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Firstly, I would like to thank to Allah for helping me in every aspect to complete this "Leave Management System" assignment. A lot of gratitude to people that are involved in the process of completing this assignment, either directly or indirectly. I would like to thank Puan Nur Akmal Hafizan bt Kamal, my lecturer for Database Design Concept for providing the guideline and motivations for us throughout this time. Without her, we are impossible to finish this assignment.
P1.1 The Advantages Of Implementing The Database Environment In The Company
Traditionally, Infotech College is using file based system to manage their operational data as in the leave application process for the staff. Unfortunately, the system that they had is not efficient because the current system faced with many problem.
The system is not efficient because the leave application process takes about 4 to 5 days to be approved by the college Director, counting from the day the staff fill up the application form. Besides that, the staff had their leave balance miscalculated. Other problem is the director has no control of the number of staff applied for leave on certain dates. Therefore, the use of database will make the leave application process become efficient.
1.1.1 What is Database
Database is collection of organized information that can be easily accessed, managed, and updated. The database is usually stored in computer in many forms such as report, table, text, and graphics to represent information.
Data Redundancy Can Be Reduced
There are many advantages to implement the database environment in the company. The first advantage is data redundancy can be reduced. In the current file based system, data redundancy always happened especially for staff information in the college. For example, data redundancy happened when they are updating their address, phone number. With using database, the staff information can be easily accessed and updated without redundancy because they can search data of a staff in one single file and can update it without creating another file.
Second, the advantage is saving the time. The staff's current leave application process take 4 to 5 days to be approved by the college Director because the Director need to view many files from the staff's application form. It takes a lot of time for director to approve the application form which consist many of paperwork. When database implemented in the company, the duration of leave application process can be reduced which only take 1 or 2 days to be approved by the college Director. It is because the Director can access all of the staff's application form easily in a single file from his or her computer. He or she don't need to hardly find the application form on his or her table that maybe mixed with another paperwork file.
Third, the advantage of database use in the company, is database is more secure. When using current leave application, it can be compromised by the staff or anyone. The file of leave application can be stolen, destroyed or lost. Therefore, by using the database, only the authorized person can access the data. This feature can make the information of staff's leave applications cannot easily stolen, destroyed and lost. It also can be saved from unwanted accident such as fire. Besides that, the database is more secure because it can be password protected and only the authorized staff can access and update the data such as their information, address, phone number, day of leave and other data that is needed in the leave application. In this case, staff can only update their own personel leave application, while the Director can access all of their application form and approved them.
Reduce Information Errors And Increase The Consistency Of Data
Fourth, the advantage of database is it can reduce information updating errors and increase the consistency of data. In the company, staff's leave balance was always miscalculated because it was calculated manually by management. By using the database, this problem can be solved perfectly. The database can automatically calculate the staff's leave balance without any error and there is no more miscalculation.
Fifth, database can reduce cost of company's expenses. By using manual file of leave application, company need to use many of papers for the application form to be filled by the staffs. Furthermore, when use paper, they also need the files to keep all the documents. All of that will affect the cost of the company's expenses. So, when used the database, there are no papers needed anymore for application form, same goes to the files to keep all the documents. Company just need to keep the application database in a computer.
P1.2.1 Suitable DBMS to Develop The Leave Management System
What is Database Management System (DBMS)
Database Management System (DBMS) is a computer software program that is designed to manage all of the databases that are created. It can define, manipulate, retrieve the data in the database. Examples of DBMS is MySQL, Microsoft Access, dBASE, FileMaker, Oracle, SQL Server , RDBMS, Clipper and FoxPro.
MySQL is the most popular Open Source SQL database management system which is developed, distributed and supported by Oracle Corporation. It is very fast reliable and flexible with very high performance, multi-threaded and multi user Relational DBMS. MySQL allow multiple connection to the database. MySQL is also easy to maintain when database grow. On the web, it is one of the most popular relational DBMS. MySQL is free and can run on almost all the platform such as Window, Unix and Mac OS. MySQL provides good speed and is very secure, therefore it is used for the internet application. Furthermore, it was developed to manage the large volumes of data at very high speed to solve the problems of existing solutions. MySQL can be used for variety of application, especially for web application on the internet.
Microsoft Office Access 2010
Microsoft Office Access is the relational database management system that developed by Microsoft that combine the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine with a graphical user interface and software development tools. It is available and supported for many years because Microsoft is well-known software company in this world. It is cheaper to implement and maintain compared to other large database system such as Oracle and SQL Server. Microsoft Access is the most widely used desktop database system in the world.
As conclusion, I would like to proposed that MySQL 5.1 is the suitable DBMS to develop the Leave Management System. It is because MySQL can handle a large number of records with very fast performance compared to Microsoft Access. Besides that, MySQL is easy to maintain when the database is becoming large database compared to Microsoft Access. MySQL allow multiple connection to the database compared to Microsoft Access which only allow one connection to database. When a new user access the database, the old connection from another user will be lost. Lastly, MySQL is free, while Microsoft Office is highly cost to buy it. Therefore, I recommend MySQL is the suitable DBMS for the company to develop Leave Management System.
