but some of them a not. These cards contain coaxial or twisted pair cable that have RJ-45 connection cable. Ethernet cards include with AUI connector. It is used to for twister pair, fiber optical cable and attach coaxial to workstation.

Local Talk Connectors

Local Talk is operating adapter and cable or a cable that connect to printer port such Macintosh (Figure 1. Shows the local talk connecter.). A speak well of weakness is Ethernet attach and run at 10 Mbps but local talk is run only on 230 Kbps only.

Token Ring cards.

Token ring cards seem like to Ethernet cards. The different is the way of connection of the cards. It is frequently they have 9 pin DIN connector to join card to network cable.

1.1.6 File server

File server is position as the heart of the network. File server has larger quantity of RAM and storage space that contains the speediest network interface cards. File server is a combination of hardware including with software application that have to joint. File server helps to manage the message among the nodes at the network. File server is a processor of sending massage to single workstation to a different work station and doing a lot of activity at the same time. File server need a computer that be able to hoard group of information and split the information extremely fast.

1.1.7 Workstations:

Workstations are known as a group of computer that connected to a network. The characteristic of a workstation a group of computer that builds up with interface network cards or network software or suitable cables. Workstation can save the files or information on file server. It will not require hard drives.

1.2 NETWORK SOFTWARE

Network software is more about operating system that developed for a user to manage a computer. The operating system helps to manage the behavior of more than two computer to transversely a network and also helps the network to run or work smoothly. Network operating system is divide into to type of operating system such as, peer-to-peer and client/server.

Peer-to-peer.

This type of operating system tolerate an user to contribute reserve and file situated a computer to access another computer. Peer- to-peer operating system does not have a file server, and all the computer are joined and have the capability to use the network. It is used to small among of local area network.

Client/ server.

This type of operating system tolerates a system to consolidate role and function more than one committed file server. File server the mind of a system, provide a way in security. One computer or workstations or known as clients can admission to possessions that can go to file server. This operating system that offer the computer to put together with all the machinery of the network and tolerate more than one user use at the same time.

This are some of the example of network operating system such as:

Microsoft window 95 or 98

Microsoft window network server

Microsoft window NT station

1.3 NETWORK CABLING

Cable is average throughout that a message is transfer to one network to another. There are many type of cable that usually used with LAN network. One network will use one type of cable but sometime not. A type of cable is choosing according to the network topology and protocol or size. People who want to do network have to understand the uniqueness of variety type of cable an how to select a right cable to develop a network to make sure it developed successfully. There are many type of cable such as:

Unshielded Twisted Pair cable

There are 2 type of twisted pair cable such as shielded and unshielded. Normally a school network will use unshielded cable. This type of cable has 4 pair of wire surrounded by cover, and each of them has twisted per inch to reduce intrusion from bordering pairs or other electrical procedure.

There are 5 type of unshielded twister pair,

Type 1, is used for voice such as telephone wire.

Type 2,is for data to 4 Mbps for local talk.

Type 3, is for data to 10Mbps use fro Ethernet.

Type 4, is for data 20 Mbps use 16Mbps slip ring.

Type 5, is for data to 100Mbps use for fast Ethernet.

The normal connector that used for this cable is RJ-45. This type of connector is a plastic material that looks similar to a telephone connector. RJ cable is a regular rented cable from the telephone production.

1.3.2 Shielded Twisted Pair cable

This type of cable is normally used with electrical interference or radio. The additional shielding makes this type of cable to be quite large. This cable is used at networks with token ring topology.

Coaxial cable

This cable is including with sole copper performer on a midpoint. It has a plastics layer that give filling among the middle performer and braided metal shelter. This cable is complex to deploy , and can hold up better cable length among network tool. There are two type of cable such as wide coaxial and skinny coaxial.

A type of connector are used for this cable is Bayone-Neill-Concelman connector . There are many type of connector such as T-connector, barrel and terminator connector.

