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Robots are mainly used in the medical fields for surgical purposes. Major advantages of robotic surgery are precision, miniaturization, smaller incisions, decreased blood loss, less pain, and quicker healing time. The Da Vinci Surgical System is one of the widely used systems for performing surgery using robots. The surgeon performs surgery by the method of scaling his hand movements in to signals which is given to the da vinci system which inturn performs surgery according to his hand movements. The surgeon uses his surgeon console to watch what is happening inside the body of the patient. In this paper, our proposed idea is the separation of the surgeons console and the robotic arms and keeping them in different places and connecting them by through satellite and 3G technology.
Keywords: - Robotic surgery, Da- Vinci Surgical system, 3G transmission technology
The da Vinci Surgical System is a robotic surgical system made by Intuitive Surgical and designed to facilitate complex surgery using a minimally invasive approach. The system is controlled by a surgeon from a console. It is commonly used for prostatectomy's and increasingly for cardiac valve repair and gynecologic surgical procedures. Whatever may be the operation performed using it, there is a problem still exists, the problem is the patient and the system must be in the same place while performing the surgery, remote surgery is not possible. But in our idea we propose that remote surgery is possible using this system by using 3G live video transmitter and receiver.
II. Da VINCI SURGICAL SYSTEM:
The da Vinci System consists of a surgeon's console that is typically in the same room as the patient and a patient-side cart with four interactive robotic arms controlled from the console. Three of the arms are for tools that hold objects, act as a scalpel, scissors, bovie, or unipolar or dipolar electrocautery instruments. The fourth arm is for an endoscopic camera with two lenses that gives the surgeon full stereoscopic vision from the console.
The surgeon sits at the console and looks through two eye holes at a 3-D image of the procedure, meanwhile maneuvering the arms with two foot pedals and two hand controllers. The da Vinci System scales, filters and translates the surgeon's hand movements into more precise micro-movements of the instruments, which operate through small incisions in the body.
To perform the procedure, the surgeon uses the console's master controls to maneuver the patient-side cart's three or four robotic arms (depending on the model), which secures the instruments and a high-resolution endoscopic camera. The instruments' jointed-wrist design exceeds the natural range of motion of the human hand; motion scaling and tremor reduction further interpret and refine the surgeon's hand movements. The da Vinci System incorporates multiple, redundant safety features designed to minimize opportunities for human error when compared with traditional approaches. At no time is the surgical robot in control or autonomous; it operates on a "Master: Slave" relationship, the surgeon being the "Master" and the robot being the "Slave."
To move the instruments or to reposition the camera, the surgeon simply moves his/her hands. By providing surgeons with superior visualization, enhanced dexterity, greater precision and ergonomic comfort, the da Vinci Surgical System makes it possible for more surgeons to perform minimally invasive procedures involving complex dissection or reconstruction. For the patient, a da Vinci procedure can offer all the potential benefits of a minimally invasive procedure, including less pain, less blood loss and less need for blood transfusions. Moreover, the da Vinci System can enable a shorter hospital stay, a quicker recovery and faster return to normal daily activities.
The da Vinci System has been designed to improve upon conventional laparoscopy, in which the surgeon operates while standing, using hand-held, long-shafted instruments, which have no wrists. With conventional laparoscopy, the surgeon must look up and away from the instruments, to a nearby 2D video monitor to see an image of the target anatomy. The surgeon must also rely on his/her patient-side assistant to position the camera correctly. In contrast, the da Vinci System's ergonomic design allows the surgeon to operate from a seated position at the console, with eyes and hands positioned in line with the instruments. To move the instruments or to reposition the camera, the surgeon simply moves his/her hands.
By providing surgeons with superior visualization, enhanced dexterity, greater precision and ergonomic comfort, the da Vinci Surgical System makes it possible for more surgeons to perform minimally invasive procedures involving complex dissection or reconstruction. For the patient, a da Vinci procedure can offer all the potential benefits of a minimally invasive procedure, including less pain, less blood loss and less need for blood transfusions. Moreover, the da Vinci System can enable a shorter hospital stay, a quicker recovery and faster return to normal daily activities.
The robot costs on average $1.3 million in addition to several hundred thousand dollars of annual maintenance fees. Surgical procedures performed with the robot take longer than traditional ones. Critics have pointed out that hospitals have a hard time recovering the cost and that most clinical data does not support the claim of improved patient outcomes
The da Vinci Surgical System cannot - in any manner - run on its own. This is due to the fact it was not designed as an autonomous system and lacks decision making software, instead it relies on a human operator for all input and performing operations.
III. 3G TECHNOLOGY:
Third generation (3G) technology is the newest and most innovative technology available today. 3G mobile-phones and networks offer high data rates, wide bandwidth and increased capacity, all of which are required to support the new range of mobile-phone services. These include: internet access, multimedia applications, global roaming and access to such services as: sports news, the latest films, video messages, and online gaming.
