A Study On Computers Computer Science Essay

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Although mechanical examples of computers have existed through much of recorded human history, the first electronic computers were developed in the mid-20th century (1940-1945). These were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs). Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space. Simple computers are small enough to fit into small pocket devices, and can be powered by a small battery. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as "computers". However, the embedded computers found in many devices from MP3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are the most numerous.

The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile, distinguishing them from calculators. The Church-Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a certain minimum capability is, in principle, capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. Therefore computers ranging from a net book to a supercomputer are all able to perform the same computational tasks, given enough time and storage capacity.


History:-

Professor and head of the Electronics and Communications Unit of ISI, the Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta, Dr Dwijish Dutta Majumdar, smiled weakly as we shook hands. At 53 he was bespectacled, hair brushed back, slightly heavy in the middle which you notice only when he stands up. There were at least 40 kgs of paper on the table, much of which had strong bearing on fields as diverse as image processing to pattern recognition and artificial intelligence to multi valued logic of fuzzy mathematics.

Dr Majumdar or DDM, is an institution within an institution. In the next three hours, he took us on a conducted tour of what should be a compulsory subject in initiating every computer professional in India.

No. It was not just the first 'computer for India to be brought here in 1995, it was the first in Asia, outside Japan. DDM lights up a Wills Navy Cut cigarette and adds that ISI had the distinction of developing the first Indian analog computer as well. Nehru came to meet the computer that solved a 10 x 10 single precision matrix in 90 minutes. It was built with military disposal.

The first of the two digital computers in India was also installed here. Towards the end of 1955, came the HEC-2M, a giant piece of equipment that set sail from England in two crates. Nobody knows how much it weighted but, yes, it took about two months for ISI people to install the 1K memory, tube-based system. It was not the days of manufacture by hundreds and thousands. This was specially crafted and designed by Professor AD Booth at Birk Bak College in the UK.

Two young people were sent by Prof Mahalanobis to get trained by Prof Booth himself in installing and managing the equipment. One was Prof MM Mukherjee and the other was Amaresh Roy. Could I meet them, I enquired, breaking DDM's nostalgia. He stopped for a moment. Looked out of the grey December window. No, Mr Roy is no more and Prof Mukherjee has left the country and now lives with his son in the USA.


Impact of Computer On Indian Society:-

Computers are commonly used items in many areas. It is an important thing to people, especially the people who run organizations, industry, etc. . . Almost anything you know is run or made by computers. Cars and jets were designed on computers, traffic signals are run by computers, most medical equipment use computers and space exploration was started with computers. Most of the jobs today require the use of computers. These 'mechanical brains' made a huge impact on our society. It would be hard if we didn't have the computer around.

Let's visualize for a minute. Let's visualize a world without computers. People in the medical field wouldn't have have found a lot of cures to diseases, since most cures were found with the help of computers. Movies like Jurassic Park, Toy Story, A Bug's Life or Godzilla would never have been made without computers because they used computer graphics and animation in them. Pharmacies would have a hard time keeping track with what medications to give to patience. Counting votes would be impossible without computers and most importantly, space exploration wouldn't be possible without the help of computers. It's a pretty tough life without computers. Some may not agree and say, "Well, we don't need computers to live on." They maybe right but mostly, they are wrong. Computers help in curing diseases, make entertainment a lot better, keep track of important records, etc. . . Without computers, all this wouldn't be possible.


SomeStatisticsaboutInternetUsersin India

Number ofInternetusers in Asia is 5,29,701,704. Though Asia has only 16% of populations of the world, 37.6% of totalinternetusers are Asian which is great. Of them around 60 million are from India. India is 3rd in Asia (1st is China (220 million) and 2nd is Japan (87.5 million)) and 4th in world ((1st is China (220 million), 2nd is USA (216 million) and 3rd is Japan (87.5 million)) as per asinternetusers are concerned.

India has 13% ofinternetusers in Asia and 7.36% that of the world. But the sorrowful fact isonly 5.3% of peoplein Indiauseinternet. The reason of this is most of the peoplein Indiadon't know computer. 70% of people who know computer have used internet which is a healthy sign.

Now, we will see mainly which age group and which type people useinternetin India. 19-40 years age group is major section (85%) usinginternetin India.85% ofinternetusersin Indiaare male which not a very good sign is.Among working women, only 11% useinternet. The ratio is almost half (6%) in case of non-working women and even worst in case of house-wives (2%). The scenario is much better in case of young men (33%). Also 15% older men, 14% school going kids and 21% college students use internetin India. 46% of net users are graduate, 26% are post-graduate. Among these, 2/3 rd of user use internet 2-3 times a week. 62% uses internet from office as in most of the offices, it's free.

