A Rationale Management Concept Computer Science Essay

Published: Last Edited:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Rationale management aim at capturing, representing and maintaining about the decision made by developer. Rationale includes the problem developers encountered, the option they investigate, the criteria they selected to evaluate option to making decision. Rationale is two different purposes discourse and knowledge capture. By making explicit the main decision making elements, rationale facilitates negotiation among developers by systematically clarifying the possible options and their evaluation against well-defined criteria. By capturing rationale, developers make explicit knowledge that is usually only implicit and can later examine the justification of certain decisions. "[1]"

In Rationale management have several reasons for integrating in software integration. First, system integration, as in design activities, involves the relationship of many participants from different background and requires the negotiated decision of many types of issues. It's also participants support, clarifies, issues and their related trade-off for the concerned. Second, software systems are complex and changing object. And this result is making and re-opening of many interdependent decisions. This is not only these decisions but also their dependency and the reason behind them services their revaluation later in the development process. The capture and organization of rationale, while introducing an overhead during early phases of development is useful during later and more expensive phases such as maintenance. The application of rationale management to software is not new for development. "[1]"

Rationale management Concept

System integration requires different types of knowledge depending on the tasks are doing. There are two different types of knowledge required; System knowledge pertains to the system under construction. This knowledge is represented by several models looking at the system from different point of view. For example, the requirement analysis model must be looking at the system form the end user point of view. The system design model implements the system in terms of components, conditions, and control for global declaration area. System knowledge is used by developer to design and validate statements at various stage of development module. System knowledge is part for gain during the project can be well designed and generalized for the advantage of the company. The design module represents the template solution for a common, local design problem. The work on knowledge pertains to the work required to develop the system, including knowledge for tasks, resources, roles and products. Working on knowledge makes clear to developer the responsibilities of each object and the tasks they are currently accomplishing. Work on knowledge is help to developers and management to monitor and plan on work during the development. "[2]"


This is not my own example I get form the internet: This example show you to how to work on ATM machine at concept of the Rational Management: This example represent relationship between two elements.


Responds-to is a consequence of Object to Support




Objects-to supports

Positive assessment

Negative assessment objects-to supports

Questions represent problems to be solved, such as a design issue, a need for clarification, or a disagreement.

Options represent considered alternatives for answering a question. Options include designs, changes to a document, or clarifications

Criteria represent qualities that are used to evaluate options in a certain context. Criteria include design goals (e.g., reliability, cheapness, performance) and management goals (e.g., on time delivery, under budget delivery). The assessment of an Option against a set of criteria is represented with assessment links between the option and the criteria nodes.

Arguments represent justifications of options or criteria as expressed by the participants. Arguments can support or oppose another rhetorical node."[1]"

Consider, for example, the following argument examining the authentication mechanism in the context of the development of an Automated Teller Machine (ATM): Considered three possible authentication mechanisms for the ATM:

1. The user enters an account number and a personal identification number,

2. The user inserts a card and enters a personal identification number, and

3. The user inserts his finger in a finger print scanner.

First option is the cheapest but the least secure. The third option offers the most flexibility to the user (no card to carry around and to lose, no personal number to forget) and is the most secure. However, the cost of the third option and the lack of security of the first option lead us to select option second. "[2]"

Levels of Rationale management

Capturing rationale represents an early investment of resources which needs to be traded off against the potential later benefits. In other words, not all types of projects may benefit from such an investment. In general, we distinguish between four levels of rationale use which depend on whether the rationale is captured and organized during or after development and how much rationale should be captured.

No explicit rationale capture: - The Resources are focused on development. No effort is invested in capturing or organizing rationale. Rationale information is present only as side effects of the development effort, such as in communication records (e.g., E-mail, faxes, and meeting minutes) and developers' memories.

Rationale reconstruction: - The Resources are spent in recovering and organizing rationale after the development is completed. Major goals, problems, and decisions are captured and justified based on records and developer knowledge. Discarded options and arguments are not captured.

