Advantages To Implement The Database Environment Computer Science Essay

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There so many advantages of using database management system rather than using file based systems. First advantage of DBMS is reduced data redundancy. By using DBMS, the data that have been saved in the system will not be repeated. When using filed based system , data redundancy will always appear because the human brain have a limit in their mind , human nature can't remember all the data that have been save in the file base system. With the implementation of DBMS in InfoTech College, data redundancy can be reduced, the staff balance miscalculated can be solved. Plus, the director can easily access and control the number of staff applied for leave on certain dates.

Second advantage of DBMS is improved data security. By using DBMS, data that have been saved in the system can be more secured better than using file based system. When using file based system, the security of the data can't be promised because the file that have been saved can easily be stolen or missing. When InfoTech College using DBMS, the security can be improved, because the data can be change only by the administrator and can be access by the administrator and authorized person only.The staff of the college can access for apply form or search data in the system only.

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Third advantage of DBMS is centralized management and control over the data. All controls related to the database are done from a central place. The role of a Database Administrator(DBA) is very important. The DBA creates users and assign privileges to them. The DBA is also responsible for creation, deletion, modification and fine-tuning of the database and all other database maintenance related jobs. DBA of InfoTech College can manage all the data in one system that stores all InfoTech College information. As you can see, InfoTech College has a problem about the staff had their leave balance miscalculated. By using DBMS, the problem can be solve because one person in charge controlling DBMS can manage easily the data that have been stored.

Fourth advantage of DBMS is provides backup and recovery. Centralizing a database provides the schemes such as recovery and backups from the failures including disk crash, power failures, software errors which may help the database to recover from the inconsistent state to the state that existed prior to the occurrence of the failure, though methods are very complex. By using DBMS, if the data of InfoTech is missing, there will be a backup and recovery to support the missing file. This can prevent the missing data from missing permanently and can solve the miscalculated problem if there were thief that stole the missing file and make the miscalculated problem.

P1.2 Specify and explain the suitable DBMS to develop the Leave Management System.

I would like to proposes two DBMS for InfoTech College for develop Leave Management System which are MySQL and Microsoft SQL Server.

MySQL is an open source relational database management system (RDBMS). It is commonly used for database services for other open source applications.

MySQL is compatible with many Operating System(OS) such as Windows, Linux, UNIX, Mac OS and others. In other words, MySQL is suit with any type of computer or laptop.

Plus, administrators may also used stored routines to provide additional security. You may now grant users permission to use specific stored procedures/routines where you previously had to grant wider permissions on the database itself. MySQL uses security based on Access Control Lists (ACLs) for all connections, queries, and other operations that users can attempt to perform. There is also support for SSL-encrypted connections between MySQL clients and servers.MySQL now provides a method for storing authentication credentials encrypted in an option. MySQL now supports stronger encryption for user account passwords.

Features

Description

Thread pooling

The default thread-handling model in MySQL Server executes statements using one thread per client connection. As more clients connect to the server and execute statements, overall performance degrades. The plugin implements a thread pool that increases server performance by efficiently managing statement execution threads for large numbers of client connections. For more information

Multi-core scalability

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Scalability on multi-core CPUs is improved. The trend in hardware development now is toward more cores rather than continued increases in CPU clock speeds, which renders "wait until CPUs get faster" a nonviable means of improving database performance. Instead, it is necessary to make better use of multiple cores to maximally exploit the processing cycles they make available. MySQL takes advantage of features of Symmetric MultiProcessing(SMP) systems and tries to eliminate bottlenecks in MySQL architecture that hinder full use of multiple cores.

Semisynchronous replication

A commit performed on the master side blocks before returning to the session that performed the transaction until at least one slave acknowledges that it has received and logged the events for the transaction.

Build configuration

MySQL releases are now built using CMake rather than the GNU autotools.

Second DBMS that suitable with InfoTech College is Microsoft SQL Server. Microsoft SQL Server can be installed using "setup wizards"; the installer also detects, downloads and installs any required prerequisite updates. These features reduce the complexity of installing the software. Individual components such as Database Services, Analysis Services and Integration Services can be installed separately. SQL Server automatically updates security patches to reduce maintenance costs.

