A Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Company Computer Science Essay

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American Pharmacorp is a pharmaceutical manufacturing company that was established in 1995. This company manufactures herbal, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. One of the few companies in Trinidad that has herbal products registered with the Food and Drug for legal sale in the country. It is a pioneer and leader in the nutraceutical in Trinidad and Tobago. It manufactures scientific validated herbal products that are registered with the Food and Drug Authorities and also conventional pharmaceutical products in its retail outlet. It is the only company in Trinidad and Tobago that has the capability of manufacturing injectables presently. Its dosage form is capsules, tablets, oral liquids, ointments and creams, injectables and suppositories making it one of the most versatile manufacturing plants based in Trinidad and Tobago.

The area of study is focused on the customers. The business process within the business has sales representatives visit retail outlets every week throughout the country. If there is a short fall of goods, the client will call to place an order at the office. During visits the sales representative will carry the products at the same time and will take the clients order and delivers it one time.


A problem with American Pharmacorp is that the company is unable to start a new project, creating a membership database registration for transforming the retail outlet into a buyers' club, since the company is going to expand on their range of products and would like to give bonus gifts to customers when they spend a certain amount of money.

  • Tracking of customers charge can be a problem by not recalling which customer or client has taken goods on credit.
  • The misplacement of invoices can take time to look for and it is a costly process to have someone to search for it.
  • Not being able to record each and every clients' buying patterns, meaning what the buyers are accustomed purchasing at the store.
  • Preparation of the monthly sales and reports.
  • Billing is done manually so it takes up time
  • There are no invoices made up to help make decisions, so therefore it has to be done manually and it takes time.
  • Unable to effectively create a customer bonus program. With this in addition this would give customers more loyalty and a better customer database.


The solution is to build a Client Management System for American Pharmacorp using MS Access Database, thereby increasing customer satisfaction. The following are the objectives for the system:-

  • Keeping records of member names
  • Age
  • Address
  • Debit and credit charges
  • Deliveries and tracking of customers purchases

Having these records of the clients would be able to give customers a bonus giving back incentives to the customer once they reach a certain price on the threshold value.

  • To record all client details, this would include the creation of a Client Registration Form.
  • To record all sales of Client, through the use of an invoice.
  • To record the buyers purchasing patterns through the use of an invoice.
  • To record the delivery of goods that has been purchased.



According to ITC InfoTech, Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM) is a systems approach to the analysis and design of information systems. SSADM was produced for the CCTA, a UK government office concerned with the use of technology in government, from 1980 onwards.

Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodologies (SSADM) are commonly used when processes are done orderly and organized and it is an application famously used in the UK. SSADM aims to provide better project management, better control over the system, a good quality system and it conducts sufficient communication among the users on the system.

SSADM are divided into many segments where it starts from the feasibility study, which determines the cost of the project. Then the Requirement Analysis stage consists of studying the system and what requirements will the system need for users. The other important stage is the Requirements Specification which states the functional and non functional requirements. The Logical Design shows the detailed design of the system and the last important stage is the Physical Design which is the actual outcome of how the system would work.

The techniques used in SSADM are the Logical Data Model, Data Flow Model and the Entity Behaviour Model. The Logical Data Model describes the data of the system in a detailed form. It consists of entities and relationships. The Data Flow Model shows how the data in the system flows. The Entity Behaviour Model shows how entities in the systems are affected.


Object Oriented Analysis and Design documents and shows how large projects are managed. They locate and organize objects and how objects interact and work. The analysis presents a model of the problem. During the analysis it finds the problem and tries to solve it.

The Unified Modelling Language (UML) is one type of notation used to describe the models. Object Oriented Methodologies used are Notation, Process and Tool. Notation shows different classes with their interactions and relationships with each other. Process shows how steps are executed in the system. Tool is using softwares for the use of the drawings and having the documentation of the system.

The UML is a modelling technique that consists of two parts, the Meta- Model and the Notation. The Meta-Model consists of the objects, relationships and attributes in the system. The Notation model consists of the static elements and the dynamic elements. The static elements are attributes, classes and the relationships. The dynamic elements are objects, messages and finite state machines.

The Object Oriented Design builds a model to execute the specifications of the system. It goes through the implementation stage by finding the object and organizing it. Detailed information of the classes is then taken and the documentation is done.

Using Systems Analysis and Design Methodologies allows for full user interaction within the system, where the users are involved at every stage. Using this approach shows the system in three views and they cross referenced with each other. With the three modelling techniques, data flow diagram, logical data flow diagram and entity, they all identify, model and document the data in the system.


PROTOTYPING objective is to assist the users in a clearer idea of what the system requirements would be. It is divided into two parts, one known as throw away prototyping and the other evolutionary prototyping. Throw away prototyping is not the final system built but a mere model of how the system will work. Along the way in developing the model, errors may be shown and after the model is discarded. When throw away prototyping is being developed it has a feeble structure that is hard to up keep. Whereas in the evolutionary model each stage has to be thorough until it is ready at the final stage.

WATERFALL lifecycle was widely used and the first to be developed. The waterfall lifecycle has different phases. The phases found in the waterfall lifecycle are the Requirements, Design, Coding, Testing and Maintenance.

Requirements stage analyzes and shows the specification of how the system is to be built and interact. Design phase is based on the analysis, and then one can begin to design how the system should work. The coding phase is responsible for how the system is to be built. The next stage is the testing phase. Testing is so important when building systems to ensure that there are no errors on the system, so users would not have any problems. Maintenance phase is all about the up keeping of the system and ensuring it works properly and fixing any errors encountered.

Using the Waterfall life cycle ensures that documentation of the system is thoroughly done, and the waterfall life cycle follows in a sequential order where each phase must be completed before moving onto the next phase as it is dependent on the previous stage to be completed.