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Definition of database is an electronic store of data. Basic terms used to describe a structure of a database as entity, data, attributes, entity set and relationship between entities. Another definition of database is a special kind of software application whose main purposes is to help people, store programs, retrieve information and organizes information. A person, event, place, or item is called entity. The facts that describe an entity are known as data. Each of entity that are described by it characteristics are known as an attributes. All entity set is all related entities that are collected together to form. It set is given a singular name. The database is a collection of entity set. The entities in database are likely to interact with other entities. Relationships are interactions between the entity set. Relationship is a set of related entities, where it is one-to-one, one-to-many and many-to-many.
HardwareIt can be conclude as where DBMS software package such as Microsoft Access, Oracle, SQL Server, Visual Fox Pro and so forth. A user-developed an implemented database or databases includes a data dictionary and also other database objects. Data-entry forms, queries, blocks, and programs is such as a custom applications. Hardware is includes personal computer, minicomputers and mainframes in a network environment. An operating system and a network system is defines as software. This entire element of DBMS is can be mapping Figure 1.
Also known as Microsoft Office Access is one of database that is chosen for countless individual users and small workgroups. Microsoft Access that consists of many features and wizards that enables a small application or prototype to be quickly developed. It is usually and most widely used Relational Database Management Systems for Microsoft Windows environment. It is a typical PC-Based DBMS capable if sorting, retrieval data and storing for a variety of applications. Access provides a Graphical User Interface (GUI) to create tables, queries, reports, forms, and tools to developed customized applications using Microsoft Office macro language or the Microsoft Visual Basic of Applications (VBA) language. It provides programs called Wizards in simplify many of the processes of building a database application by taking user through a series of Q&A dialog boxes. Besides, it also provides Builders in helping user to builds syntactically correct expressions, such as macros and those required in SQL statements.
A user interact Microsoft Access and develops a database application using a numbers of object that as below:
Tables - it means the base tables that make up the database which is to organized into column (called field) and row (called records)
Reports - it allow data in database to be presented in an effective way in a customized printed format.
Forms - it can be used a variety of purposes such as to create a data entry form to enter data into a table
Queries - it allow user to view, analyze, change data in different ways. It can be also stored and used and the sources records of forms, reports and data access pages.
Pages - is a special of Web page designed for working and viewing with data (stored in Microsoft Office Access database or Microsoft SQL Server Database) from the Internet or an intranet. The data access page could also contain data from other source.
Modules - is a collection of VBA declarations and procedures that are stored together as a unit.
Macros - a set of one or more actions each of which performs a particular operation, such as opening a form or printing a report.
SQL is first appeared in a prototype relational database system, System R, which is developed by a team led, Donald Chamberlain in 1974 at IBM San Jose Research Laboratory. They have been developed database language called Structured English QUEry Language, or SEQUEL. SQL is firmly embedded in mathematical logic, especially relational calculus, nonprocedural and fairly English-like query language for databases. The first standard implementation of SQL was dubbed SQL-86 by the International Standards Organization. SQL is a very straightforward language but its elements can be combined to quickly create powerful effects. It can perform maintenance tasks, such as creating new tables, deleting records as well as provide a way to find data in database. SQL is a language with as many dialects are there vendors. Its have many added into their own extensions to the "standard" implementation of SQL.
As Evolution not a revolution, because of the Microsoft also entered the relational database frays some years back with the SQL server database. SQL Server 2008 represents first foray into Microsoft's take on relational database management technology, that provides a nice balance between ease-of-use and powerful capabilities. It helping organization manage any data, any place and at any time. It store data from unstructured documents, semi-structured and structured documents such as images and rich media, directly within the database. SQL Server 2008 delivers a rich set of integrated services that allow do more with data likes search, synchronizing report, querying and analyzing. It provides a trusted, productive and intelligent data platform that enable user to run most demanding mission-critical applications, reduce time and cost of development and management of applications and also deliver actionable insight the entire organization.
