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Maiden choice hospital (MCH) positioned at Euston square London being the head quarters for other two of its branches located in Middlesex and Newham. The main aim of the hospital is to give patients special service treatments with very highly experienced physicians. And it's a non profit organization
Currently all the centres are operating by handling their individual database without having access with other centres. Now with the help of modern computer technology like networking and modern computer they need to establish a centralized database where the three hospitals physicians canbe able to obtain the data of all the patients, current medical standings, demographics, insurance, and laboratory results which are present in other branches as well. The system should allow only the physicians of newham and Middlesex hospital to access the data, no other then them can have access to the data.But in head centre branch all the support staff, practice staff can enter the patient's details. Diagram below describes the above picture:
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Middlesex hospital Newham hospital
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Euston square Hospital (Head Centre)
Fig. 1 Diagram of the 3 Hospitals
To achive the above model or to implement such things few reaserch has to be done like how much computers will be needed where should be the network access point should be there which hardware will be required etc.
RESEARCH AND SOLUTION:
These hospitals are having the 5 floors each.According to the available information there are 15 medical staff, 20 supporting staff and round about 300 patients in Middlesex hospital,25 medical staff , 50 supporting staff and around 250 patients in Newham hospital, and Euston Square hospital which is head centre got 30 medical staff, 80 supporting staff and around 450 patients. These can be shown like as follows....
Site Medical staff Support Staff Patients
The Administration is thinking to spend in a new ipv4 network and also willing to have the state of the art network technology that will be able to handle the project growth in the coming r next 10 years. And to achieve this are the following requirements
All the individual staff members are having their own computers, that means
Number. of computers required for staff (CR) = number of medical staff (MS)
+ No. of support staff (SS)
CR = MS + SS
15 + 20 = 35
30 + 80 = 110
25 + 50 = 75
So according to the above description we can imagine that, no of computers necessity for staff in Middlesex hospital is approx. 35 computers, Newham hospital is 110 computers, and all together number of computers requirement for staff in Euston Square is 75 computers, So all together no of systems required in all the three hospitals will be like as below:
(Middlesex +New ham + E Square) = (35+110+75) = 220 computer systems for staff.
Administrative department has decided that two terminals should be made available for every 10 patients and wireless access points should be there in vistor rooms for each centre.
Fig 2. This diagram shows that each hospital has 5 floors and each centre has its own server room .
Alltogether systems required for patients is calculated in proportion with 2 computers for 10 patieents.
So from above we can calculate that number of system requirement within a centre is as follow:
Number. of systems required in a site (CR) =total no of patients in a site (NS)* no of computers allotted /10
Total comp needed
We count over 60 computers that we need in Middlesex Hospital, the new ham requires around 90 computers and where as the headquarters need 50 computers for, need of 2 computers when they are shared by 10 patients
From the above data Middlesex centre has five floor, in which there are 300 patients which will be shared into 60 patients each floor, so 12 systems are required for the patients per floor. And 2 computers systems in visitor's room in each floor so the total comes to 10 computers for visitors throughout the hospital. So altogether 70 computer systems requirement for patients and visitors. And 15 computer systems for the staff.
Same above scenario will be applied in the other two hospital centres, New Ham have got 450 patients which can be scheduled as 90 patients per floor, so it comes to 18 computer systems for each individual floor for patients, 2 computer systems for visitors each floor so it comes to 10 computers per whole hospital for visitor. So total of 100 computers requires for patients and visitor's and there are also 30 member staff so for them it comes to 30 computer.
In the Euston Square hospital they have 250 patients approximately so it comes to 50 patients per floor, so they requires10 computers per floor and as well as 2 computers for visitors on each floor, so it comes to 60 computer for patients and visitors. And this centre has 30 medical staff and 80 support staff so they require 110 computer systems.
All the members of staff of hospital (medical and support staff) is equipped with their own computer.systems.
All the three Hospitals centres is configured with local computers with a number of terminals as shown in the table above for use by staff, patients and visitors.