Rationale capture: - Resources are spent in capturing rationale during development. The goal is to prevent the loss of information which occurs in the previous level. The rationale is then organized and completed after development.

Rationale integration: - Resources are spent to capture and organize rationale during development. This enables developers to also effectively access rationale. Rationale becomes an integral part of the development processes and tools. Rationale knowledge lives in an information base that is updated and augmented as development proceeds. "[3]"

Tasks of Rationale Management

In the following, we discuss the specifics of rationale management tasks, again separating strategic from operational tasks:

Strategic rationale management tasks include:

Identifying rationale goals: - As described in the introduction, typical rationale goals include:

Improve quality: - Software development involves the participation of stakeholders with different backgrounds and different objectives. Rationale improves the quality of decisions by making decision criteria and the evaluation of alternatives explicit.

Reveal complexity: - Software systems are characterized by their high complexity. Complexity results from the making of many interdependent decisions spanning different aspects of the system. This complexity can only be handled adequately, if these decisions

10 Handbook of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering and their dependencies are made explicit. Rational enables the traceability of decision making for improved understanding.

Support change: - Software systems have a long life cycle or are embedded into systems with a long life cycle. Consequently, developers and maintainers often need to deal with decisions that have been taken in the past by participants who are not part of the project anymore. Rationale enables the record of decision making information for future use.

Rationale measurement: - The needs to define specific metrics for evaluating the rationale management process and its results are according to the rationale goals. There have been only few quantitative studies about rationale methods. Most empirical studies have focused on the feasibility or the usability of rationale "[4]"

Operational rationale management tasks include:

Rationale identification: - Sources of rationale knowledge include all the persons involved in decision making throughout software development. This includes the developers, managers, reviewers, users, and clients. Only the issues involved in major decisions or all issues. In both cases, identification of major issues specific to particular domains and particular knowledge goals would be helpful. Thus, for example, if the goal is to enhance the quality of the decisions, then a classification of the issues which raise the most conflicts in the given domain would help to focus the rationale process on the essential issues. Similarly, to facilitate change, it would be helpful to know beforehand which decisions are most likely to be changed.

Rationale acquisition: - The argue that there is a significant difference between rationale acquisition during or after development. In contrast to most applications of knowledge management, rationale is best captured during project execution, not after the fact. It is impossible to reveal the rationale of a development without the developers. But even with the developers the actual arguments and challenges are hard to discover after the fact, since too many issues have been discussed. However, eliciting rationale during development imposes an additional burden on software process participants during their most stressful working period. Thus, a smooth integration of rationale capture into software development is mandatory.

Rationale development: - In rationale development, the rationale is consolidated and packaged. In particular, this is based on a particular model of how to represent and structure rationale. As for rationale acquisition, one important issue for rationale development is the Rationale Management in Software Engineering facilitation during software development. Often rationale acquisition and rationale development are intertwined. However, this imposes even more burden on the software developers. "[5]"

Rationale distribution: - As rationale is secondary knowledge attached to the development decisions, rationale distribution is best achieved by easy access to rationale starting from the decisions and vice versa. Thus, rationale models needs to be intertwined with the documented decisions. One obvious, but seldom implemented, consequence is that the decisions themselves need to be identifiable within the system documentation. Another important issue is, to alleviate the access to the rationale as much as possible. This can be achieved by a user-adaptable tool to browse, view and filter the rationale and the decisions.

Rationale use: - As the next section shows, there is a wide variety of rationale use. It can be used throughout any software process task. For example, the rationale behind a requirements specification or a prototype can be revealed to users and serve as a basis for requirements questions. Another example is that the rationale behind the system design can be used by maintainers to make better maintenance decisions.