It uses Resource Governor in managing concurrent workloads. Microsoft SQL servers 2008 enforce policy compliance consistently across the enterprise with Policy-Based Management. It also reduces storage requirements and increase query performance with data and backup compression.
In Development Productivity, it helps user in Language integrated query (LINQ). Which is a developer use Structured Query Language (SQL) to construct and implement queries. LINQ makes it possible to use .NET programming languages (such as Visual Basic or C#) to issue those queries instead. ADO.NET object services that Microsoft offers Common Language Runtime (CLR) technology to facilitate the interplay between programming languages and the SQL server database engine. It also an additional data types which is SQL Server 2008 supplements its already extensive catalog of data types with several new alternatives including, DATA, TIME, DATETIMEOFFSET, DATETIME2, DATETIME2, GEOMETRY, GEORGAPHY and FILESTREAM.
This Microsoft SQL Server 2008 also has improved integration of disparate components and technologies, as well as consolidating information into centralized data warehouse which both of it become more important to customers over the past few years. This Microsoft SQL Server 2008 address needs by delivers additional capabilities such as star join query optimizations, MERGE SQL statement, change data capture and also persistent lookups.
Microsoft SQL servers 2008 also enhanced the security of all major relational database platforms, by generally led the pack with regard to integrated operating system and database security. SQL Server 2008 builds on this secure foundation with additional improvements as follows:
Enhanced encryption where it's no longer necessary to code applications to work around encryption. It offers full transparent data encryption. With this SQL Server handles all for users.
More sophisticated key management, by encryption solution is only as good as the keys that support it. SQL server includes support third-party key management technologies, offers the administrator a broader range of choices.
Improved auditing makes easier than ever to set up and maintain auditing of SQL Server instance. It can now use Date Definition Language (DDL) statements to simplify these tasks.
Microsoft also has done invested heavily in making SQL Server less of an administrative burden on overstretched professionals that more streamlined administration. Sampling of these advancements such as resource governor, data compression, better mirroring, log impression, automatic page recovery from the mirror and policy-based management.
Key Concepts of SQL Server 2008 taken from the Microsoft philosophy best described as "Your data: Any place, any time". Microsoft's information access strategy in SQL Server includes these other products such as .Net, Visual Basic, BizTalk Server and Office. The relational database marketplace has been mature for several years whereby, established vendors now seek to differentiate themselves on price, degree of the product which integrates with other information-processing technologies. It is reliability when a relational database as the core foundation of a solution, it's essential that users and administrators alike can count on the database server to be running, and any information entrusted to its care to be safely stored and retrieved. SQL Server 2008 also features numerous security-oriented capabilities. Instead, SQL Server also handles all encryption-related tasks for both administrator and also developer. Furthermore, it also supports third-party management solutions as more granular auditing and audit reporting.
Microsoft offers the SQL Server Management Studio to address automation needs of writing and debugging scripts. By using this application it will result one administrator can look an eye on many more servers than ever before. In reporting, by using SQL Server's Reporting Service (SSRS) can offer IT organization a single source for creating, maintaining, and delivering reports on stored information in databases. Which it is integrated with Microsoft Office as well as SharePoint Server 2007 that SSRS can reduce needs of purchase and master third-party report solution.
MICROSOFT SQL SERVER 2008 EXPRESS
These types of database in one of the SQL Server 2008 edition besides Enterprise, Standard, workgroup, compact, developer and also Express edition. This Microsoft SQL 2008 Express edition is a database that offers the simplest and easiest way to use the SQL Server 2008 product family. It's also free to download and redistribute. Malcom, G and Matthers, Alistair has written about this Microsoft SQL 2008 Express. The writes explain it is a free powerful database for web development. Which is create a Web site, frequently need a place to store data. Either data input by visitors, information about products or services, news articles, discussions, or a whole host of other possibilities. Thus most Web sites write data and read to and from a database and that don't seem possible to transform any time soon. Microsoft SQL Server 2008 it's a fully featured database server that scales to the largest sizes, supports highly available and fault-tolerant configurations, and includes top-specification analysis tools. That's great if building a business critical appliance for thousands of simultaneous users, but may be a little over the top for developing a Web site for a small hardware store. in point of fact SQL Server 2008 is available in a number of editions to suit all kinds of scenarios. For developing Web applications, SQL Server 2008 Express Edition is an ideal choice. It provides exactly the same advanced database engine as the other editions of SQL Server, with a few scalability restrictions (it can only make use of a single processor and 1 GB of RAM, and databases are limited to 4GB in size). The database engine is completely compatible with other editions of SQL Server, so even if user or hosted requires the scalability of SQL Server Web, Standard, or Enterprise Edition, any database application you build on SQL Server Express Edition will work unmovable when deployed to the production environment. In particular, that SQL Server 2008 Express matches the features of SQL Server 2008 Web Edition. This is the edition possible to be in use at your hosting provider, so you are unlikely to find you've used a feature that hosted doesn't support.
