A Database For A Student Information System Computer Science Essay

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Database usually refers to the use of modern computer technology to sort out all kinds of information orderly, easy to find and manage. In network marketing refers to the use of the internet to collect personal information, and archive management, such as: fname, lname, age, sex, address, phone number, consumer behavior and so on.

Database is an application that can be managing data and allows fast storage and retrieval of data. Database also is a collection of data, storing information; it is very easy to query the contents of the arrangement, managing and updates. Databases normally use to arrange in accordance with a format of data and information collection in order to facilitate easy and effective use of the data. For example: the database may be formed by the group of contracts, together with relevant information. It may contain bibliographic, numerical or other data, generally structured so that it can be sought and retrieved automatically. Relational database, the relationship between the data explicitly provided access to the same property.

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Database can be considered to automatically query and modify data sets. There are many types of databases; from the simplest form of various data stores to be able to carry out large-scale mass data storage in all aspects of database system has been widely used. The most popular is relational database that stores data in tables where each row in the table holds the same sort of information. Mostly, the database collection of a large number of data records or data files, such as sales transactions, product catalogs, inventory, and customer files. A typical database management system provides users with access to data, report generation and data analysis capabilities, SQL is a standard query language, and for database updates, and IBM, the same functionality.

The logic of the database is to share relevant data collection and the data description. Its purpose is to meet the information needs of an organization. Database system catalog (metadata) to provide data to make the program description data independence. Database logically related data comprises entities, attributer, and relationships of an organization's information.

In Question 2, we are using Microsoft Access to create relational database. Microsoft Access is a pseudo-relational system from Microsoft Office. Microsoft Access is widely used by small businesses, within departments of large corporations, and hobby programmers to create ad hoc customized systems for handing the creation and manipulation of data. Its ease of use and powerful design tools given the non-professional programmer a lot of convenience for little effort.

A relational database is a collection of relations or tables. The rows of a table in a relational database are known as tuples and each column of a table is called an attribute. By definition becomes a set of tuples having the same attributes. Operations, which can be performed on the relations, are select, project and join. The joining operation combines relations, the select queries are used for data retrieval and the project operation identifies attributes. Similar to other database models, even relational databases support the insert, delete and update operations.

Define Question 1

Application database is implemented as a collection of end-user services.Also, each program could be defines and manages its own data. It is a system that can view information to user. Database allows each user has his or her own views on the plan. It Is essentially a viewing a subset of a number of database. In the database, all users should be able to access the same data. A user's point of view is not subject to the views of other changes. In addition, the user does not need to know the physical database storage details. Only the DBA should be able to change, and will not affect the views of users, database storage structure. The internal structure of the database should be free from physical storage changes. In fact, DBA should be able to change all users, without affecting the concept of the database structure.

Answer of Question 1

In Question 1, we must create a Student Information System. In that database, we must include table and each table should have Primary Key stated and relationship between of them.

There are some relational keys that are including Primary Key. First is Super key. It is an attribute, or set of attributes, that uniquely identifies a tuple within a relation. Second one is candidate key; it is a minimal super key. Primary Key is a candidate key that selected to identify tuples uniquely within relation. Alternate keys are candidate keys that are not selected to be primary key. Last one is foreign key. It is also a set of attributes; it is within one relation that matches candidate key of some (possibly same) relation.

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Primary Key

Primary key is to record and store the data in others tables associated with it. At this point, the primary key is pointer. Normally, the primary key value for users is meaningless, and its value has to be given no special links. Primary key usually used for general inquiries faster; it is because there is an index in the above.

IP

Fname

Lname

Sex

Age

Address

Subject

1001

Yap

Lucky

F

20

7 Taman Untung

DIT

1002

Phang

Tommy

M

22

10 Sungai Siput

CICT

1003

Phang

Harry

M

19

10 Sungai Siput

CICT

1004

Bond

James

M

20

11 Taman Chemor

DIT

1005

Oh

Loser

M

19

69 Taman Bunga

DIT

1006

Elizabeth

Madonna

F

19

44 Taman Ipoh

DBM

1007

Lee

Anna

F

18

KLCC

DHM

1008

Valentine

Vincent

M

21

7 Taman Fantasi

DHM

1009

Strife

Cloud

M

19

8 Taman Fantasi

DBM

1010

Lockhart

Tifa

F

18

9 Taman Fantasi

IEP

Table 1: Student's Table

This table is the 1st table that showing 10 students who are studies in Olympia College Ipoh. In this table, there are 6 male and 4 female. 3 of them are studying DIT, 2 of them are studying CICT, 2 of them are studying DBM, 2 of them are studying DHM and the last one are studying IEP. The primary key of this table is TP.

By how to create table, we have to use Microsoft Excel. In the Microsoft Excel, we have to tape all of the title 1st, so that we can put all student information one by one into the table.

StuffNo

FName

LName

Sex

Age

Address

Subject

SN010

Pretty

Wong

F

28

Lucky Hotel

DIT

SN011

Handsome

Lee

M

25

Lucky Hotel

CICT

SN012

Olivia

Ho

F

30

12 Taman Ipoh

DHM

SN013

Emily

Chan

F

38

23 Taman Kinta

DBM

SN014

Andy

Lao

M

32

52 Jalan Pinang

IEP

Table 2: Lecturer's Table

This is the 2nd table. This table is showing who the lecturer is and what subject that are those lecturers teaching about. In this table, there is showing 5 lecturers' information. Each lecturer is teaching one subject. The Primary key of this table is SUBJECT. This is because SUBJECT is same information with Student table. In lecturer table, SUBJECT is relational with Student table.

