This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
During the last decade, the number of the internet users dramatically increased. The Demand of wireless internet increased accordingly. Internet users per fare having internet service very frequently during the day in order to cheek their emails or retrieving some particular information .most of the people have their laptops with belt in wireless network card these days, which provides them easy connection to any hotspots internet access. In this introduction we will intrudes some essential aspects about the networking in far structures. However, data Networking continues to evolve and more demand for a High-Speed Network Infrastructure has been growing at an alarming rate. More or less, WiMax focuses on solving the problems of point-to-multipoint broadband outdoor wireless networks. It has several possible applications, including last mile connectivity for homes and businesses and backhaul for wireless hot spots.
WiMax, meaning Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology that provides wireless transmission of data using a variety of transmission modes, from point-to-multipoint links to portable and fully mobile internet access. The technology provides up to 3 Mbit/s broadband speed without the need for cables. The technology is based on the IEEE 802.16 standard (also called Broadband Wireless Access). The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum, which was formed in June 2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard. The forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL.
Types of Networks (LAN, MAN, WAN):
A basic definition of local area network is connecting computer devices at small geographic area such as home, office, or certain buildings. Unlike Wide Area Network (WAN), LAN can handle greater data transfer rates with no telecommunication lines lease required. Two common technologies are currently used, Wi-Fi and Ethernet over unshielded twisted pair cabling. In the past, ARCNET, Token Ring and others were utilized for LAN.
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) could be considered as a subtype of Wide Area Network (WAN). Thus, MAN is rather new class of network. it provide the same services as Internet Serves Provider (ISP), but for community users that are connected through large Local Area Networks (LANs). The main characteristics of MAN that distinguish it from the other type of network, such as LANs or WANs, could be summarized in three important features:
- The MANs size is in-between LANs and WANs. Normally, it covers between 5 and 50 km diameter of open area. The area size that is covered by MANs varies from small area such as a group of buildings to large area such as the North of Scotland.
- As it is apply to WAN, a single organization cannot own MAN. That is, either a consortium of users or a single network provider can own MAN's communications links and equipment. Therefore, issues related to the service provided to each user at this level have to be discussed with the operator as well as network performance specification guarantees.
Similar to a large LAN, MAN regularly performs as a high speed network. It allows fast sharing of regional resources. Also, MAN It provides connection sharing with other networks by using links to a WAN.
A WAN stand for Wide Area Network, which is a computer network, covers a broad area. One example of WAN is a network's communication links crocus particular region or metropolitan. In other word, it could be described as a network that uses routers and public communications links. In this manner, internet is considered as largest wide area networks. In contrast other types of network are limited to smaller area in comparison to Wide Area Network, such as personal area network (PAN) local area network, Campus Area Network (CAN).
The main function of the wide area network is to connect smaller area networks such as LANs, PANs and CANs to each other. It allows users communication between users and computers in one particular in one particular location with users and computers in anther locations. Organizations built there on Wide Area Network; however, Internet Service Providers offer direct connections to the internet .this kind of connections cold lease lines.
This new technology obtains enough potential to substitute several presented telecommunications infrastructures. That is, Telephone Company's cable infrastructure, such as copper wire network, cable TV's coaxial and Internet Service Provider (ISP) services, can be replaced by a fixed WiMAX wireless configuration. On the other hand, cellular networks can be replaced by mobile WiMAX configuration(Townsend 2006a). 
Definition of WiMAX:
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless industry coalition dedicated to the advancement of IEEE 802.16 standards for broadband wireless access (BWA) networks.
According to the WiMAX forum, the group's aim is to promote and certify compatibility and interoperability of devices based on the 802.16 specification, and to develop such devices for the marketplace. WiMAX is expected to provide about 10 megabits per second of upload and download, at a distance of 10 kilometres from a base station. 