SQL Server Express Edition is intimately incorporated with Microsoft developer tools such as Visual Studio and Visual Web Developer Express, and it even supports advanced data types such as native XML, spatial data, FILESTREAM data and so on. In reality it's surprising how many features of SQL Server are included in SQL Server Express when consider its most important feature; it's free for both development and deployment.
There are three versions of SQL Server Express Edition that can be chosen from:
SQL Server 2008 Express Edition with Tools. In this version you get the database engine with the SQL Server Management Studio Basic which this tool is all user need to create, edit, and manage databases. Core edition of Express that supports development. Includes SQL Server 2008 Database Engine and SQL Server Management Studio Express.
SQL Server 2008 Express Edition with Advanced Services. In this version user get the engine, the Management Studio, plus Full-text Search for searching text-intensive data, and Reporting Services for creating powerful reports on data. Extends SQL Server 2008 Express with tools to include support for Integrated Full-text Search and Reporting Services
SQL Server 2008 Express Edition (Runtime Only). In this version user only get the database engine. Includes the SQL Database Engine only and is designed for deployments and ISV redistribution.
User can also get the SQL Server Management Studio 2008 Express as a separate download. This might be useful to add where you have the Runtime Only edition, or to install on a separate computer for remote administration.
There are three Editions of SQL Server 2008 Express:
SQL Server 2008 Express with Tools
Core edition of Express that supports development. Includes SQL Server 2008 Database Engine and SQL Server Management Studio Express
SQL Server 2008 Express with Advanced Services
Extends SQL Server 2008 Express with tools to include support for Integrated Full-text Search and Reporting Services
SQL Server 2008 Express (Runtime Only)
Includes the SQL Database Engine only and is designed for deployments and ISV redistribution
ORACLE DATABASE 11G
Oracle Database 11g is available in a choice of editions: Standard Edition One, Standard Edition, and Enterprise Edition. All editions are built using the same common code base, which means your database applications can easily scale from small, single processor servers to clusters of multi-processor servers without changing a line of code. Additional options for enhanced performance, scalability, availability, security and manageability are available with Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition.
In Oracle 11g programming language support PHP, Java & PL/SQL compilers, it also support scalable java which it automatic creation of native Java code by just one parameter for each type with an/off value. It provides a 100% performance boost for Java code, and a 10%-30% for code containing SQL. In Oracle 11g, it can store XML either as CLOB or binary data type. It support query mechanisms for XML includes XQuery, and SQL XML, also emerge standards for querying XML data stored inside table.
Some of the features in oracle 11g is /*+result_cache*/ SQL hint. Where this suggests that the result data will be cached in the data buffers, and not the in-between data blocks that were accessed to acquire the query results. It will cache both SQL and PL/SQL results for super-fast subsequent retrieval. Additional to that, is Automatic Memory Tuning even been introduce in Oracle 9i, but in this version all memory can be tune automatically by setting one parameter and the maximum and minimum thresholds can be set.
MySQL 5.1 is a server that runs multi-user access to a number of databases and also types of relational database management system. This MySQL is a development project that been made source code under GNU General Public Licence.