IV. BACK PACK TRANSMISSION SYSTEM USING COFDM:
The Knapsack Digital Wireless Video Transmitter adopts the latest technologies of COFDM modulation and MPEG-2 image compression that enables good NLOS (Non line-of -sight) transmission with DVD quality video. The transmitter is compact size with power amplifier for longer-range transmission. This system has been widely used in many fields such as: Police Forces, First Responders, Security Services, Fire Services, Port Security, Homeland Security, Traffic Management, Police Technical Support Units, Special Forces, Military Command and Control Posts, Airport, Border Control, Major Incident Support.
V. 4-H PORTABLE RECEIVER:
The 4-CH Portable Receiver is specially designed for multi-channel receiving application. It can receive audio and video from four transmitters (MV2025 series transmitter) at the same time. The whole system adopts the latest technologies of COFDM modulation and MPEG-2 image compression that enables good NLOS (Non line-of -sight) transmission with DVD quality video. And the built-in 4-picture DVR (Maximal capacity is 500GB) can record the real-time audio and video. Users can play back the recorded image any time on the computer. Users can choose the portable mini transmitter (MV2025TTLE) to finish covert mission. The encryption of AES128 bit/ ALLTECH Basic Scrambling ensure the transmission security. The whole system is highly integrated and can realize wireless video transmission in mobile and NLOS (Non line-of-sight) conditions.
VI. SYSTEM FEATURES:
â-†4-CH diversity simultaneous receiving function
â-†High capacity of inset DVR records the real-time audio and video
â-†COFDM modulation, stable transmission.
â-†Real-time audio and video with DVD quality
â-†Transmission security by encryption of AES128 bit/ ALLTECH Basic Scrambling
â-†MPEG-2 video compression
â-†High capacity of Lithium battery for power supply
â-†Modular design and highly integrated
â-†Adjustable working frequency
â-†High strength aluminum enclosure, dustproof, waterproof and shockproof
â-†NLOS (Non line-of-sight) transmission.
The transmission range is more than 30Km in LOS (line-of-sight) condition
â-†Good transmission with high definition video and stereo audio
Fig.3 MV2025 Fig.4 TTLE MV2025RH7/4-JKYZ Portable Mini Transmitter 4-CH Portable Receiver
The 4-CH receiver is portable. Inset lithium battery for the power supply of the system. It is waterproof and shake proof. Users can put it anywhere outside.
VII. VEHICLE MOUNTABLE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM:
The vehicle mountable wireless video transmitter is the ideal solution for establishing rugged wireless video links in all environments including high-speed motion and urban environments. Especially, the latest technologies of COFDM modulation and MPEG-2/MPEG-4 video compression ensure high quality of NLOS (non line-of-sight) transmission. This system is high-powered and can realize longer transmission range with stable, real-time and high definition images. This product can be mounted in a car or helicopter to transmit real-time audio and video to the commanding center.
VIII. PORTABLE RELAY SYSTEM:
The portable repeater is developed with the latest technologies of COFDM modulation and MPEG-2 video compression. This equipment can realize wireless transmission with high definition video and stereo audio. Especially, in the urban and mountainous environments, the portable repeater is the ideal solution for the NLOS (non line-of-sight) transmission. Since its powerful function and it is easy to be carried and installed everywhere, the repeater has many application fields such as: Broadcasting, Military, Public Security, Forest Fire Prevention, Firefighting, Oil and Gas Industries, Traffic Police, Disaster Management, Railway.
IX. COMMUNICATION SATELLITES:
A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to COMSAT) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications. Modern communications satellites use a variety of orbits including geostationary orbits, Molniya orbits, other elliptical orbits and low (polar and non-polar) Earth orbits.
For fixed (point-to-point) services, communications satellites provide a microwave radio relay technology complementary to that of submarine communication cables. They are also used for mobile applications such as communications to ships, vehicles, planes and hand-held terminals, and for TV and radio broadcasting, for which application of other technologies, such as cable, is impractical or impossible.
X. PROPOSED IDEA:
These systems if used in the da Vinci system to receive the live video data from the robotic arm which is carrying camera and convert it in to appropriate signals and transmit it through 3G live video transmission technology.
If the robotic arm setup is in one place and the surgeon console is in other place then the surgery is possible by using this system. Let us consider that the patient is in India and the Surgeon is in America. The robotic arms are with the patient and the surgeon console is with the surgeon, here the robotic arm which is having camera is connected to the Back pack video transmission system or MV 2025 TTLE portable mini transmitter system. These systems transmit the live video data which are obtained from the robotic arm which is carrying camera. There in America the surgeons console is connected with the MV 2025 RH7/4-JKYZ 4-H portable receiver which simultaneously receives the data from the transmitter and shows him through the console.
Similarly his hand movements are scaled and converted in to appropriate digital signals and transmitted through a 3G transmitter
and it is then received there by the robotic arms by using a receiver and thus the operation is performed.
If Vehicle mountable transmission system is used, then these surgeries can be performed in the Ambulance or mobile van itself.
To get continuous signals we go for satellites for transmission and reception of data.
If the above system is possible and comes in to existence then the robotic remote surgery becomes more compact and there is no need for traveling abroad for the treatment purposes. The advantages of this system are highly compactable, reduces traveling expenses, more precision and accuracy in performing surgery etc.,