Ad Hoc Network The Nodes Computer Science Essay

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new metric which consider as the stability of the paths by taking three parameters viz affinity, available bandwidth and battery level in routing decisions. It also maintains multipath to achieve load sharing. The routing table in AODV, maintains only one route to specified node, therefore the source node needs to reinitiate route discovery process as a route fails. Luo Chao & Liping‟an [6] presented an improved method, each source will maintain backup routes, when the primary route fails the source node will use the backup route to send packets, which improves the packet delivery ratio and end to end delay. According to different route selection mechanism, energy based routing algorithm can be categories as, minimum total energy consumption which select the route with minimum total energy consumption between source to destination, In which some nodes taking part in transmission may run out of power and leads the partition of networks. Another is maximizing network lifetime algorithm, it establish the route by avoiding the lower

energy node so that it can balance the energy consumption of nodes and enhance the lifetime of networks. The final is mixed optimizing routing algorithm which mix the above two categories.

Yonghui Chen [7] proposed energy saving routing protocol named EEAODV based on AODV. In routing discovery process source node consider the remaining energy of intermediate nodes and also consider the influence of these nodes, which may cause route changed. In [8] the authors have given an effective scheme to balance the node in network. This new scheme can be

applied in most On-demand routing protocols, It is implement in the process of route request, when RREQs packets are flooded to establish routes, only the qualified nodes, which have a

potential to serve as intermediate forwarding nodes will respond to these packets. So that the established path will not be very congested and traffic load will be distributed evenly in the network it also considers a threshold value, which is used to judge whether intermediate node is overloaded, is variable and changing along the nodes interface queue occupancy around the backward path. Most of ad-hoc routing protocols do not consider contention time, occurs in medium reservation procedure. Long contention times can be more critical than hop counts in determining the end to end delay. Some mobile nodes may lead to long queuing delays, low packet delivery ratio and inefficient power consumption. Bong Chan Kim[9] proposed routing protocol with minimum contention time and load balancing (MCL). This protocol has two main functions, MCL selects a route with minimum contention among many possible routes in the route selection procedure and secondly intermediate nodes do not reply to RREQs in the route discovery procedure. MCL outperforms in term of packet delivery ratio, average end to end delay, and normalized routing overhead. Unbalanced traffic may lead to more delay, packet dropping and decreasing packet delivery ratio and unbalanced energy consumption leads to node

failure, network partitioning, and decrease route reliability. In [10] authors suggested an approach to improve the performance of routing protocols with respect to, traffic balance energy consumption balance, end to end delay and route reliability. In [12] the author presented a protocol with an improved route discovery mechanism that avoids the congestion by selecting a route on the basis of traffic load and resets path as topology changes, new efficient paths are discovered from time to time. during transmission. It is an efficient technique for transmission that requires a link for longer period of time. Author in [13] suggested an energy efficient Ad-hoc On-demand routing(EEAODR) algorithm that balances energy load so that a minimum energy level is maintained among nodes and the network lifetime is increased by distributing energy consumption in the network.

[14]AODV based Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Maximum Lifetime in MANET

Jin-Man Kim, Jong-Wook Jang

Dept. of Computer Engineering, Dong-Eui University,

995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan, Korea

[email protected], [email protected]

Battery power is a limited and precious resource in MANET, and it is expected that battery technology is not likely to growing as fast as computing and communication technologies do. Hence, extend the lifetime of batteries is an important issue, especially for MANET, which is totally supported by batteries. Based on this observation Jin-Man Kim [14] proposed enhanced AODV (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector) routing protocol which is modified to improve the networks lifetime in MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Network).They make a improvement for the AODV protocol is to maximize the networks lifetime by applying an Energy Mean Value algorithm which caring node energy-aware. Also amplify the entire network lifetime through the delaying method of RREQ flooding by considering the node's energy state & the entire node's Energy Mean Value. They attempted to extend the entire network lifetime by adjusting RREQ delay time according to the data acquired from comparison between node's energy states and the entire network's Energy Mean Value.

[21]A Routing Protocol with Energy and Traffic Balance Awareness in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Yang Qin, Y.Y. Wen, H.Y. Ang

Choon Lim Gwee 2007 IEEE

Yang Qin[21] propose a routing scheme which considered power conservation, shortest path and traffic load balancing, named power and traffic balance awareness paths selection routing scheme ( PTPSR ). In this routing scheme, they considered both the shortest path and the power conservation in an unified way. They define an energy factor as the ratio of the remaining energy over the initial energy of a node. They use the products of the energy factors of all the nodes along different paths as the selection criteria. They compare the PTPSR with other routing protocols, e.g., ad hoc on demand multi-path distance vector (AOMDV). In future work, They will try to incorporate other energy conservation techniques, such as switching nodes with low energy levels to listening mode where nodes are able to receive data but not transmit, into their protocol. This will be helpful to get maximized lifetime for the network.