IP

Fname

Lname

Subject

Result

1001

Yap

Lucky

DIT

C-

1002

Phang

Tommy

CICT

A

1003

Phang

Harry

CICT

A+

1004

Bond

James

DIT

A-

1005

Oh

Loser

DIT

I/W

1006

Elizabeth

Madonna

DBM

B+

1007

Lee

Anna

DHM

B-

1008

Valentine

Vincent

DHM

A-

1009

Strife

Cloud

DBM

B

1010

Lockhart

Tifa

IEP

A

Table 3: CRO Table

This is the 3rd table. This table is showing that result for all students. In this table, it is showing that some might pass, some might fail and lots of them get high score. The primary key of this table is IP also, and the IP is relational with the 1st table. Also, this table is showing about student subject.

IP

Fname

Lname

Sex

Subject

Pqyment

1001

Yap

Lucky

F

DIT

Y

1002

Phang

Tommy

M

CICT

N

1003

Phang

Harry

M

CICT

N

1004

Bond

James

M

DIT

N

1005

Oh

Loser

M

DIT

Y

1006

Elizabeth

Madonna

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F

DBM

Y

1007

Lee

Anna

F

DHM

N

1008

Valentine

Vincent

M

DHM

Y

1009

Strife

Cloud

M

DBM

N

1010

Lockhart

Tifa

F

IEP

N

Table 4: Casher Table

This is the last table. This table is showing most of the student information. Besides that, this table also showing the payment information of all students. It is showing that student has been or havens pay the fee. The primary key of this table also are IP. In this table, the IP primary key also relational with the 1st table.

Define Question 2

In question 2, we need to represent the database for the Student Information System Entity Relationship(ER) model. Besides, Question 2 needs Microsoft Access to represent database.

Microsoft Access

Microsoft Access is the database application from the Microsoft Office Suite of applications. It is a powerful personal database and data manipulation tool that is also widely used in many small businesses.

Microsoft access is released by Microsoft relational database management system. It combines the Microsoft Jet Database Engine, and two graphical user interface features. It is one of the Microsoft Office system programs. It could be access though the Access/Jet, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, or any ODBC-compliant database data. Skilled software designers and data analysts use it to develop application software, and some unskilled programmers and non-programmers while advanced user can use it to develop simple applications.

Answer of Question 2

Before creating database with Microsoft Access, we need to some step.

This table is showing that choosing Icon application. First, we should click on (start), and then we can see the (All Program). Click it, then it will come out the list, then we choose Microsoft Office. After that, choose and click Microsoft Access.

This is the second part; this table is showing what will come out after clicking the application. In this table, we need to click the (Blank Database). So on, it will come out the right side thing. Now, we can entry the file name, and it is Student Information System.

After create the database file, it will show this table. From now on, we can enter all student information. We must create at least 4 tables; there are Student table, Lecturer table, Casher table, and CRO table.

In this table, we have been taping all information into the table. In the student information, we have IP, FNAME, LNAME, SEX, AGE, ADDRESS and SUBJECT. In lecturer table, there are STUFFNO, FNAME, LNAME, SEX, AGE, ADDRESS and SUBJECT. In casher table, there are IP, FNAME, LNAME, SEX, SUBJECT and PAYMENT. In the last table, it is CRO table. In that table, there are IP, FNAME, LNAME, SEX, SUBJECT and RESULT.

After entering all information, we need to choose the Primary key. The primary key of student table, IP is the Primary Key. In the lecturer table, SUBJECT is the Primary Key. IP is set as Primary Key in Casher table. The CRO table's primary key also is set as IP.

This table showing that three table are relational with the last table. The main table is the student table. The lecturer is relational with student table with the subject primary key. The casher and CRO table are same relational with student table with the IP primary key.

From this table, we can see that all tables are relational with the student table. So the student table will be the main table.

This table showing that the lecturer is relational with the student table. After click the boxes, it will show the student information that the student who take the subject that is teaching by those lecturer.

This is the table showing the payment of all students, and this is the Casher table.

The boxes showing student have been or haven pay their payment.

This table shows the result of all students, and this is the CRO table.

The boxes showing the entire student result.

Conclusion & Recommendation

Database is a very powerful system. Database also can be say as software. It can be created to manage generalized database is usually called a database management system (DBMS). Several software architectures are possible: For smaller single user databases often all functions are managed by one program. Questions 2 are using relational model terminology. It is a relation and is a table with columns and rows. In relational model, user can request data from a relational database by sending it a query that is written in a special language, it usually a dialect of SQL. Although SQL was originally intended for end-users, it is much more common for SQL queries to be embedded into software that provides an easier user interface.

In this assignment, a relational database matches data by using common characteristics found within the data set. The resulting groups of data are organized and will be much easier for other user to understand it. Relational databases are currently the predominant choice in storing financial records, manufacturing and logistical in formation, personnel data and etc.

We are using Microsoft Access in question 2. Microsoft Access is a development environment used to create computer-based databases. To complement it, it ships with a programming language called Visual Basic for Application (VBA) and various libraries. This language and the libraries are used in a programming environment called Microsoft Visual Basic, which also ships with Microsoft Access.

In my opinion, there are some advantages of the relational databases. Relational database is based on set theory relations. A relational algebra relational database are supporting the relationship between set theory operations. In addition to mathematical set operations, namely union, intersection, difference and Cartesian product, relational databases also support the selection, project and relationship to join and division. These operations are unique relational database.

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Besides that, there are a few advantages of DBMS. It is having good control of data redundancy and data consistency. Users can search more information from the same amount of data. DBMS can use to sharing data, it also enforcement off standards and economy of scale. DBMS could be improved data integrity and security.

As my recommendation, database will improve in the future. It is because, the database normally is better to used for small company or business. If database for big company, it is more complexity and confusing.