Fiber Optic cable

This cable include with center glass core and bordered by more than one layer of defensive material. this cable are used to broadcast the light rather, remove the trouble by the electrical interface. This connection helps a network among the building. Fiber optic cable can send out the signal in a very long distance than twisted pair cable or coaxial cable. It is a very fast cable. This cable helps many type of technology service such as video conferencing and interrelated service.

Fiber optic cable can charge a highly cost, and transport Ethernet signal. The standard connector for fiber optical cable is ST connector.

Wireless LAN

As every one know all the network are connected by cable, most of the network are used wireless. This wireless LANs are normally used at radio signal or also used at light ray to be in touch among the workstation and file server, each one of them have transceiver to transfer and receive data. If the wireless communication extended distance then it will position throughout satellite.

Wireless network are normally used at a building that cannot have connectivity or deployed of any type of cable. This network is extremely costly and need more highly security.

1.4 NETWORK TOPOLOGY

Network topology classified in two way such as physical and logical topology. Physical topology is pattern or a connection of the cable, computer and other type of computer parts. Logical topology is a process that used to transfer information to the workstation or a computer.

Types of topology are such as:

Bus topology

This bus topology is include with the main lope of cable with terminator at the end(such as shown in the figure 2 bus topology). All the file server and workstation are also connecter to the cable. This linear bus topology are used Ethernet and also localtalk network.

The advantages of bus topology are, trouble â€"free to connect to computer, also need not as much of cable length than star topology.

Star topology

This type of topology is designed with node like file server and workstation that linked straight to middle network hub.(figure 3 show the star topology). These topologies always get ahead all the way through the hub then, data before ongoing to the final location. The hub administers and controls all process of the network. The protocols that a normally used is Ethernet or local talk.

The advantages of a star topology are trouble-free to install and wire, the cannot find any trouble when removing the device supplely and simple to identify any errors and eliminate the part at the time.

Ring topology

These devices connected from one to another as a ring or circle. A data have to ask permission from other computer to communicate or to transfer some data. (figure 4 shows the ring topology )

Tree topology

The tree topology is a multiple character of bus and star topology that include with star workstation that linked to bus spinal column cable(figure 5 shows the tree topology).

The advantages of the topology are direct wiring for individual segments, and will support more than one hardware and software.

1.5 NETWORK PROTOCOL

Protocol is place of regulation that the direct process among computer and network. The instruction is included with the principle such as access method, allowed physical topologies , cabling and also the speed of data transform.

The general protocols are such as:

Ethernet

Ethernet normally used to access method that known as CSMA/CD, it is used when all the computer are join to cable before transfer to the network. If the transfer or the network has no problem then only the message will send. If other nodes is using the same transfer on the cable, that system will wait anthill the line is clear. With this Ethernet, usually have impact, but it will not change the speed of the transfer data on the network.

The protocol accept bus, star, and tree topology. This protocol can broadcast by twisted pair, fiber optical or coaxial at rate of 10Mbps.

Local talk

This protocol method is called CSMA/CD, local talk adapter and twisted pair cable used by join the chain of the computer around the serial port. Local talk protocol will not need any extra software, the Macintosh operating system except the organization of peer-to-peer network.

The local talk protocol let bus, star, and tree topology to use with twisted pair cable. The speed of the transfer is only 230Kbps.

Token ring

This protocol is developing by IBM in 1980s. The access method that used are token-passing. A computer is joining to the signal activities around the network from computer to go around to another logical ring. The electronic signal is moved trough out the ring from a computer to another. When a computer does not have any data or information to send, it will automatically go to the next workstation. This protocol need star-wired ring using twisted pair or fiber optic cable, and can control the process speed of 4Mbps or 16 Mbps.

1.5.4 FDDI

FDDI is Fiber Distributed Data Interface; this protocol is used to interconnect more than one LAN network. The access method is used token-passing. FDDI is use with ring protocol topology. The advantages of FDDI are about the speed of transaction of information. This protocol operated by fiber optic cable from 100Mbps.