A routing protocol that does not take into account of

traffic load balance will result in usage of paths that are

already heavy in traffic load. It will add more burdens on the

energy consumption to these paths and indirectly lead to

imbalanced energy consumption of the whole network. The

nodes in a high traffic load path will 'die' off faster than nodes

in paths that have lower traffic load. Thus load awareness

routing provides not only a lower end-to-end delay, but also

indirectly leads to more efficient energy distribution routing.

[7] Y. Xu, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, "Adaptive energy-conserving

routing for multihop ad hoc networks", in TR-2000-527. 2000.

Minimum Total Transmission Power Routing (MTPR) is discussed in [7]. The minimum transmission power is dependent on interference noise distance between hosts, and desired bit error rate. LEAR-AODV, PAR-AODV, and LPRAODV have been proposed to consider the energy efficiency in routing in [8]. In LEAR-AODV, each mobile node relies on local information about the remaining battery level to decide whether to participate in the selection process of a routing path or not. An energy-hungry node can conserve its battery power by not forwarding data packets on behalf of others. PAR_AODV tried to minimize the cost of function based on the sum of the energy consume. In LPR_AODV, This protocol favors the route with maximum lifetime, i.e. the route that does not contain nodes with a weak predicted lifetime.

[22]Performance Analysis of AODV, AODVUU, AOMDV and RAODV over IEEE

802.15.4 in Wireless Sensor Networks

Gowrishankar.S, SubirKumarSarkar

T.G.Basavaraju 2009 IEEE

In [22] the authors focus on the performance study of four routing protocols, namely AODV, AODVUU, RAODV and AOMDV. These protocols are from AODV family, as all these protocols consider AODV as the base routing protocol upon which these protocols are improved. They investigated whether a multiple path algorithm like AOMDV would result in more data delivery as compared to single path solutions like AODV in a sensor network. Also, checked the reverse route discovery mechanisms engaged in RAODV for a sensor network. They also compare the performance of all these four routing protocols, namely AODV, AODVUU, AOMDV and RAODV under various network scenarios. These protocols from a sensor network point of view by widely using various performance metrics like packet delivery ratio, average network delay, network throughput and normalized routing load. They reveal that AOMDV and RAODV show good performance when compared to AODV in an ad hoc network environment, same cannot be said when the routing protocols are applied for a sensor network. A finer design does not guarantee a big boost in the performance in a different environment as they discuss in their paper. They also suggest that instead of using the default AODV routing protocol that comes with NS-2 for simulation purpose to use the AODVUU implementation for a ZigBee/802.15.4 standard scenario. Their future work includes designing a new routing protocol that takes in to consideration the various challenges under which a routing protocol has to work in a unique and challenging sensor environment.

[23]Load Balanced DSR Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Vahid Nazari Talooki†, Jonathan Rodriguez¥ Instituto de Telecomunicações, Aveiro, Portugal

In [23] they improved the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol to Load Balanced DSR (LBDSR) protocol. In this paper modified control messages in DSR in order to maintain remained energy of intermediate nodes. Routes discovered by these modified control messages, have a remained energy array field which demonstrates total of remained battery power of all nodes in a route. Selecting a route is depending on length, freshness, traffic and energy level of routes. Author's protocol shows better traffic balancing, energy consumptions balancing, and end-to-end delay metrics than DSR and can be customized to achieve even better performance related to a specific metric. LBDSR modified control packets, route tables, and route selection method in DSR protocol to achieves a higher performance in load balancing. The proposed approach can apply to many of the current routing protocols especially, on the other important reactive protocol namely, AODV.