MySQL stored programs that can be used for several of tasks in addition to traditional application logic:
Triggers that stored programs fire when data modification language (DML) statements are execute. Triggers can enforce business rules and automate denormalization and without requiring application code changes and will take affect for all applications that access the database, including ad hoc SQL.
MySQL event scheduler allowed stored procedure code to be executed at regular intervals. This is a handy for running regular application maintenance tasks, such as archiving and purging.
It stored program language can be used to create functions that can be called from standard SQL. This allows encapsulating complex application calculations in a function and then using that function within SQL calls. It can centralize logic, improve maintainability and, if used carefully, improve performance.
MySQL is the most popular Open Source SQL database management system been developed, distributed, and supported by Sun Microsystems, Inc. At the MySQL Web site a lot of information be provides on the latest MySQL software. MySQL is a database management system that is a structured collection of data. It can be anything from a simple memo list to a picture gallery or the vast amounts of information in a corporate network. To add, access, and process data stored in a computer database, user need a database management system such as MySQL Server. Since computers are very good at handling large amounts of data, while database management systems play a central role in computing, as standalone utilities, or as parts of other applications. MySQL is an also relational database management systems where stores data in separate tables rather than putting all the data in one big storeroom. This adds speed and flexibility. The SQL part of "MySQL" stands for "Structured Query Language."
MySQL software is Open Source. Open Source means that it is possible for anyone to use and modify the software. Anybody can download the MySQL software from the Internet and use it without paying anything. The MySQL software uses the GPL (GNU General Public License), is to define what user may and may not do with the software in different situations. MySQL Server was originally been developed to handle large databases much faster than existing solutions and has been successfully used in highly demanding production environments for a several years. Although under constant development, MySQL Server today offers a rich and useful set of functions. Its connectivity, security, and speed, make MySQL Server highly suited for accessing databases on the Internet. MySQL Server works in client/server or embedded systems. The MySQL Database Software is a client/server system that includes of a multi-threaded SQL server which is supports different backend, several different client programs and libraries, administrative tools, and a wide range of application programming interfaces (APIs). It also provides MySQL Server as an embedded multi-threaded library that you can link into your application to get a smaller, faster, easier-to-manage standalone product. A large amount of contributed MySQL software is available. It is very likely that your favorite application or language supports the MySQL Database Server.
The following are some of the features have been added to MySQL 5.1.
Partitioning as capability enables distributing portions of individual tables across a file system, according to rules which can be set when the table is created. Different portions of a table are stored as separate tables in different locations, but from the user point of view, the partitioned table is still a single table. Syntactically, this been implements a number of new extensions to the CREATE TABLE, ALTER TABLE, and EXPLAIN and SELECT statements. In some cases, this can result in query execution that is an order of magnitude faster than the same query against a non-partitioned version of the same table.
Row-based replication is replication capabilities in MySQL originally were based on propagation of SQL statements from master to slave. This is called statement-based replication. Other basis for replication is available that called row-based replication. Besides of sending SQL statements to the slave, the master writes events to its binary log that indicate how individual table rows are affected.
Plugin API in MySQL 5.1 adds support for a very flexible plugin API that enables loading and unloading of varieties components at runtime, without restarting the server. Even work on this is not finished yet, plugin full-text parsers are a first step in this direction. Which it allows users to implement their own input filter on the indexed text, enabling full-text search capability on arbitrary data such as PDF files or other document formats. A pre-parser full-text plugin performs the actual parsing and extraction of the text and hands it over to the built-in MySQL full-text search.
Event schedulers in MySQL Events are tasks that run according to a schedule. When create an event, user are creating a named database object containing one or more SQL statements to be executed at one or more regular intervals, ending and beginning at a specific date and time.
Server log tables where the server's logging capabilities for these logs are more flexible. Log entries can be written to log files (as before) or to the general_log and slow_log tables in the mysql database. If logging is enabled, either or both destinations can be selected. The --log-output option controls the destination or destinations of log output. Upgrade program. The mysql_upgrade program available as of MySQL 5.1.7 checks all existing tables for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL Server and repairs them if necessary. This program should be able to run for each MySQL upgrade.