P1.2.2 Impact To The Company
End users are the person that use the application directly to insert, delete and update the data in database. They can obtain information from the system when required. In InfoTech College, there are 3 categories of end user that will used the Leave Management System which is
NaÃ¯ve user is user that access data using application program that have already installed of developed. They do not need to know the structure of DBMS or its language of the database. They never know how to write programs. In college, these users included the cleaner, safety guard, bus driver, and staff outside the IT Department.
The impact of neglecting them is there will be error in the system or they will put the wrong information in the required information in the application form. It is because, they do not know what of the information that the system needed.
When they do not know about how to use the system, they need to be trained as well. It will involve the cost and time to make them know the use of the system.
Casual End User
Casual User is someone that use the database occasionally, but they need the information every time. In college, casual user of DBMS is the Director.
The impact if not consider the Director is, director will not know how to use that system in order to view all the staff's leave application form and to approved their application form.
Sophisticated users is the users that already familiar with DBMS and it facilities such as the structure of database. They might use high-level of query language such as SQL to perform required operation. In InfoTech College, example of user is the staff from IT Department.
If the college implement DBMS without considering this user, they will take more time to establish themselves to new system.
Use Across Different Platform
It is very important for InfoTech College to consider the platform of operating system. It is because, some of DBMS need to be installed in the appropriate platform to run perfectly without occurring errors. As example, Microsoft Access it the DBMS that can only run in Microsoft Window's operating system only, not in Linux, or Unix operating system. Microsoft cannot be installed on other operating system, because it can't be used totally.
InfoTech College should also consider its compatibility of DBMS to the system requirement of the computer that used by the staff. If not, the DBMS will has problem to run. As example, the system can be accessed by internet with internet browser. Users user different internet browser such as Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, or Mozilla Firefox. Therefore, if the system doesn't compatible with the internet browser that they used, the system cannot be accessed or there will be missing element or information from its exactly system.
P1.3 The Importance of DBMS
1.3.1 Commercial Environment - Industrial
Keep Many Company's Data And Information
Nowadays, many company from Industrial need the database for their company to keep many data and information. For example, industrial database not only keep data about the sale of industrial good, but also keep many data such as employee's personel information, worker's salary information, information of raw material, and technical report.
Generate Report For Company
Besides that, a company need database to generate all report of their company. The report generated from the database that has been created can be used by many person starting from operational worker till the manager of the company.
To Purchase Industrial Good And Material
Industrial database also useful when a company need to buy raw material or industrial good, which the company can buy it through online transaction. It is because, many companies allow users to access their online database for them to view picture and the description provided for their industrial goods.
Expand Business Through Establishing Connection With Other Companies
Lastly, a company can expand their business by using the database. A company can establishes their company with other companies with accessing thousands information such as the industrial goods they provide, addresses of the company, company's phone numbers.
1.3.2 Non Commercial Environment
Provide Information On Reputable Healthcare Reference
In medical, database provide information on reputable healthcare reference. Medical information can easily be found in online database. Users can search about information of diseases, the symptoms of the disease, how to handle the disease, and what to do when users suffered from a disease.
Help To Find Doctor Or Hospital
Besides that, medical database help users to find a doctor or hospital for a general treatment or specific treatment. In some hospital, there are some healthcare informational database that will help the users to determine who's the doctor that they trust or which hospital they want to have their treatment or appointment.
Make Sure Surrounding Area Is Safe And Early Prevention
From medical database, users can make sure their surrounding area is safe. Many database of healthcare informational provide information about chemical in the environment such as the side effect of the chemicals for people's health and how to prevent problems caused by the chemicals. Therefore, users can make early prevention before the problems when they search the healthcare database.
In education, database is important for many aspects. One of them is student enrollment. This database of students enrollment keep the data on the distribution of all students in a certain institution. The data such as student address, IC, course, semester, CGPA, parents details are collected and stored in the student enrollment database. With the database, students information can be easily managed.
Besides that, database is useful in Education Personnel Database. The database comprises instructional personnel such as classroom teachers, teacher aides and teaching assistants. It also comprises profesional support for students such as academic and health support.
M1.2 Factors In Choosing Appropriate DBMS For The System
In choosing appropriate DBMS for Leaving Management System, many aspects must be considered. It is to make sure the system run perfectly and efficiently.
One of the factor is its security features. Security is important for the company in order to keep the database safe and the content of database cannot be compromised by anyone. In Leaving Management System, the system is password protected. That is why we called it security. Only Director are authorized to view all of the staff application form to be approved. The Director also can update all of the personel data of the staff. The staff can only update their own personel detail, not the others and can fill their own leave application form.
Besides that, cost is the measuring factor to develop a system. For a small company, cost become a major problem for them to develop database system. It is not relevant when a small company use high cost for selecting DBMS because it will affect their financial. Therefore, for InfoTech College's Leaving Management System, we need to save the cost for DBMS because we are not a large company. So, the solution is selecting MySQL because it is free and the college can save a lot of cost.
Next, the aspect to be considered is its powerful performance. We need a DBMS that has excellent performance in order to keep Leaving Management System run perfectly and run in high performance. We need a DBMS that can store large database for about 60 staff personel information.
Next factor is the scalability of the system. Scalability related on what we will do when the database will grow. In Leave Management System, the number of staff maybe will be increase. Therefore, the scalability feature is important for this system because we can manage the database of staff easily although the data on the system such as total of staff will increase.