[24]Load Balancing and Route Stability in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks base on AODV Protocol

Mehdi EffatParvar 1, MohammadReza EffatParvar 2, Amir Darehshoorzadeh 3, Mehdi Zarei4,

Nasser Yazdani5 2010IEEE

In this paper [24], Authors proposed two methods for improve the AODV protocol. A new multipath routing protocol that uses all discovered path in chorus for transmitting data, by using this approach data packets are balanced over discovered paths and energy consumption is distributed across many nodes through network. Also authors proposed a stability evaluation method and applied that in an optimized version of ad hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) routing algorithm by doing some modification at RAODV algorithm. They proposed an algorithm namely Modified Reverse Ad Hoc On-demand Vector (MRAODV), the route request packet have no change and it is same as AODV, but rout reply packet changed for route stability estimation purpose. Authors applied link stability in RAODV for decrease overhead of discovery and maintenance of routing, and increased the packet delivery ratio in mobile ad hoc networks. Authors introduced a new multipath routing that discovered paths simultaneously; this technique applied to AODV and evaluated via several simulations scenarios. Results show that our protocol have better packet delivery ratio in compare of AODV and AOMDV, also the energy consumption is distributed across many nodes that cases the network life time in LBAODV is better than AODV and AOMDV. In future they are going to observe their work over other routing protocols such as DSR and evaluate its performance with different scenarios. Also this paper presented a new protocol for mobile ad hoc networks based on link stability and reverse packet transmission. Authors changed RAODV routing algorithm and made an optimized version of AODV. New method shows good performance in some ways. In MRAODV they changed route replay packet configuration of RAODV and named it RRREQ. These packets should be transmitted to destination node for building multiple routes.

[25]Tree Based Energy Efficient and Congestion Aware Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Amir Hossein Mohajerzadeh,

Mohammad Hossien Yaghmaee,

Zahra Eskandari 2008 IEEE

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have inherent and distinctive characteristics. One of the most important issues is their energy constraint. Energy aware routing protocol is very important in WSN, but routing protocol which simply considers energy has not efficient performance. Congestion management can affect routing protocol performance. Congestion occurrence in network nodes leads to increasing packet loss and energy consumption. Another parameter which affects routing protocol efficiency is performing fairness in nodes energy consumption. When fairness is not considered in routing process, network will be partitioned very soon and then the network performance will be decreased. In this paper a Hierarchical Tree based Energy efficient and Congestion aware Routing Protocol (HTECRP) is proposed. The proposed protocol is an energy efficient routing one which tries to manage congestion and perform fairness in network. Simulation results shown in this paper imply that the HTECRP has achieved its goals.

In this paper, we presented a new hierarchical energy efficient routing protocol for sensor networks which considers congestion management. Routing protocol divides network into many clusters, then using Dijkstra algorithm constructs a routing tree for each cluster. In routing tree, most number of children for cluster nodes is determined. Proposed protocol using routing tree and node's neighbors average queue length as a parameter manages congestion. The effectiveness of the protocol is validated by simulation. Simulation results show that our protocol achieved its goals. Proposed protocol considers only intra cluster routing; we are currently extending the protocol to perform routing inter clusters.

Energy-efficient SPEED Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Mohammad Sadegh Kordafshari, Azadeh Pourkabirian, Karim Faez, Ali Movaghar Rahimabadi 2009 IEEE

DOI 10.1109/AICT.2009.52

In this paper, we propose an approach for routing in SPEED protocol considering residual energy in routing decisions. Due to the limited energy of a sensor node, energyefficient routing is a very important issue in sensor networks. This approach finds energy-efficient paths for delayconstrained data in real-time traffic. The SPEED protocol does not consider any energy metric in its routing. In our approach, routing is based on a weight function, which is a combination of the three factors: Delay, Energy & Speed. Here, the node with the greatest value in the weight function is to be selected as the next hop forwarding. We increase the network lifetime by considering energy metric in routing decisions. This method aims to construct a nearly stateless routing protocol, which can be used to route data based on the nodes' residual energy. Simulation results demonstrate that the new scheme improves network lifetime about 15% longer than the traditional SPEED protocol.

In this paper, we proposed an algorithm for routing in the SPEED protocol that concentrates on energy-efficient routing. In this algorithm, the idea is to combine the cost and metric the quality of service metric on nodes to select the path by considering the three parameters of Delay, Energy and Speed. Simulation results and a comparison of this algorithm with the SPEED protocol represent that distributing energy consumption on nodes in routing will protect the nodes with less energy and prevents from a fast destruction. This, directly, causes the network lifetime to increase. However, a problem should be considered in the SPEED protocol, furthermore: How can we guarantee the successful delivery of the data packets in such a randomly distributed sensor network? For instance, in an extreme case where the sink node happens to be a set in an isolated place, how can we deliver the data packets?