MySQL Cluster is now released as a separate product, based on MySQL 5.1 but with the addition of the NDBCLUSTER storage engine. MySQL Cluster releases are identified by a 3-part NDB version number; currently, the MySQL Cluster NDB 6.2 and MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3 release series are available for production use.
Backup of tablespaces. The mysqldump utility now supports an option for dumping tablespaces. Use -Y or --all-tablespaces to enable this functionality.
XML functions with XPath support. ExtractValue() returns the content of a fragment of XML matching a given XPath expression. UpdateXML() replaces the element selected from a fragment of XML by an XPath expression supplied by the user with a second XML fragment (also user-supplied), and returns the modified XML.
DB2 also known as IBM Database 2, has spread to several thousand mainframe shops throughout the world in IBM relational database. DB2 provides systems world with improved systems, easier-to-developed systems, and acceptable performance. IBM also has discovered that deceptively easy and powerful of Relational Database Management System (RDMS) will cause numerous problems.IBM DB2 is a general-purpose relational databases management system which operates under MVS operating systems. Tables to store and organize information is been utilized. Table is a simple concept for user, analysts, and programmers can understand. DB2 consist of a number of tools in manipulating and utilizing tables includes Structured Query Language (SQL), recovery features, query optimization, security, file sharing, operator commands, extensive utilities, and report generator options.
In DB2, table is represented in database, where each row of records consists of columns (data items), and each row in table is the entire same format. Table are stored on DASD is referred to base table. After Data Manipulation Statement (DMS) are issued, systems extracted rows and columns and copy and place into result table. There are part of language SQL in DB2 which is SELECT, UPDATE, INSERT and DELETE. Data Definition Language (DDL) are created and changed DB2 objects. The third part of DB2 is Control Language that provides security and authorization mechanism.
MSV subsystems is a secondary subsystem that can act synchronize and independently with another controlling systems. DB2 is an MSV subsystem that allows DB2 to receive notification of various systems events and perform functions independent of application program. DB2 subsystems communicate with application programs and report generators in easier way using SQL and DB2 utilities. DB2 required operator command START in loading and activating the DB2 subsystem. DB2 subsystem can run a single host computer and many shops have more than one DB2 subsystem running, normally one for testing and one for production. Each of DB2 subsystems is made up of three separate addresses which are Database Address Space (DBAS), System Service Address Space (SSAS) and IMS Resource Lock Mechanism (IRLM).
Utilizing DB2 requires application be run under one of Time Sharing Options (TSO), Customer Information Control-Systems (CICS) or Information Management System (IMS). DB2 also provide an attachment Facility under each of the environments which locates the DB2 system and establishes a line of communication between DB2 and application. DB2 also have some tools which is DB2I, QMF, DBRAD, DBMAUI, DB2PM, and DB2 utilities. DB2I is DB2 Interactive that are a series of panels, written by using dialog manager services which executes under ISPF and provides technical staff with a group of easy-to-use tools. DBRAD as known as Database Relational Application Directory is an on-line tool which serves as a repository of objects used in relational tools supplied by IBM. DBMAUI is a utility that generates DDL, Load Utility, and Control Commands in facilitating moving table within a single DB2 systems and transfer to another DB2 system to other computer systems. Report generation system providing systems, application, and operations personnel with information on DB2 efficiency and performance is DB2 performance Monitor (DB2PM). DB2PM is a primarily batch system. DB2 utilities have two (2) categories that are Standard Utilities and Stand-Alone Utilities. DB2 increased capacities and better price-performance will be provided in the future.
COMPARISON BETWEEN EACH DATABASES SYSTEM
Max DB size
Type of DBMS
Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, BSD, Symbian, Amiga OS, UNIX
GPL or Propriety
php, .Net, C++, Java,
Windows, Linux, UNIX, z/OS¹
512 TB (512 TiB) min
Ms SQL server 2008
Ms SQL server 2008 Express
Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, UNIX,
Unlimited (4 GB * block size per tablespace)
C#, java, C++