By applying fixed WiMAX to the infrastructure, companies will gain a broad range of applications that are not limited to broadband internet access. For example, the following technologies can be substituted by WiMAX:
- T1/E1 technology (in business)
- telephone analog substituted by Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP)
- Cable TV substituted by Internet Protocol Television (IPTV)
- Wi-Fi hotspots substituted by backhaul
- Fiber optic cable substituted by cell phone towers mobile telephone service, mobile data TV, mobile emergency response services, wireless backhaul
From a base station to a subscriber station, WiMAX can provide three type of non-line-of sight service which is fixed, portable or mobile. It is also called customer premise equipment (CPE). Additional purpose of WiMAX is incorporate 6 miles of radius service coverage for point-to-multipoint, non-line-of-sight service from a WiMAX base station.
For fixed and portable access applications, 40 megabits per second (Mbps) will this service approximately deliver. Thus, many of businesses that use T1 speed and numerous of residential customers that use DSL services or equivalent will receive high bandwidth service by implementing the WiMAX cell site(Townsend 2006a).
For much larger scale, enabling cell phone-like applications could be achieved by mobile WiMAX, which take the fixed wireless application further step. For instant, streaming video can be broadcasted at over 70 MPH from a speeding police or other emergency vehicle only by mobile WiMAX.
It is qualified to replace phone operators such as EvDo, EvDv and HSDPA that offer mobile data and cell phones. Moreover, it enhances the security measures and provides extra ordinary building penetration compared with fixed WiMAX. Finally, mobile WiMAX will play a major role as an infrastructure for mobile TV and gaming services in recent future(Townsend 2006a).
Convergence between voice and data:
People adapted to use FM radio everywhere to receive information about news, weather, and sports from FM service (FM radio station) or FM hardware (FM radio with attached antenna) in daily base. Similarly, WiMAX can play the same role. Instead of using radio station, a based station such as radio and antenna which perform information transmission using internet access, VoIP, or IPTV, can do the same. Basically, a WiMAX CPE is needed for subscribers to receive the services. The main difference in this type of configuration is the two-way or interactive service that is provided by mobile WiMAX(Townsend 2006a). 
WiMAX Versus Economics:
Economically, and compared with other available technologies such as fiber to the home (FTTH), the low cost of WiMAX installation places this intelligent technology as a first choice in telecommunication equipment market. The current picture of service providers' development is focused on using an expensive landline technology such as FTTH or cable that leads to spend billions of dollars to provide their services in a small region. As a result, a small WiMAX operator with less capital expenditure (CAPEX) can enter the market easily with high potential for competition and may go further to drive other present high CAPEX operator out of business(Townsend 2006b).
Little entry barrier:
The table below shows a comparison between broadband technologies in term of installation cost. It is obvious that WiMAX would encounter lower barriers. The numbers in the table encourage investors to compete each other by establishing new company with this technology. Also, WiMAX operator can stand alone in the market against current incumbent service providers who spent millions of dollars and are spending for their respected networks for maintenance(Townsend 2006b).
For better explanation of WiMAX concept and despite the type of services, current service provider companies will encounter big challenge to compete WiMAX services if they did not upgrade their entire infrastructure system to a WiMAX. In turn, incumbent service providers will be under pressure and their investment will be at high risk(Townsend 2006b).
Fiber to home(FTTH)
A successful network includes a chain of productive participants into enormous chain of symbiotic relationships. In actual telecommunication field, companies attempt to control every single aspect in their production infrastructure. It starts from a small device acquired in customers' home or office through access media, such as copper, coaxial, or wireless, all the way to switching and application platforms. Plainly, WiMAX is a resource for customers to gain access services. Subsequently, a variety of internet services can be obtained by the subscribers, such as VoIP, IPTV, gaming, etc. In other words, these can be considered only as applications on WiMAX. Besides, access to IP backbones is required by WiMAX service which in turn enlarges the network significance beyond a single monolithic service provider. The figure below shows obtainable desired network in the new telecommunication era(TOWNSEND 2006b).