An Energy Efficient Flat Routing Protocol for

Wireless Ad hoc Networks

Vahid Nazari Talooki, Hugo Marques, Jonathan

Rodriguez, Hugo Água, Nelson Blanco, Luís Campos 2010 IEEE

In ad hoc networks some nodes can became a critical spot in the network because they support packet forwarding for most of their neighbours. Critical nodes would consume more energy due to the extra load and deplete battery sooner. These unfairly burdened nodes will lead to node failure, network partitioning, decrease in route lifetime and route reliability. To avoid this problem, this paper proposes a new routing protocol, called Energy Efficient DSR (E2DSR) for balancing the energy consumption amongst the nodes in the network. E2DSR uses some mechanisms of Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) but defines a new structure for control packets, changes the routing behavior in nodes, implements a new "Energy Table" and creates a whole

new algorithm for route cache and selection.

This paper presents a new energy efficient routing protocol for wireless ad hoc networks called E2DSR. This new protocol is capable of balancing power consumption amongst different nodes in the network effectively delaying earlier node failure due to battery exhaustion and increasing route reliability. E2DSR uses small routing tables, simpler, but still effective, formulas for route priority computation and a simple on demand discovery mechanism. E2DSR was conceived to be a lightweight protocol so it can also be used in sensor networks. Currently, E2DSR is being implemented in both simulation environment and real sensors. Validation through simulation is

being done with ns-2. Currently we have a testbed of ten sensors and have successfully implemented RREQ, RREP and RERR primitives and Route Priority Function, as described in the previous sections. The testing in real sensors is allowing us to fine tune some E2DSR coefficients.Future work in E2DSR includes a full evaluation of protocol performance, using the hereby described metrics, and protocol scalability, by implementing it in a larger scenario. E2DSR is continuously being fine tuned according to the results received by both our simulation platform and implementation, currently the energy field in E2DSR uses a linear quantization, however our latest studies indicate that if we give more granularity to the lower levels of battery energy, by using a non-linear quantization method, we will be able to achieve a more effective energy balance.

Efficient AODV routing based on traffic load and

mobility of node in MANET

Iftikhar Ahmad and Mata ur Rehman 2010 IEEE

Our proposed protocol selects route on the basis of traffic load on the node and resets path as the topology changes. Instead of transmitting entire data through one route, new efficient paths are discovered from time to time during transmission. This is an efficient technique for transmissions that requires a link for longer period of time. Most improvements are made by modifying route discovery mechanism by taking into account different network parameters like; Node status, power consumption, link status, packet overhead, congestion and others. For the calculation of load on each node during the process of route discovery, we modified the basic AODV route discovery mechanism. When a source node wants to communicate with another node for which it has no routing information in its routing table then route discovery process starts. Source node broadcasts RREQ message to its neighbors. When a neighboure receive RREQ message it will calculate the number of packets in the queue and divide it with the size of the queue and add the value in the reserved field of the RREQ message. This process is done at each node in the route to the destination. At the destination the average Load ratio is calculated by dividing the reserved field value with the number of hop count. The destination decides on the basis of average value that to which route it has to send reply. We developed a protocol with enhanced route discovery

mechanism that ensures shortest routing path with relative to time, so the source sends packets quickly to destination then basic AODV. Sharing of load decreases the network congestion which directly leads to the decrease of overflowing of queuing buffer and packets loss. Hence packet delivery ratio increases and throughput is increased. Proposed protocol is efficient for a transmission that requires a link for longer period of time. The simulation result proves the improvement in the performance of the protocol.

Performance Evaluation of Energy Efficient Ondemand

Routing Algorithms for MANET

P. Sivasankar, C.Chellappan, S. Balaji

2008 IEEE Region 10 Colloquium and the Third ICIIS, Kharagpur, INDIA December 8-10.


Mobile Ad hoc networks are a class of dynamic networks without any centralized administration. A major bottleneck in Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANETs) is the energy consumption since nodes are usually mobile and battery operated. To maximize the lifetime of mobile ad hoc networks (i.e., the lifetime of the nodes themselves) the power depletion of network must be evenly distributed, i.e., there must be a uniform drain of energy from the nodes, and the overall transmission power requirement for each connection request must be minimized. This paper proposes two algorithms called Energy Efficient Delay Time Routing (EEDTR) and Maximised Energy Efficient Routing (MEER), which try to increase the operational lifetime of Mobile Ad hoc networks. These algorithms are modified versions of the existing Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) algorithm. These algorithms select fully distributed routes, thus balancing power consumption of the entire network. The first algorithm(EEDTR) introduces a delay in forwarding the packets by nodes, which is inversely proportional to the remaining energy level of the node. The second algorithm includes energy information on the route request packet and select the routes based on this information (MEER). These algorithms are designed and implemented using Global Mobile Simulator (GloMoSim), a scalable, simulation environment for network simulation. Based on the results obtained, this paper concludes that the proposed algorithms increase the lifetime of mobile ad hoc networks, at the expense of end to end delay and control overhead.

