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A Study on Traffic Light Control in VANET using Simulation of Urban Mobility
Abstract— A Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network or VANET is a technology used to collect and aggregate real-time speed and position information on individual vehicles to optimize signal control at traffic intersections. Today VANET used mainly for the purpose for the public safety , the comfort , Travelers Information, Traffic Regulate,Traffic organization and Assistance etc. Today’s many of the things get controlled automatically. Everything is getting controlled using the mechanical or the automated systems. In every field. Keeping these things consideration study of system is less with multiple methodologies which can be used in traffic control system.
Vehicles connected to each other through an ad hoc formation form a wireless network called “Vehicular Ad Hoc Network”. Vehicular networks are a novel class of wireless networks that have emerged as advances in wireless technologies and the automotive industry. Vehicular networks are spontaneously formed between moving vehicles equipped with wireless interfaces that could be of homogeneous or heterogeneous technologies. These networks, also known as VANETs, are considered as one of the ad hoc network real-life application enabling communication among nearby vehicles as well as between vehicles and nearby ï¬xed equipment, usually described as roadside equipment. Vehicles can be either private, belonging to individuals or private companies, or public transportation means. Fixed equipment can belong to the government or private network operators or service providers.
Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) are a subgroup of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) with the distinguishing property that the nodes are vehicles like cars, trucks, buses and motorcycles. This implies that node movement is restricted by factors like road course, encompassing traffic and traffic regulations. Because of the restricted node movement it is a feasible assumption that the VANET will be supported by some ï¬xed infrastructure that assists with some services and can provide access to stationary networks. The ï¬xed infrastructure will be deployed at critical locations like slip roads, service stations, dangerous intersections or places well-known for hazardous weather conditions.
Standards for vehicular communications have been developed by IEEE which is referred to as Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) . Millions of people around the world die every year in car accidents and many more are injured. Implementations of safety information such as speed limits and road conditions are used in many parts of the world but still more work is required. VANET should, collect and distribute safety information to massively reduce the number of accidents by warning drivers about the danger before they actually face it. Two main applications of vehicular Ad-hoc networks are Safety Applications and Comfort Applications. VANET is not an architectural network and not an ad hoc network but a combination of both, this unique characteristic combined with high speed nodes complicates the design of the network.
As these networks have no ï¬xed communication structure and may vary heavily due to which routing of data packets through VANETS is very crucial. However, due to dynamic network topology, frequent disconnected networks, varying communication conditions and hard delay constraints VANETS can be distinguished from other kinds of Ad hoc networks.
Accessing or disseminating safety-related information through the use of wireless communications technology in VANETs should be protected, as motorists may make critical decisions in dealing with an emergency situation based on the received information provided via DSRC.
1.2 Challenges of VANET
Following are the challenges of VANET 
VANET environment is quite different from other networks due to its high speed mobility nodes and distributed nature. Therefore security threats and security requirements in VANETs are also different from other networks. This section will discuss the design challenges for security solutions in VANETs.
Mobility challenge is difficult to handle in VANETs in general and in security frameworks in particular. In VANET, vehicles move with high velocity on predefined paths; so these moving vehicles make connections for very short duration due to high speed. Therefore, quality of communication can be affected by the high velocity vehicles and due to high mobility; handshake based mechanisms cannot be used in VANET.
VANET (worldwide) is a large scale network which is covering more than 75 million vehicles all over the world. The management of control of such a huge network and its security aspects exchanging certificate etc. is a big problem; despite the fact that there doesn’t exist a global authority who governs the standard of DSRC. Security protocols that required pre-stored information about participating nodes are not suitable.
Due to the availability and implementation of different network infrastructures in different parts of the world, future vehicular networks can be envisioned as a heterogeneous network. Therefore, different manufacturers will implement different technologies according to their perspective country’s privacy and security policies.
GPS equipment may exhibit several drawbacks e.g. precision issues when used in security solutions. Although, recently introduced devices have reduced precision problems but many attacks are related to GPS such as signal jamming and spoofing etc.
In VANET, there is a close relationship between user and vehicle. Drivers want their privacy and are concerned about the disclosure of their location and behavior as the movement pattern of a person can be determined by tracking his vehicle. Furthermore, financial transactions carried out on VANET also include the privacy concerns.
II. Simulators of vanets
In this section, we review various publicly available VANET simulators that are currently in use by the research community. In our study, we exclude proprietary VANET mobility generators or network simulators, such as TSIS-CORSIM , Paramics , Daimler-Chrysler Farsi and Videlio, Carisma , VISSIM , QualNet , or OPNET . We focus on freeware and open source tools that allow free access to simulator source code. Figure 1 presents the taxonomy of VANET simulation software. We have classified existing VANET simulation software into three different categories. They are (a) vehicular mobility generators, (b) network simulators, and (c) VANET simulators.
Fig. 1. A taxonomy of VANET simulation software.
The output of the trace details the location of each vehicle at every time instant for the entire simulation time and their mobility profiles Examples are SUMO , MOVE‡ , CityMob , STRAW , FreeSim, Netstream , and VanetMobiSim. Network simulators perform detailed packet-level simulation of source, destinations, data trafô€‚¿c transmission, reception, background load, route, links, and channels. Examples are ns-2 , GloMoSim , SNS , JiST/SWANS , and GTNetS . Most existing network simulators are developed for MANETs and hence require VANET extensions (such as using the vehicular mobility generators) before they can be used to simulate vehicular networks. Finally, VANET simulators provide both traffic flow simulation and network simulation. Examples are TraNS , NCTUns , GrooveNet , and MobiREAL . In the next few sections, we will discuss in greater depth the functions, characteristics, and comparisons of vehicular mobil- ity generators, network simulators, and VANET simulators.
III. sumo and move
"Simulation of Urban MObility", or "SUMO" for short, is an open source, microscopic, multi-modal traffic simulation. It allows to simulate how a given traffic demand which consists of single vehicles moves through a given road network .
it’s having following featueres :
ï‚· Includes all applications needed to prepare and perform a traffic simulation (network and routes import, DUA, simulation)
- Space-continuous and time-discrete vehicle movement
- Different vehicle types
- Multi-lane streets with lane changing
- Different right-of-way rules, traffic lights
- A fast openGL graphical user interface
- Manages networks with several 10.000 edges (streets)
- Fast execution speed (up to 100.000 vehicle updates/s on a 1GHz machine)
- High portability ,Only standard c++ and portable libraries are used
- Packages for Windows main Linux distributions exist.
This part of the software (called MOVE - MObility model generator for VEhicular networks) will generate the mobility model created by SUMO. Firstly select "Mobility Model" on the main top level menu.
Traffic light scenario :
In this section traffic light managing using creation of special file which store extension of add.xml .In this we can set fixed time and alteration of traffic light various lane.Then we add into the configuration file which having extension of sumo.cfg.it contains information of node and edge file.
we taken example which briefly explained below.
<additional-files value="/home/user/example/traffic_duration.add.xml "/>
This is used to flow traffic smoothly without congestion. This is help to provide Emeregency services at the critical condition like Fire Brigade Vehicle, Ambulanceor Police on pursuit by using Priority Based..
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