A Tcp Ip Networking Models Computer Science Essay

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In a peer to peer network, software can be installed on one computer and can be used by every computer on the network but Peer-to-peer networks are less secure than a client-server network because security is done by each computer itself and not on the network as one.

Client-server networks tend to have faster speed because of the large number of clients they are made to support. The clients can act as a workstation with or without sharing any resources. It is easier to upgrade software applications and files because they are held on one computer. A client server network is more Secure because the security is managed by the server hub.

Networking Components


Network Cards

A network card is a component that allows the computer to communicate across a network. Some Network cards are compatible with wireless and wired networking.

Network Cables

Network cables carry information between computers in a LAN using cables.The cables are labeled and mainly referred to as CatX. the x is the cables number.

Network Hubs

A network hub acts as a signal data transmission to computers in a LAN. When data from one computer reaches the hub it is sent to every computer in the network.

Network Switches

An alternative to the network hub is the network switch. Switches they assigns each computer in the

network a MAC address. having a MAC address allows LANs that are using a network switch to direct information to singular computer.


connect networks to one another instead of connecting computers to a single network. They connect the computers to the internet,but they can be used to connect any networks.

Connection Technologies

Connection Technologies :

Wired Connection is a connection that implements logic using the components diodes and resistors. A wired connection can create an AND or an OR gate.

Optical Connection is a connection created from fibre optic cables. An optic fibre is a flexible, transparent fibre made of silica or plastic. Fibre optic cables are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which allows transmission over long distances and at a high bandwidth. Fiber is used instead of metal wires because the signal travels along with it and is unaffected by electromagnetic interference.

Wireless Connection, any type of computer network that is not wired. Its when you can connect your device anywhere in the range of the wireless network a lot of business use wireless because its cheaper then having cables installed throughout the building, its much cheaper and there is less hassle.

With the common cable a disadvantage is that it can only go short distances but is cheap for a short distance and a good bandwidth, it has to be connected to the network switch and to a specific device . fiber cables have a extremely fast bandwidth but is more expensive, they are connected to the main server to all the other switches in the area . Wireless is cheap and users can access the internet without having to be on the computer but has a slow bandwidth, there are access points all over the school.

Bandwidth is the data transfer rate of a network. It shows how much data can be sent over a connection in a amount of time. Bandwidth is often used for the data transfer rate - the amount of data that can be carried from one place to another in a given time period, usually in seconds. Bandwidth is usually expressed in bits (of data) per second (bps). ethernet has 3 types of bandwidth speed 10 megabit, 100 megabit and 1 gigabit. st johns currently uses 1gigabit for the fastest speed.

Simplex: the communication takes place in one direction. The receiver receives the signal from the transmitting device.

Half-duplex: the communication is used in both ways,but one direction at a time.

Full-duplex: the communication channel can be used both ways at the same time.

Ethernet Access Control

The Ethernet access control method used in ethernet architecture uses a firewall. It restricts what traffic can get into the network, or out of the network. It will stop things like viruses and counterfeit software from getting into the internal network and stop them damaging the computer .Restricting people entering, or using software uploaded to their network. This stops people from bypassing the firewall and uploading viruses to the internal network.

The Ethernet access control method in a Local Area Network is different depending on where it is set up eg: school. It will have something such as a NAC (Network Access Control), which is the host computer on the network who controls what the other computers can access, and can observe what they are doing. At st johns this is used to stop students from going on inappropriate sites by redirecting them to a different page or block the page.

Networking Topologies

In a Ring Topology, all the nodes are connected to each other so that they make a ring.Each computer is connected to two other components on both side, and it communicates with these two.Data travels around the network,in one direction. Sending and receiving of data takes place by the help of TOKEN.

Token contains a piece of information which along with data is sent by the source computer. This token then passes to next node, which checks if the signal is intended to it.

Bus Topology is the simplest of network topologies. In this type of topology, all the nodes are connected through a single cable(bus). Every Workstation communicates with the other device through the Bus.A terminator is added at ends of the bus, to prevent bouncing signals. A barrel connector can be used to extend it.

Star Topology: the school network is a star topology and there are nodes throughout the school in each block and they are connected to the main server/hub. the star can also be extended off the nodes. Below is a star topology.

Networking models: OSI and TCP/IP networking models

TCP/IP shows how electronic devices can be connected to the internet. TCP and IP work together infuse the communication between application software (TCP), and to make sure the packeted data is sent to the correct location (IP).

NAT (Network Address Translation) firewall: gives a public address to a computer (or group of computers) inside a private network. NAT is used to limit the number of public IP addresses. Routers in a private network can convert traffic between private addresses, but when it tries to access resources outside of the network, the computer has to have a public address to respond to the request to return. when you make a request to a computer on the internet a router in the network realises it, that request is sent to the firewall. The firewall sees the requests from the computer, It makes the same request to but using its own address so it is sending information firewall.

A firewall is used to help keep a network secure. The firewall was designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. Firewalls can be either hardware-based, software-based, or a combination of both. Firewalls are mostly used to prevent unauthorized internet users from accessing private networks connected to the internet. There are several types of firewall techniques, such as a packet filter, an application gateway, circuit-level gateway, or a proxy server. Many firewalls use 2 or more of these techniques.

IP addressing and schema

A IP Address is a code that identifies a computer network or a specific computer on a network. IP addresses is needed so the router knows where to send packets over the network.

Class A addresses are assigned to networks with a very large number of hosts. The high-order bit in a class A address is always set to zero. The next seven bits complete the network ID. The remaining 24 bits (the last three octets) represent the host ID. This allows for 126 networks and 16,777,214 hosts per network.

Class B addresses are assigned to medium sized networks. The two high-order bits in a class B address are always set to binary 1 0. The next 14 bits complete the network ID. The remaining 16 bits (last two octets) represent the host ID. This allows for 16,384 networks and 65,534 hosts per network.

Class C addresses are used for small networks. The three high-order bits in a class C address are always set to binary 1 1 0. The next 21 bits (completing the first three octets) complete the network ID. The remaining 8 bits (last octet) represent the host ID. This allows for 2,097,152 networks and 254 hosts per network.

Saint Johns would use Class B because each user would have more hosts than class c and less than class A. they use a class b addresses with a class a subnet mask on the wireless to ensure they have enough clients available.


The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used to set up devices which are connected to a network so that they can connect on an IP network. The router obtains this data through a modem from an internet service provider the provider also runs the DHCP servers where the modems are clients. The devices request configuration settings using the DHCP protocol (Ip Address, etc), a default route and at least one DNS server address. Once the client has implemented these new settings, the host device is able to communicate on that external network.

public IP and Private IP:

public IP address can be accessed on the internet and a private IP can only be accessed on the LAN.

A Static IP is an IP that stays the same for each computer.A Static IP is a lot less secure than a Dynamic IP because it makes connecting and locating your computer a lot easier.

Dynamically obtained addresses is a temporary IP address. Dynamic IP is a lot more secure than a Static IP because its harder to track and connect to.

A DNS (Domain Name System) server is any computer registered to join the Domain Name System. DNS is the name of a website you would type into your search bar it replaces the websites IP and makes it much easier to find.

A subnet is the same network with different IPs to speed up the traffic speed

Benefits of Subnets:

It provides security.

It allows organization of resources.

It speeds up the network.

Using subnets will make the size of the broadcast smaller allowing data to travel to its destination much faster.