Description of Energy Efficient Delay Time Routing

Algorithm (EEDTR)

The idea of EEDTR algorithm is as follows: Upon receiving a request packet, each node first holds the packet for a period of time, which is inversely proportional to its current energy level. After this delay, the node forwards the request packet. This simple delay mechanism is motivated

by the fact that the destination accepts only the first request packet and discards other duplicate requests. With the proposed delay mechanism, request packets from nodes with lower energy levels are transmitted after a larger delay, whereas the request packets from nodes with higher energy levels are transmitted after a smaller delay. Description of Maximised Energy Efficient Routing Algorithm (MEER) But in the proposed algorithm, an energy field is included in the RREQ packet. The intermediate nodes insert their current energy level while forwarding the RREQ packet. This information on the remaining energy levels of intermediate nodes reaches the destination node. Thus, this algorithm makes energy information available to the destination node so that it can choose an energy efficient route from a set of possible routes.

An Adaptive Load-balancing Approach

for Ad Hoc Networks

YuHua Yuan, HuiMin Chen, and Min Jia 2005 IEEE

Routing protocol is a challenging issue in ad hoc networks. It has been studied thoroughly these years. However, most routing protocols in ad hoc network do not consider the problem of load balance. In this paper, we present an effective scheme to balance the load in ad hoc network. The new scheme can be applied in most on-demand routing protocols. It is implemented in the process of route request. When route request (RREQ) messages are flooded to acquire routes, only the qualified nodes, which have a potential to serve as intermediate forwarding nodes, will respond to these messages, so that the established path will not be very congested, and the traffic will be distributed evenly in the network. In this scheme, a threshold value, which is used to judge if the intermediate node is overloaded, is variable and changing along with the nodes' interface queue occupancy around the backward path. Therefore, we call it an adaptive load-balancing approach. We apply this scheme in Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) and simulation results show that the network load is balanced on the whole, and the performance of routing overhead and average end-to-end delay is also improved.

The load-balancing technique in ad hoc networks can be

generally divided into two types. The first type is "Traffic-size"

based [10-14], in which the load is balanced by attempting to

distribute the traffic evenly among the network nodes. The

second type is the "Delay" based [15], in which the load is

balanced by attempting to avoid nodes with high delay.

The proposed adaptive load-balancing approach is carried out in route request procedure. When a source node wants to communicate with a destination node and has no available routing information about the destination, it will initiate a route request procedure to find a route by broadcasting a RREQ message. But not every immediate node that receives the message, will respond to the RREQ. Note that the destination will not execute this scheme, and it responds to the RREQ normally. Before broadcasting the RREQ again, the intermediate node itself first makes a decision if it is qualified. If its interface queue occupancy is under the threshold value, the node is qualified and able to broadcast it. (Suppose the size of data packet is a fixed value. Therefore, in this paper we simply make the queue occupancy mean the number of packets waiting to be transmitted in interface queue, instead of the bits in interface queue.) If the node's queue occupancy is over the threshold value, it isn't qualified and will drop the RREQ. By doing so, the overloaded nodes are excluded from the newly created paths, and an on-demand routing protocol using this scheme will distribute the traffic load evenly on the nodes in network.

We present an adaptive load-balancing approach for on-demand routing protocol in ad hoc network. It is a simple but effective scheme to balance the load and alleviate congestion in network. In the scheme each node checks its interface queue occupancy to determine whether it responds to the received RREQ or not. The criterion for the decision is a threshold value, which is calculated by each node when a RREQ is received. It is a variable along with the queue occupancy of the nodes around backward path. Therefore, the threshold is adjusted adaptively according to the load status of the network. Routing protocol with this scheme can distribute the traffic evenly among the nodes in an ad hoc network, and reduce the packet latency and routing overhead.

Distributed Energy Efficient Routing in Ad Hoc



2008 IEEE

Ad hoc networks are non-infrastructure networks consisting

of mobile nodes. Since the mobile nodes have limited battery

power, it is very important to use energy efficiently in ad hoc

networks. In order to maximize the lifetime of an ad hoc

network, traffic should be sent via a route that can avoid nodes

with low energy while minimizing the total transmission power.