Microsoft SQL Server has transparent data compression and encryption built in. There is no need to modify or change programs to encrypt data. SQL Server has more efficient access control and permission management tools and offers better performance in data collection. SQL Server also integrates with Microsoft Office. It is an efficient way to managing costumer data.

SQL Server has strong authentication and access protection and has better password management features to enforce stronger passwords and frequent changing of passwords. Therefore, costumer data will be more secure from leak to unauthorized user.SQL Server uses Policy-Based Management to detect non-compliance security policies, which allows only authorized personnel access to the database.

Features

Description

AlwaysOn Availability Groups

 This feature takes database mirroring to a whole new level. With AlwaysOn, users will be able to fail over multiple databases in groups instead of individually. Also, secondary copies will be readable, and can be used for database backups. The big win is that your DR environment no longer needs to sit idle

Columnstore Indexes

This is a cool new feature that is completely unique to SQL Server. They are special type of read-only index designed to be use with Data Warehouse queries. Basically, data is grouped and stored in a flat, compressed column index, greatly reducing I/O and memory utilization on large queries

User-Defined Server Roles

 DBAs have always had the ability to create custom database role, but never server wide. For example, if the DBA wanted to give a development team read/write access to every database on a shared server, traditionally the only ways to do it were either manually, or using undocumented procedures. Neither of which were good solutions. Now, the DBA can create a role, which has read/write access on every DB on the server, or any other custom server wide role.

Enhanced Auditing Features

Audit is now available in all editions of SQL Server. Additionally, users can define custom audit specifications to write custom events into the audit log. New filtering features give greater flexibility in choosing which events to write to the log.

I would like to choose MySQL as the suitable DBMS for InfoTech College. The reason is because, MySQL is the open source DBMS that suitable with any operating system. MySQL is a DBMS that not high in cost. After through some comparison and analyze. It has efficient way to restore backup data. This copy can include important parts of the database, such as the control file and data files. A backup is a safeguard against unexpected data loss and application errors. If you lose the original data, then you can reconstruct it by using a backup and recovery, which the most important elements in construct database system. It suitable use for Leave Management System as the database system consist most advance tools used for efficient use. Plus, the MySQL requirement is suitable with the computer in the InfoTech College.

P1.2.1 The impact to the company if they select the DBMS without considering all the items below:

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End User

Use across different platforms

Compatibility

End user

The DBMS must be choose carefully before the company decided to use it. An end user is the person that a software and hardware designed to contrasted with the developers or programmers of the products. In other word it is the person who uses the software after it has been installed or develop. Users in a company may mostly do not know to use the system. In InfoTech College there are 3 category :

Casual user:

Casual user will access the database but may need different information each time. The casual user at InfoTech College is the Director at the college.

For example, the Director of InfoTech College want to enter data about new staff but that director do not know how to use the system because the new system use different language with the previous system. So, the Director need to learn about the new system and this matter will take a long time to understand about how to use the new system.

Sophisticated user:

Sophisticated user is the user who is familiar with the structure of the database and aware of the DBMS. The sophisticated user may use a high-level query language such as SQL to perform the required operations. Example of sophisticated user is IT staff of InfoTech College. The impact that can appear if DBMS is implemented without considering sophisticated user is IT staff would take more time to master a new system if there are no database administrator and it will waste of money and time.

Naive user:

Naïve user is not the professional user. Example of naïve user is cleaner, security guard and staff. Naïve user is unaware of the DBMS. They do not need to know anything about the database or the DBMS. The naïve user only know by entering simple commands or choosing options from a menu. In other words, naïve user only know the simple things about data.

The impact when the database is implemented in InfoTech College without considering the naïve user. The impact is staff will not know what the information that the system needed, the redundancy of data could be happen and error will appears.

Example, staff of InfoTech College want to apply leave using the new system but they do not know how to use it because they have not been trained. The staff should train about the new system to apply leave. So they will not have the problem to apply the leave form in new system.