Next, let us see from which cities most users come.Mumbai has the maximum number ofinternetusers (3.24 million)in Indiafollowed by Delhi (2.66 million). The top ten cities where people use internets are Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Kolkata, Chennai, Pune, Hydrabad, Ahmedabad, Surat and Nagpur. The total numbers ofinternetusers of those 10 cities are 37% of the total numbers ofinternetusersin India.

Now take a look which types of sites majority of users browse. Most of the users use net for emailing (95%) which is obvious. Next is job searching (73%) showing crisis of getting jobin Indiafollowed by chatting sites (62%), socialnetworkingsites (51%) and quite interestingly mathematical sites (48%).

The top ten sitesinternetusers browsein Indiaare the following:

  1. Yahoo

  2. Google India

  3. Google

  4. Orkut

  5. Rediff

  6. Youtube

  7. Blogger.com

  8. Windows Live

  9. Rapid Share

  10. Wikipedia

So, briefly this is the situation ofinternetusersin India. Thoughinternetownership has seen growth of 32% compare to last year which is a delighting fact, there are some concerning factors too. Those are

  • Only 5.3% people useinternetin Indiawhich is very low.

  • Most of the users are male (85%). The female percentage should increase.

  • Maximum number of users is from top 10 cities (37%). So, theinternetusage in urban areas is very less.

Most of the users are male (85%):

Thats the reason why we dont have much female participation in this forum.

How to prevent harmful effect of computer from children & society!!!

Today, you can find computers in almost every household. And computer has been introduced into the early childhood education programs and elementary schools at the national level. As a parent, how do you utilize the computer on your children? Do you know the potential hazards of computers?

When parents were asked why they used computers with their children at home, the most frequent response was "helping in learning" followed by "important in today's society". While it is true that computers can be used in developmentally appropriate ways beneficial to children, but they can also be misused. How? Here are some potential harm:

Programs content and age-appropriate
Many parents can mentioned the names of their children's favorite computer software, but they didn't necessarily know much about the programs' content. Another mistake is off-the-shelf programs chosen were not age-appropriate to their children. Therefore, parent has to screen the computer software before presenting them to their children. They have to ensure the computer programs for young children are supposed to encourage dialogue and interaction instead of just pointing, clicking and moving a mouse. They have to ask questions such as: What is the content? Have the software producers tested the content for age appropriateness?

Time with computers
some parents tend to use computer (and TV) as a babysitter. When this happen, your children could be spending a lot of time with computer. As a result, they have high potential of trouble with social interaction in the long run and are harder to engage in more traditional play and reading. Not to mention about the physical consequences of children staying in front of the computer at very young ages. One guideline is to limit young children's time with computers (and TV). Generally, 30 minutes a day on the computer is reasonable for 2-3 year olds. Most importantly, accompany your child while at the computer to help and discuss what the child is seeing or making happen on the screen.

Limitation of Computer
There is no doubt about many useful computer programs that your children can learn a lot from. However, a computer is a tool, just like a book, a pencil or a television, which can be used in an appropriate ways that beneficial to children but it has certain limitations that cannot be ignored. Computer programs today often do so much that they require less work on the part of the child. As they click on the mouse, these stimulated experiences may not help the children to learn especially in the areas of pretend play and the development of symbolic thinking. Children can learn important concepts through everyday, real-life experiences than using computer. For example, categorizing big and small as you compare the sizes of the toys when they are playing. It is more meaningful and longer-lasting that what the computers could provide. Traditional toys such as shape-sorter allow the children to have 'hands-on' opportunity to improve their fine-motor skills and problem-solving skills. It is certainly a richer experience compared to learning shape using computer.

Computer Games
Do you expose your child to computer games at young age? That was one strong reason how a child will grow up to addict to computer games. When they are exposed to computer games from young, they will tend to be attracted for moregraphical and motional intensive games which lead to violentcomputer games eventually. There were separate studiesconducted at Stanford University and Tohoku University inJapan that came to the same conclusion. The studies indicated playing computer games were halting the process of brain development which essentially causing brain damage. Inaddition, computer game playing appeared to increase children'aggressive behavior and affecting their ability to control potential anti-social element of their behavior. Hence, only expose your children to educational programs. Companies such as'The Learning Company' and 'Knowledge Adventure' have developed excellent programs for baby and toddlers.


Review of literature:-

Nowadays, it is hard to imagine anyone not having heard of a computer and the Internet especially in a modern society. Both computers and the Internet have great effects on society especially the way people communicate and interact with another; and the way certain tasks are being done. However, computers had profound impact on society even long before the word Internet became a common word.