In addition, considering that the nodes of ad hoc networks are

mobile, on-demand routing protocols are preferred for ad hoc

networks. Existing power-aware routing algorithm need to be

modified to meet the requirement of energy efficient routing

and also this on demand protocol should be addressing

mobility issue. In this paper we propose a novel on-demand

power aware routing algorithm, DEEAR (Distributed Energyefficient

AODV Routing) protocol. DEEAR prolongs the

network lifetime by compromising between minimum energy

consumption and fair energy consumption without additional

control packets. DEEAR also improves network throughput as

well as improvement in data packet delivery ratio.


Wireless network enables users to setup a network

quickly, provides advantage in deployment, cost, size and

distributed intelligence over wired networks. It remains a

challenging task to provide the same type of services at the

same quality in wireless mobile environments as in wired

environment [16]. Most of previous work on routing in

wireless ad hoc networks deals with the problem of finding

and maintaining correct routes to the destination during

mobility and changing topology. In [5] the authors

developed a dynamic routing algorithm for establishing and

maintaining connection-oriented sessions, which uses the

idea of predictive re-routing to cope up with the

unpredictable topology changes. Majority of routing

protocols in mobile ad hoc networks use shortest path length

routing [7] where the number of hops is the path length. A

networks ability to provide a specified quality of service

between a set of endpoints depends upon the inherent

performance properties (e.g. delay, throughput, loss rate,

error rate) of the links and nodes, the traffic load within the

network and the control algorithms operating at different

layers of the network.

Conventional routing protocols for ad hoc networks select

the routes under the metric of the minimum hop count.

Such min-hop routing protocols can use energy unevenly

among the nodes and thus it can cause some nodes to spend

their whole energy earlier. End to end throughput and delay

are widely used performance metrics in wired and wireless

networks [9]. In hierarchically organized, multihop mobile

wireless networks [4] problem of quality of service

provision arises. In addition to this, since network topology

is dynamically changing, bandwidth and battery power are

additional important factors to be considered in wireless ad

hoc networks. Suresh Singh, Mike Woo et al. [8]

demonstrated that significant reductions in cost can be

obtained by using shortest-cost routing as opposed to

shortest-hop routing. Mobile ad hoc networks have

additional issues like dynamic topology, asymmetric links,

routing overhead and interference due to nearby

transmission. Considering issue of mobility of nodes, it is

desirable to have route updates in order to know the current

status of the node position in the network. This feature

demands table driven protocols. However if energy

consumption is to be considered, one has to go for on

demand protocol where control information transfer is

limited and is not as frequently updated as in table driven

protocols. In on demand protocols, flooding the route

request packets throughout the network does the route

discovery. Our approach is to save energy consumption at

the cost of reduced route updates.

Ad hoc routing protocols can broadly be classified as

Table driven and on demand protocols [12]. Table driven

routing protocols attempt to maintain consistent, up to date

routing information from each node to every other node in

the network. These protocols require each node to maintain

one or more tables to store routing information, and they

respond to changes in network topology by propagating

updates throughout the network in order to maintain

consistent network view. On demand routing creates routes

only when desired by the source node. When a node

requires a route to a destination, it initiates a route discovery

process within the network. The process is completed once

a route is found or all possible route permutations have been

examined. Once the route has been established, some form

of route maintenance procedure maintains it until the route

is no longer desired. Broad classification of above two

types of protocols is highlighted in Table I.

Prominent routing protocols studied under on demand

category are AODV and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)

while Destination Sequenced Distance Vector routing

(DSDV) represents table driven category. Studying

prominent features listed in Table II it is found that AODV

is an improvement on DSDV because it typically minimizes

the number of required broadcasts by creating routes on an

on-demand basis, as opposed to maintaining a complete list

of routes as in DSDV algorithm [6]. DSR has higher

connection setup delay and its performance degrades rapidly

with increasing mobility as compared to AODV. AODV

uses destination sequence number to find the latest route to

destination requiring less setup delay also fair performance

with mobility issue. Hence for further analysis trials are

done on existing AODV with some additional bits in RREQ

and RREP message format.

Authors in [17] have proposed MANET protocol testing

for parameters like: packet delivery and throughput.

The approach is based on the reduction of energy

consumption during the connection request phase, passing

by phase of route discovery, as well as during the phase of

data transfer and finishing by the phase of route

maintenance. Our protocol DEEAR proved its effectiveness

by showing better results for Number of alive nodes, its

capacity to balance the consumption of energy on the

totality of the network. Finally, it can be concluded that the

energy consumption metric adopted in this protocol can

prove more effective than the traditional metrics.