Use across different platforms

As for used the different platform, its important to consider and choose the suitable platform or operating system (OS). The DBMS must suitable with the OS. Example is Microsoft Access is only suitable with Windows OS, but not suitable with other OS. If Microsoft Access is install in different OS, Microsoft Access will have a problem to run the program.

Compatibility

The most important thing is if the criteria of the computer is not meet. The system will have problem to run. Example, the Oracle used mainframes. Mainframes used high cost and need software and hardware to support their system. The software and hardware used must be compatible with the mainframes if not the system will not work properly in DBMS. If InfoTech College installed Oracle but the computer provided by InfoTech College is not meet the requirement that the system need, the system can't be run and error will appears.

P1.2.1 Identify the importance of DBMS in the following area:

Commercial environments.

Industrial

Compile report with an industrial statistic database

These databases not only for sell industrial goods, but they give other information vital to your business. The database can help by providing information to create technical report. The DBMS is of great importance to the commercial environment as it aids the organization of all the important data needed to run a business or enterprise. It allows the average person and non-computer savvy client to still have great control over all their data and files. It can help with work schedules, payment schemes or customer loyalty schemes. The list is truly endless and is growing by the year.

Use industrial goods databases to purchase industrial equipment

By using industrial goods databases companies can purchase industrial equipment. Now days, industrial equipment can purchase by online. There are many companies industrial databases allow you to view pictures and read descriptions of their industrial goods.

Non-Commercial environments.

Medical

The invention of computer and the software has made it easy to manage the data of all types in the database management system and then having a direct access to data more quickly and easily than the manual system. For example, if you go to your doctor for a routinely checkup, he will have a record of the last time you visited him. This shows that for each patient he will have the same record and this is what the database management system is supposed to do. DBMS help in finding medical information by the various online healthcare database solutions.

Healthcare reference databases to find information on health issues and medical conditions

By using DBMS, you can find reputable information on diseases or drugs or want to research a medical condition. There are many healthcare reference databases to choose from.

Find information about the doctor and the hospital

There are some healthcare informational databases that will help you determine if your doctor or hospital is somebody you can trust.

Find the information of the environment if it safe or not

There are various healthcare informational databases available that will let you see if seemingly harmless chemicals in your environment have known side effects that could put your health at risk.

Educational

In a non-commercial environment databases could be used to maintain registration records. For example a college will have a database with all the students' contacts details. The database will generate a specific id for each student allowing that student to be uniquely identified. When changes need to be made for that student an administrator could perform a simple database query to find the student.

Student enrolment

This dataset consists of data on the distribution of all students. The number of student enrolled refers to the counts of students studying in the beginning of the school/academic year. Each student enrolled in the education programmes covered by the corresponding category is counted once.

Foreign and international student

Usual residents of their country of study or alternatively as students who obtained their prior education in a different country.

New entrants by sex and age

Student that return for study is not a new entrants, but foreign student enrolled for the first time is a new entrants.

Graduates

This dataset consist of data on graduates. Graduates are those who successfully complete an educational programme during the reference year according to the graduation requirements established by each country.

Education personnel

Instructional personnel such as classroom teachers.

Professional support for students such as academic support and social support.

Management school level management and higher level administrative personnel.

Expenditure by funding source

All type of funding source such as government and non-government.

Expenditure by nature and resource.

This dataset consists of data on the distribution of education expenditure by the nature of expenditure and service provider. These expenditure represent the total cost of services provided by each type of institution, without regard to sources of funds.

Students aligned to finance

This datasets consist of data on enrolled students aligned to the coverage of the finance datasets and of student data aligned to the coverage of the personnel dataset. These dataset should be used to compare data enrolled student with expenditure data.

Total population by sex and age

Distribution of the population by country, year, age group and gender.