The greatest effect of computers on society is the way they change the way how certain jobs are being done. The strongest impact, I believe, is on the typist's job. Today, a typist can use a word processing software that can help him or her to save some time and perhaps some paper as he or she can easily make corrections with it. Previously on a typewriter, a typist would have to use whiteouts or erasers that would leave awful marks on the paper to delete errors. If the typist wanted a clean and error-free copy, he or she would have retype the entire document again. With computers, authors can more quickly complete their work. Accountants who once only used the calculator and manually entered figures into the ledger can now use accounting software to ease their work. Graphics designer can now use graphic designing software that can help them save time in designing and provide suggestions to them. Architects can use programs that allow them to design and to see it in 3D without having to build a real 3D model. Composers can use composition software to listen to how his or her composition will sound like without having to gather members of an orchestra. One of the greatest invention was the spreadsheet that allows its user to enter numbers into tiny rectangular boxes known as cells to create meaningful statements with numbers and to easily make calculations on the numbers entered. Today with the Internet, it is even easier to obtain the required software. Instead of having to go to the store, a person can download the software from a website and install it directly onto the computer. If you have been exploring Google, you may have notice that the famous Internet business also provides programs that you can use directly on their website without having to download any of them. With the Internet, it is now possible to share spreadsheet files and word-processed documents with another without having to make copies and to post the copies. An author may now submit his or her work via the Internet to a publisher for consideration.

Computers and the Internet also have some effects on home users. Even before the Internet became a common thing, people have been using their computers to perform various tasks including balancing their home budgets, typing letters to their friends, making greeting cards, and to entertain themselves. Although the tasks can be done without a computer, the invention makes doing such tasks much easier. Household items like microwaves, digital televisions, MP3 players are devices with computers in them. According to one article I found on.


Hypothesis:-

Hypothesis invites authors to submit new and thought-provoking predictions based on scientific findings or theories from any field. We aim to establish an interdisciplinary journal that swiftly publishes new, provocative, and sometimes currently untestable ideas, while preserving the free-thinking nature of the earliest scientific publications. Thus, Hypothesis favours publication of articles that go beyond reporting data or summarizing a body of work, providing a vessel for thoughtful speculation and healthy debate where authors can freely articulate their most exciting ideas. Moreover, by challenging authors to create intriguing hypotheses concerning their reviewed or original research, Hypothesis is committed to publishing entertaining articles suitable for all readers.

As this analysis is based on the secondary data, on the 'impact of computers in India' has its own null hypothesis.


Null Hypothesis:-

Ho:-

  • There is impact of computer in the society.

  • More and more children are focus on computer.

  • Physically they are being disable.

  • Health is been more affected.

H1:-

  • Children are becoming more intelligent.

  • Mentally strong.

  • They are focusing on new invention and work.

As the analysis was done on the basis of questionnaire:-

Name (first, last):

Class Password:

Year:

Sex: Male           Female

3. Do you own your own computer? Yes      No

4. In general, how familiar with computers would you say you are? (Select one)

Very Familiar       Fairly Familiar       Slightly Familiar       Not at All

5. How many times in a typical week do you send email?

Zero 1-5       6-10       11-15       16-20       1+

6. How many times in a typical week do you access the World Wide Web?

Zero 1-5       6-10       11-15       16-20       21+

7. How many times in a typical week do you access internet newsgroups?

Zero 1-5      6-10       11-15       16-20      21+

8. How many hours in a typical week do you spend in MUD activities? (Answer zero if you don't know what a MUD is.)

Zero 1-5       6-10       11-15       16-20       21+

9. How many hours in a typical week do you spend in internet "chat" groups? (Answer zero if you don't know what a "chat" group is.)

Zero 1-5       6-10       11-15       16-20       21+

10. In general, how positive or negative an experience for you is it to work with computers?

11. How many college courses have you taken in which there was some use made of the internet and/or the World Wide Web?

Enter Actual Number as Close as You Can:

12. What is your current, overall attitude regarding the use of computers in college courses?

13. Overall, how positive/negative do you think the impact of computer technology has been on human societies and cultures?

Very Negative       Somewhat Negative       Somewhat Positive       Very Positive

14. Specifically, how familiar with computers would you say you are relative to your roomate? (Select one)

Very Familiar       Fairly Familiar       Slightly Familiar       Not at All

15. As you think about the future, how positive/negative do you think the impact of computer technology will be on human societies and cultures in the coming years?

Very Negative       Somewhat Negative       Somewhat Positive       Very Positive

According to this analysis, I came to know that the society is fully depending on the computers. Most of the time the people are spending on computers. Although they are getting knowledge from it but the effect is equally disaster in their life.

So, to overcome this problem, the society should think about this.


Conclusion:-

Computers helped the world a lot and helped us take a large step into the future. Businesses and entertainment uses them to make profits, Education uses them to help educate students better, the Medical field uses computers in amny different ways, and other areas. Without the computers help, none of this would be possible. The world would be a dull and primitave place. No cures for diseases, ne good entertainment, less transportaion, etc. . . You see how the computers changed today's society? It changed society it a lot. You may think that the computer didn't impact you. If you play computer or playstation games, if you watch the latest movies like Wing Commander, or you did research on a topic for your school on computer, you were affected by the computer. Everyone was impacted by this remarkable device.

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