Rationale preservation: - As with any knowledge, rationale is only useful if it is up-to-date. Thus, there needs to be some support for maintaining the rationale as long as it might be useful. At the same time, it is important to prevent uncontrolled collection of rationale which hinders access to important rationale. As with rationale development, to some extent this can be achieved, by a rationale maintainer. "[5]"

Question- [B]

I choose one organization they are using SAP Payroll system for attendance of employee and counting salary. This all system working on punching card and work with punching card device for register entry. The every entry should be entered on based on time and counting time for every single employee.

When you work in payroll, you know that there's a lot more going away on than gross-to-net calculations. Sometimes that may seem like the easiest part of payroll processing. The other tasks include making sure you have accurate pay rates, hours, overtime, and deductions; getting the cheques and pay statements to the right places, at the right time; answering employees' questions getting payroll information to financial systems, mortgage companies, benefits providers, and government agencies, squeezing in that late request for payment, the list goes on and on. And as soon as you've finished one payroll cycle, it's time to start the next one.

Sap payroll is the most full range of payroll administration system on the now days market. They provide excellent payroll processing of integration capabilities, functionality and flexibility as well also they support global payroll functionality, is design to manipulate compliance with the rules that impact payroll, and Support Company's requirement.

A big alternative to outsourcing is to implement software system for payroll calculations. Here, you need to recruit a dedicated payroll specialist or a team of payroll experts according to the size of the company. It will be done in house and all the details will be operated within the company. You should choose potential software which has various options that suits your company. Also you have to consider the pay scenarios while choosing the software. Mostly large scale industries prefer having a separate payroll section with all these software facility as they do not have to worry about any of the data. Everything will be maintained within their office premises. Here, you can have a personal access to all the details. Maintaining your payroll accounts using the software is much easier than doing it manually. It will reduce your entire administration burdens. You will be able to access to the particular data of an employee within few mouse clicks. There is less chances of making mistakes."[3]"

Payroll is the main processing engine of the SAP HR module and is fully integrated with Personnel Administration (PA) and Time Management (TM). As virtually all master data relevant to payroll processing is held within these two components, there is no real system distinction between data in PA, TM and Payroll.

Users who have traditionally maintained records on a stand-alone HR database are now directly maintaining records that will automatically be processed during the payroll run. They no longer have to inform payroll so they can update their own database leading to improved efficient and accuracy of data. This increased efficiency can allow faster processing for the payroll department and eventually allow payroll cut off dates to be extended."[4]"

With the ability to run the payroll overnight and multiple times the payroll team are able to keep checking and addressing errors, run reports through the payroll period allowing a more even distribution of their work load rather than the usual "peaks and troughs" of traditional payroll processing.

SAP Payroll provides a high level of functionality which includes statutory processing. The UK Payroll functionality includes:

SAP Payroll provides a high level of functionality which includes statutory processing. The UK Payroll functionality includes:

Automatic Recalculation of Back Dated Pay Adjustments (Retro Processing)

Processing of Statutory Absences Payments

Processing of Company Absence Pay Entitlements

All Statutory payments and deductions such as Court Orders, Student Loan and Tax Credits

Overtime calculation

Gross Up of payments

Pension calculations

Tax Calculations, P11d processing

NI Calculations

BACS processing

Posting Direct to Financials

Cost Distribution

Extensive Reporting Options

E-Filing capabilities

Publication of Payslips via ESS

Where back dated changes have been made to an employee's master data, SAP payroll will automatically recalculate (retro) an employee's pay and make any appropriate adjustments in the current period. "Up to Gross" figures will be affected by this process. "Gross to Net" processing will take into account the values carried forward from the adjusted periods. Therefore, when a back-dated pay rise is applied there is no need to manually calculate back pay. When this change crosses a tax year the yearend figures will not be amended and the adjustment carried forward to the new financial year. The Payroll results will highlight values carried forward from a previous financial year so they are easily reportable."[4]"

In SAP, up to gross and gross to net processing are carried out by the same payroll process. Once complete, a BACS file can be generated and sent, and results can then be transferred directly to Finance where SAP Payroll will also make the appropriate adjustments where back dated changes to employee cost assignment have been made.