2. ORGANIZATION CHART

2.1 ORGANIZATION CHART OF ADMITRATION OFFICE

GENERAL MANAGER

ASS. MANAGER

INTERNAL AUDITOR

ASS R & C

MGR

R & C

MANAGER

PARALEGAL

CREDIT

MANAGER

COLLECTION

MANAGER

SNR. MANAGER

CREDIT ADMIN

ACCOUNTANT

ACCOUNTING

MANAGER

DEPUTY GEN.MANAGER

FINANCIAL & INVESTMENT

ASS.HR &LIGEL

MANAGER

HR & LIGEL

MANAGER

TEASURY/FIN

SERV.MGR

COMBIO & REMITTANCE

IT LEAD

NETWORK ADMIN

SECURITY MANAGER

SYSTEM ADMIN

CCTV MANAGER

LEGAL

ADVISOR

2.2 MARKETING ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

PRESIDENT / CEO

VICE PRESIDENT

MARKETING

DIRECTOR

MARKETING

COMMUNICATION

DIRECTOR PARTNESHIP

MARKETING

DIRECTOR MARKETING

SERVICE

PRODUCT MANAGER

SALES & MARKETING

ANALYSIS

COMMUNICATION

COORDINATOR

E=MARKETING

COORDINATOR

PRODUCT MANAGEMENT

MANAGER

REPORT MANAGER

PRODUCTION

SUPERVISOR

ASS. REPORTER

MANAGER TENDER &

SERVICE

MANAGER

EXPORT

SHIPPING

SUPERVISOR

SECURITY

SUPERVISOR

2.3 MANUFACTURING FACTORY ORGANIZATION CHART

MANAGER

GENERAL MANAGER

TEHNICAL MANAGER

SAFETY DEPT

PRODUCTION

MANAGER

SAFETY

MANAGER

PRODUCTION & QUALITY

CONTROLLER (CHIEF)

LABORATORY

OFFICE

OFFICER

MATERIAL

PROCUREMENT

LIQUID TESTING

DEPT

CHEMICAL

DEPT

MANUFACTURING

OFFICER

OFFICER

QUALITY CONTROL

ASS. OFFICER

ASS. OFFICER

STORAGE OF

FINISHED

PRODUCT

DELIVERY OF

FINISHED

PEODUCT

IT DEPT

SYSTEM

ADMIN

SYSTEM MONITOR

MANAGER

SECURITY

MANAGER

WAREHOUSE ORGANIZATION CHART

MANAGER

GENERAL

MANAGER

OVERSEAS

DIRECTOR

LEGAL

ADVISOR

TRANSPORT DEPT

DIRECTOR OF MAINTENANCE

FUNCTIONAL

OPERATION

ADMIN MANAGER

TRANSPORT

MANAGER

MAINTENANCE

SUPERVISOR

RECEIVING

ASSITANT

OFFICER

PICKING

COMPUTER

OPERATOR

SHIPPING

CLERK

EXECUTIVE

SECURITY MANAGER

CARPENTRY

FOREMAN

ELECTRICAL

FOREMAN

CCTV SECURITY

MECHANIC

FOREMAN

PALNNING

FORMAN

SAFETY DEPT

STORE KEEPER

SUPERVISOR

STORE AREA

SUPERVISOR

3. LAYOUT STRUCTURE

3.1 Administration Office layout.

C:\Users\yogeswary\Desktop\projeck\SEM 4\networking ASSM\1.jpg

The IT network connection of administration office

R

IT DEPT

SERVER ROOM

MEETING ROOM

R

RECEPTION

TOILET

REST ROOM

3.2 Marketing office layout

C:\Users\yogeswary\Desktop\projeck\SEM 4\networking ASSM\2.jpg

IT Network connection marketing office

R

MEETING ROOM 1

MEETING ROOM 2

BATHRROM

R

3.3 Manufacturing factory layoutC:\Users\yogeswary\Desktop\projeck\SEM 4\networking ASSM\Untitled-1.jpg

IT Network connection of Manufacturing Factory

BATHROOM

REST ROOM

ROUTTER

PROCESS AREA

3.4 Warehouse layoutC:\Users\yogeswary\Desktop\projeck\SEM 4\networking ASSM\4.jpg

IT network connection of warehouse office

R

4. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE

4.1 complete set up of a 1 unit computer

NO

HARDWARE/SOFTWARE

COST(RM)

1.