Every each floor in three centres are having CCTV cameras and also video conferencing facilities installed so with the help of such equipments medical staff can share procedures and operations live instead of going to other sites.
All servers on on-site and off-site of the main head centre support Email, browsing, telnet ting, file downloading, online searching for useful information etc.
Also the wireless network is provided each floor so; Internet connection is provided to each patients from their own laptops and visitor can also gain with their laptop.
Intranet for management and staff should be provided.
Security is also been establishes to save the network from unauthorised access like patients can obtain the access to limited area to their own data .i.e, they can view about own previous transcriptions and medicines advices from medical staff and outsiders have access to limit to doctors time schedule and list of patients.
procedures to protect patient data and all the networks, only doctors and support staff at headquarters and in other hospitals to provide access to data that physicians have access to data and not support staff has beenÂ allowed.Â User ID and password have been allowed to medical staff and support staff.Â Each individual hospital has a backup server that makes the storage of data when void.
Network Monitoring Tool Tell us if the energy is break down, a LAN disconnected, the network is down, the possibility of server crashes, etc., so that we can be ready.Â The network provides information to improve the graphics performance and provides details on log files which allows problems.
As ActiveXperts Network performance monitoring network monitoring software to install for cases where too many staff, patients and visitors use the network to connect your laptop and use the center kiosks.Â These clouds PC monitoring, performance monitoring, tracking databases and capturing packets
Improve network performance on a system running is established
All three hospitals on five floors have wireless access available.Â mobile emergency vehicle to provide a mobile connection considered
Part 2: HARDWARE & SOFTWARE
Here we specify all thesoftware and hardware equipments necessary to establish the network for three hospitals.
Need to give access to internet and helpful to manage network.
Need to configure network and facilitates data transfer
Wireless network cards (NIC)
Used to connect wired network to wireless. Connects desktop PC's to wireless network (access point)
Wires like cat 5, twisted pair, ISDN (Integrated services digital network) cable, fiber optics RJ 45 cable.
Used for connecting the computer which are apart from each other with in same buildings.
Different operating systems are used for host computer and server. Example windows vista, windows XP for host computers and server 2003, Server 2008 e.t.c.
Firewall is software sits in between host computer and internet which looks after incoming and outgoing traffic and makes sure that no one hacks the computer.
Network Monitoring tools
These tools make sure that all the computers are running properly, if any host is failure it gives in formation and checks for network band width if down and takes appropriate steps.
Anti Virus Software
Antivirus is next to firewall if they by pass, it runs in host computers and checks for malware, acts has anti spyware.
Fig. 3 State of art of network diagram
Fig.3 above figure displaying three hospitals which are equiped with lans on each floor.
Fig.4 each floor displaying with visitor's room and patients room.
DATA AND SERVER ROOM:
Fig.5 Data and server room same for three hospitals.
Telemedicine is so much important for every hospital for giving quick and fast service to patients. So, all centres are now having there own mobile vans which contain all the equipment for surgeries when an accident is happened. These vans have high definition cameras and laptops which are connected to any of the three hospitals whichever is nearer. A doctor in the van can communicate with the specialist in hospital via laptop and camera and show the live treatment. The doctor in the hospital can talk with him on wireless phones. Mobile trolley is connected with WLAN PCMCIA using a IEEE 802.11b protocol.
IP Addressing Scheme
Fig.7 structure of three hospitals, how they are connected.
Brief discussion on TCP/IP
TCP/IP (Transmission control protocol) was developed to connect different network for transferring data from one network to another, to be able to transfer the data or communicate they have to use standard protocols over the network. These protocols are followed by every computer communicating with other.TCP makes sure that data is travelling to right destination from the source. Computers communicating with each other have to know IP address for sending and receiving the data. Transmission control protocol has 7 layers. Every data travelling through one computer to another should travel through these layers and have and will amended by the header at sending side and removed when traversing from bottom layers to top layer at receiver side. The figures below give a brief idea about how the packet (data) is traversed.