M1.2 Discuss several factors that need to be considered on DBMS selection that relates to the scenario:

Several factors that I considered about the selection of MySQL as the suitable DBMS to implement in InfoTech College is the requirement specification of the MySQL is the lowers and very suitable with InfoTech College computer that have been supplied. Moreover,

Plus, with the selection of MySQL, InfoTech College has saved their cost because InfoTech College no needed to change new hardware and OS. These are the two factors that I considered why I am choosing MySQL.

Features

Description

Thread pooling

The default thread-handling model in MySQL Server executes statements using one thread per client connection. As more clients connect to the server and execute statements, overall performance degrades. The plugin implements a thread pool that increases server performance by efficiently managing statement execution threads for large numbers of client connections. For more information

Multi-core scalability

Scalability on multi-core CPUs is improved. The trend in hardware development now is toward more cores rather than continued increases in CPU clock speeds, which renders "wait until CPUs get faster" a nonviable means of improving database performance. Instead, it is necessary to make better use of multiple cores to maximally exploit the processing cycles they make available. MySQL takes advantage of features of Symmetric MultiProcessing(SMP) systems and tries to eliminate bottlenecks in MySQL architecture that hinder full use of multiple cores.

Semisynchronous replication

A commit performed on the master side blocks before returning to the session that performed the transaction until at least one slave acknowledges that it has received and logged the events for the transaction.

Build configuration

MySQL releases are now built using CMake rather than the GNU autotools.

Requirement specification :

FreeBSD

FreeBSD 8.x

Intel Pentium, x64 or compatible processors

HP-UX

HP-UX 11i v3 (11.31)

Itanium

Linux

Debian

Debian 6.x with glibc 2.11.x

Debian 5.x

Gentoo

Gentoo release 10.1 with glibc 2.6.x

OpenSuSE

OpenSuSE 11.1 with glibc 2.9.x

Red Hat Enterprise Linux/CentOS

Red Hat Enterprise Linux/CentOS 6.x with glibc 2.12.x

Red Hat Enterprise Linux/CentOS 5.x with glibc 2.5.x

Red Hat Enterprise Linux/CentOS 4.x with a minimum of glibc 2.3.4

Source Mage Linux

Source Mage Linux

SuSE Linux (SLES)

SuSE Linux 11.x with glibc 2.9.x and above

SuSE Linux 10.x with glibc 2.4.x

Ubuntu

Ubuntu 9.x

Ubuntu 8.04

Ubuntu 10.04 LTS

Intel Pentium, x64 or compatible processors

Intel Pentium, x64 or compatible processors

x64

x64

x64

Intel Pentium, x64 or compatible processors

Intel Pentium, x64 or compatible processors

x64

Intel Pentium, x64 or compatible processors

Intel Pentium, x64 or compatible processors

Intel Pentium, x64 or compatible processors

Intel Pentium, x64 or compatible processors

Intel Pentium, x64 or compatible processors

Solaris

Solaris 11.x

Solaris 10.x with a minimum of SunOS (Sparc) Patch 119963-14

Solaris 10.x

x64, Sparc5 (or higher recommended)

Sparc5 or higher recommended

x64

Windows

Windows 2008

Microsoft Windows Server 2008 32-bit and x64 Editions*

Windows 2003

Microsoft Windows Server 2003 32-bit and x64 Editions with a minimum of Service Pack 1

All Windows-compatible processors supported

All Windows-compatible processors supported

M3.1 Discuss the draw back of database approach against the traditional file based system as the impact of not considering the related issues.

Storage Space

If InfoTech College still using traditional based system, they will need large space to placed their cabinet for stored the file data. It will be messy and unorganized. This thing would not happen if InfoTech College using DBMS because, DBMS using a hardware that can be stored so many data and save space. Plus, the data would be organized.

Security

If InfoTech College still using traditional based system, their security cannot be guaranteed. Because the file that have been stored can easily loss and stolen. Plus, there are no protection in about the safety of the file. The file can be burned and it's don't have a backup. This show how disadvantage if InfoTech College still using traditional based system. If InfoTech College using DBMS, these kind of problem will not appear because DBMS has the Firewall to protect the file from being stole. Moreover, DBMS have recovery and backup file in the system.