Artificial Intelligence is a branch of computer science which is concerned with the design of intelligence in an artificial device. In a view, artificial intelligence is about designing systems that are as intelligent as humans. We can also apply ai in computer science.(also wit the discovery names).
ž Solving of problems is done by understanding the human thoughts and then applying these thoughts in algorithmic form in machine understandable language.
ž AI is very wide topic which deals with various other fields like machine vision to expert systems.
This view involves trying to understand human thought and an effort to build machines that emulate the human thought process. This view is the cognitive science approach to AI.
ž All the fields of AI which have in common is the factors which makes the machines to ‘think'.
ž Why do we use ai????------ Computers usually solve the mechanical computations very easy by using some preset programming rules. This will make the artificial machines to complete their uncomplicated tasks efficiently and reliably which humans less tend to do.
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ž Computers have difficulty in understanding particular situations and adjusting to new situations unlike from humans. Here comes the AI which helps the machines to improve their behaviour in solving the critical problems.
ž In order to test the human intelligence better we write programmes which in turn shows how intelligent human is.
Based on abstract thought, high-level deliberative reasoning and pattern recognition, humans have very interesting approach to problem solving but AI helps us better understand of these process by recreating it which in turn helps us improve beyond our expectations.
ž Fields in which ai is used????-------- Various fields of AI whose main aim is to design intelligent machines are:
Ø Computer Science
Ø Psychology (human reasoning)
Ø Philosophy (nature of belief, rationality, etc)
Ø Linguistics (structure and meaning of language)
Ø Human Biology (how brain works)
ž Ai problems........ Intelligent systems has to solve both the ‘uncomplicated' and ‘expert' tasks.
ž Uncomplicated or mundane tasks like going to shopping:
Ø Planning a route and sequence of shops to visit.
Ø Recognising (through vision) buses, tubes, people etc.
Ø Communicating (through natural language)
Ø Navigating obstacles on the street and manipulating objects for purchase.
ž Expert problems like:
Ø Medical diagnosis
Ø Equipment repair
ž Applications........ There are plenty of applications which use AI.
ž Some of the applications from military which uses AI for autonomous control and target identification and in entertainment industry it uses AI for computer games and robotic pets.
ž Some of the other large establishments like hospitals, banks and insurance companies who handles huge information uses AI to predict customer activities and identify developments.
Search types-Uninformed Search
In the early days of AI, AI was a search, whether search involved looking for a plan, or through the various moves that are possible (and subsequent moves) in a game of Checkers. In this chapter on uninformed (or blind) search, the concept of search in various spaces is introduced, the representation of spaces for search, and then the various popular algorithms used in blind search are explored. This includes depth-first, breadth-first, uniform-costsearch, and others.
Informed search is an evolution of search that applies heuristics to the search algorithm, given the problem space, to make the algorithm more efficient. This chapter covers best-first, a star, hill climbing, simulated annealing, tabu search, and constraint satisfaction.