The above diagram shows the 5 layers out of seven layers. Physical layer looks after the connection from different wires and network cards, data link layer will divide the data into packets and sends to the destination via different routers whichever is free at that time and goes fast. Network layers deicide which network to travel from.
Every computer in a network is identified by IP address which is a 32-bit unique number. The IP address is divided into four bytes which is usually represented in dotted decimal format, such as 18.104.22.168. All computers on a particular network have a same network address and have a unique host address.
An IP address is typically represented as binary number.
For example, the IP address of 22.214.171.124 is actually
11000011.10001111.00000010 in binary. This way of representing an IP address is also known as dotted decimal notation.
Binary number and IP addresses are related to each other for this, it is important to understand the conversions from binary to decimal and decimal to binary.
A binary number is made up of a series of bits or binary digits. Each bit can be set to either 0 or 1. Bit values are based on powers of 2 and on the digit position, as shown. As IP addresses are groped in octets, sets of either bit, you'll look at the position value for an octet.
Classes of IP Address:
IETF standard defined five IP address classes lettered A through E. Only class A, B and C are in wide use today. The main difference between the three supported classes is the number of the bytes used for the host and network address. Table below shows the address.
No of Network
No of host per network
Three classes were designed to accommodate a wide range of networks, ranging from small number of network to a large number of host (class A) to a large number of network with small number of host (Class C).
We can develop (n) number of logical networks that exits within class A, B, or C networks. To subnet a network we use some bits from the host portion to create the subnetwork ID.
Consider network 126.96.36.199 which has a mask of 255.255.255.0.
Now 188.8.131.52 - 11001100.00010001.00000101.00000000.
255.255.255.224 - 11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000
Here we have taken three bits from host portion and will find subnet. we can create 8 subnets.
184.108.40.206 Host range from 1 to 30.
220.127.116.11 Range from 33 to 62.
18.104.22.168 Range from 65 to 94.
22.214.171.124 Range from 97 to 126.
126.96.36.199 Range from 129 to 158.
188.8.131.52 Range from 161 to 190. E.t.c.
Database System or Data Centre
1. Hospitals need to share data of all patients between staff and data should be same if the staff using different device.
2. We need persistent storage for the Hospitals.
3. Several users and/or several tools must be able to safely access the same data concurrently.
4. A Database server must provide more efficient access to large amounts of data, through indexing and other optimizations, such as patient's details.
5. A Database Server should also be used for communication between different users or applications.
6. Data Centre must have backup system and also must have availability, concurrency that can support 24 hour/7 day/365 day
1. Firewalls will help and support inbound packet filtering and Package Inspection
2. This firewall gives Protection from specific attacks
3. Network Address Translation (NAT)
4. VPN pass-through: to permit properly authenticated Internet Users
5. UPnP Support
6. Securing Wireless Networks
When a computer is communicating with other computers on internet there is a possibility that it can be accessed by unauthorized user from the internet and he can access the file and important information about the hospital. These can be avoided by providing user ID and Password and putting restriction like only read operation can be done no write operation, even we need to check weather proper firewall is running because the intruder can dump a virus file into the system from the network.
When a user is connected to outside network there is possibility of getting whole database corrupted as there are software programs which are run by the unauthorized user in remote network and gets into our computer as file with when we give a click on it, gets run and destroy whole database or will access all the user accounts and password from our system and the intruder is benefited. For this reason the computer, to be protected we need to have very good antivirus programs which will stop the intruder. Such programs are known asÂ spyware, viruses, worms, Trojan.
Part 6: VPN
Virtual private network provide private network for organisation or organizations over a public or private network. The link layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunneled through the transport network. A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connection or virtual circuits in some larger networks (such as the internet), as opposed to running across a single private network. One common application is to secure communications through the public Internet, but a VPN does not need to have explicit security features such as authentication or content encryption. For example, VPNs can also be used to separate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strong security features, or to provide access to a network via customized or private routing mechanisms.