Regulations of WiMAX:
The core subject of WiMAX regulation briefly is the available spectrum and the subsequent use of it. The spectrum term is the frequency band that the service provider will broadcast its service on. There are two type of spectrum in term of allowance. The first one is the unlicensed spectrum. This type of spectrum is available to be broadcasted by anyone within certain power limits. The second type is the licensed spectrum which is authorized for certain broadcaster companies to use a specific spectrum. That is, other broadcaster who attempts to use this licensed spectrum will be subjected to governmental accusation. There are two ways to obtain licensed spectrum usage permit. One way is obtaining a permit for licensed spectrum usage from National government, such as Federal Communications Commission in the US. The other way is obtaining it through a sub lease from a company that obtained licensed spectrum usage permit. This case varies in countries worldwide. Location and frequency plays a critical role in spectrum allocation(TOWNSEND 2006c).
Network design methodology
First of all, it is hard to describe a given methodology as right or wrong for a desired network. It is known that every network has its own requirements and solutions. Currently, network and system architects follow certain methods to develop system solutions such as:
- Scientific Method
- Discovery Method
- Requirements-driven Method
Another method, which combine the above three methods, fulfill the general design and architectural requirements. It is known as the Tried and True Method. In general, these methods pursue certain process that is described below:
- Requirement identification
- Analysis of existing or new technology
- Concludes with a solution model
Within these steps, network design phases identification and implementation will take place. Also, the deadline of completing project phase of network design and implementation has to be identified in advance.
Two factors play a major role in defining and completing each step. These factors are the method used to design the solution and the type of solution required. For a new system or network, the design is based on its requirement that is defined clearly. In contrast and for existing network, the design is based on problem or issues to that have to be resolved(International Network Services 2002).
Scientifically, it is recommended to start with creation of a hypothesis of a design that is suitable for a given requirement. Then, this hypothesis has to be tested and subsequently revised according to our performed tests. This process has to be performed carefully and as described in the above order before the actual implementation. For example, suppose we have an issue of sending and receiving secure data between different location at same and different time. Our hypothesis has be solutions in form of suggestions. Basically, these suggestions have to include a suggestion of making several nodes along with using any technology that controls message traffic and delivery.
Finally, the necessary information that supports our given modified hypothesis must be assembled. Then, deep analysis of our information is necessary to see how far would our design meets the defined requirement, which provides valuable information in term of clearing the view toward possible future problems(International Network Services 2002). In addition, subsequent analysis of a given requirement might lead to no possible solutions, however; it might provide us with better understanding of further problems through the batch data processes and financial reports.
Types of WiMAX
WiMAX can be illustrated as fixed and mobile systems. Fixed WiMAX is usually dedicated for businesses because of its ability to broadcast in wider radius which can reach up-to 6 miles, the fixed WiMAX technology offers an effective point to point and point to multipoint solutions. Therefore, the WiMAX exciting is in broad range of applications and it makes it possible but not limited to broadband internet access, T1/E1 substitute for businesses, voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) as telephone company substitute, backhaul for Wi-Fi hotspots and cell phone towers, mobile telephone service, and wireless backhaul as substitute for fibre optic cable etc.
On other hand the mobile WiMAX technology which allows any type of telecommunication medium to go mobile; it aims at the cellular applications to enable faster transmission of data stream and become as a substitute of many other mobile data services provided by many phone operators. In addition to being the fastest medium available so far, it also can offer superior breakthrough buildings to provide connection and improved security measures over fixed WiMAX. The Mobile WiMAX will be very valuable for emerging services such as mobile TV and gaming in near future. Since we will use WiMAX as a core technology in this project, we will describe the WiMAX technology in more detailed in separate section.
WiMAX comparison with other technology
Townsend, C., 2006a What is WiMax?, pp. Headquartered in the Austin Technology Incubator, Austin.
Townsend, C., 2006b WiMAX Economics, pp. Headquartered in the Austin Technology Incubator, Austin.
Townsend, C., 2006c WiMAX Regulatory, pp. Headquartered in the Austin Technology Incubator, Austin.
Wake, D., 2002 Radio over Fiber Systems for Mobile Applications" in "Radio over Fiber Technologies for Mobile Communications Networks. Artech House, USA.