Processor Dual Core

RM 380

2.

Motherboards GIGABYTE

RM 400

3.

Hard disk 320GB

RM 380

4.

Ram 2GB

RM180

5.

Casing

RM180

6.

Power Supply

RM120

7.

LCD(monitor) 17”

RM320

8.

Speaker

RM 30

9.

Keyboard/ mouse

RM100

10.

DVD drive

RM180

11.

Window (OS), window 7 premium

RM 300

TOTAL

RM 2390

4.2 Printer

HP Laser Jet P1006 Printer

-1 year warranty

-printer speed up to 16PPM, processer speed 266MHZ, processer type Tensilica

RM450.00

4.3 scanner

Canon LIDE 200(CIS)-4800*4800DPI

RM 435

4.4 Router

Wireless G&N Modem + Router

RM 495

4.5 Laptop Compaq Presario(Q42-188 TX)

RM 1890

TOTAL

COMPUTER

65

RM 143400

SCANNER

8

RM 4380

ROUTETR

7

RM 3479

SERVER

4

RM 16880

LAPTOP

4

RM 7560

PRINTER

12

RM 5400

5. CCTV LAYOUT

5.1 CCTV LAYOUT OF ADMINISTRATION OFFICE.

C:\Users\yogeswary\Desktop\projeck\SEM 4\networking ASSM\1.jpg

CCTV

5.2 CCTV LAYOUT OF MARKETING OFFICE

C:\Users\yogeswary\Desktop\projeck\SEM 4\networking ASSM\2.jpg

CCTV

5.3 CCTV LAYOUT OF MANUFACTURING FACTORY

CCTVC:\Users\yogeswary\Desktop\projeck\SEM 4\networking ASSM\Untitled-1.jpg

5.4 CCTV LAYOUT OF WAREHOUSE

C:\Users\yogeswary\Desktop\projeck\SEM 4\networking ASSM\4.jpg

CCTV PRICE

1

Wired camera series

12 volt 1Amp Adaptor

12 volt 5Amp power supply

RM 18.OO

RM 65.OO

2

W13DDSNV: 1/3"

Sony CCD 420 lines

4.0-9.0mm varifocal

zoom: 203.00

RM 180.OO

3

CR24GHZ: 2.4 ghz 4

channel wired to

wireless converter,

distance of 100-300

meters: 205.00

RM 185.OO

4

SA6008: 8 channel

200/240 FPS, MPEG2,

720x576 resolution,

DVR

network/USB/CDRW/

RM 1500.00

5

W20RCA: 20 meters

RCA audio / video

RM 55.OO

Wired cameras, dvr cards and dvrs: 1 year warranty

Total cost:10,000

TOTAL COST OF :

HARWARE SOFTWARWE

TOTAL

COMPUTER

65

RM 143400

SCANNER

8

RM 4380

ROUTETR

7

RM 3479

SERVER

4

RM 16880

LAPTOP

4

RM 7560

PRINTER

12

RM 5400

TOTAL: RM 181,099.

CCTV SET

Wired camera series

RM 18.OO + RM 65.OO

W13DDSNV: 1/3"

RM 180.OO

CR24GHZ: 2.4 ghz 4

RM 185.OO

DVR

RM1500.00

W20RCA: 20 meters

RM 55.00

TOTAL COST: 10,000

=RM 191,099.00

CONCLUSION

Network is a resource that support a combination of action between a person to a communication with a proper’s for business. Now days people a busy with their own work, it is very difficult to communicated interpersonally. A larger business have to developed with the great implicated in set up a network in particular in linking to people crossway by several department or field

A network id normally when developed will focus on interpersonal network connection, and connected to each other by network. If may be the organizer is not successfully connected it means they did’t not develop the communication method yet.

An organization or business need a good network system, so that they can connect and communicated each other to get information easily just trope internet, network and server. Some company use network with security system , it is just because of safety. And main ten it in a right procedure.

Computer communication is a very important technology in the world, and the larger numbers people are using it. Nothing is without communications now days.

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