A Concept Of Computer System Computer Science Essay

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All this component are the importance things to make a computer system and user can choose other type or size of the component to make a better performance of computer system.

Microprocessor is a main thing in the computer system, without Microprocessor the computer system cannot operate like usually. Microprocessor is a instruction of the operational system, that will instruct all the operational in the system. It�s also, will give a performance to computer run fast, and smooth.

Computer Memory is to store the data that user want to save the data in the computer system. There are several type, performance, physical, and many more of computer memory. Computer Memory will understand the function of the computer system to accept the data that user send through the electronic devices.

Question 1

Year by year, the cost of computer systems continues to drop dramatically while the performance and capacity of the systems continue to rise equally dramatically. Find out and write about the evolution of microprocessor system. Give an example to support your answer.

Microprocessor also known as CPU (Central Processing Unit) is a element that is to important to a computer system to give instruction at the system. Microprocessor is a powerful chip that can instruct the system that called a program. This program are commonly using a programming language code that is the basic programming (C, Visual Basic, Java, etc.). Early microprocessor, this microprocessor are used in a calculator, using binary-coded decimal arithmetic on 4-bit words. Then followed by 8-bit, 12-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, and 64-bit.

Bit is a binary digit is a smallest unit of data in a computer. Every bit, it only has two binary number that is 0 or 1. Commonly, every instruction of the system it always using this bit to instruct all the instruction, example to send or store the data. A computer will classified by the number of bits they can process at one time or by the number of bits they use to represent addresses. For a byte, it can reach only 8 consecutive bits. So, if the bits is more larger the faster the system will operate and more data can send at a time.

The microprocessor did not make any decision, if the external devices such as keyboard, and etc. did not make any instruction to the microprocessor. Example, when user are using the computer system, user want to open the window and want to make a copy of music to user pendrive. User have to push the ON button to start the window, and user need to give instruction to the computer system using mouse and keyboard. And copy-paste to the user pendrive.

Microprocessor cannot work if other devices are not connected such as RAM, FAN, POWER SUPPLY. All this devices are very common thing to microprocessor working well. Example, FAN need to fix it on the microprocessor to give microprocessor always cool. If the microprocessor are not in a cool, the microprocessor will be lack. POWER SUPPLY is to give enough electricity to the microprocessor operate well, and RAM is a backup to the microprocessor to read the instruction and to store the data to operate the system.

Each day, the cost of microprocessor is more cheaper, but the performance are become high. This situation because, every user want a better performance to use computer system without any lack and stuck while doing the work or playing games. Nowadays, many of games are came out to fast. User want a better performance to playing games in the computer system without any stuck.

Intel is the famous microprocessor that user are using nowadays. The latest type of microprocessor are Intel Core i7. This microprocessor is the latest microprocessor and the better performance that user will get on it. The microprocessor is the faster processor that can give a satisfaction to a user when using a computer system. It will support any graphic card to user playing games more real and fun, without any stuck or lack.

Two types of processor are manufactured, the microprocessor and the microcontroller. Microcontroller is dedicate to input/output treatments, some of the input/output can became slow or fast which is when to send the data or receive the data. Usually microcontroller are include with the programming of manner internal in a memory of ROM type and working memory of the type RAM.

Processor are required 3 bus system which is :

� A data bus

� An address bus

� A control bus

A bus is a line of communication which is connect to 2 or more digital circuit. The address bus makes it possible the processor to communicate with the peripheral via its address. An address bus consists of several lines. An address bus 8 bit corresponds to 8 lines of addresses and can thus address 2 8 different addresses, that is to say 256 different addresses, and so on. The higher the number of line of address is, the more the processor is able to manage peripherals. The data bus consists of a certain number of lines. All the capacities of the data buses are indicated under 8 lines of data in byte or in multiple of 8 bits, the current processors use 64 lines of data for example. Thus 1 MB of memory means 1 MB under 8 lines, that is to say 8 Mb (Mega bits).

Question 2

Computer memory is one of the technologies that are used to store information in electronic device. Compare the various types of memory in terms of capacity, performance, access methods, physical types, and characteristics.

Memory is a electronic devices that will instruct or send a data that user computer microprocessor can reach quickly and faster. Usually a computer with in a normal operation, common memory is contains the main parts of the operating system and some of the application program and related data that are being used. Memory are usually known as RAM (Random Access Memory). This RAM is located near to the microprocessor in user computer system. The more RAM that are use in the computer system, the less frequently the computer system has to access instruction and data from the more slowly access hard disk form of storage. There are more types of memory after RAM, type of memory which is :

� PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory). A PROM is a memory chip on which you can store a program. But once the PROM has been used, you cannot wipe it clean and use it to store something else. Like ROMs, PROMs are non-volatile.

� EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory). An EPROM is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light.

� EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory). An EEPROM is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to an electrical charge.

Each RAM memory has it own capacity which is in :

� 256MB

� 512MB

� 1GB

� 2GB

The more bigger the capacity the more better performance user will get in the computer system. Nowadays, in a computer system the capacity of the memory can reach until 4GB to 6GB. The memory will give a system a faster performance when user want to use a computer system. Example, if user are using the memory of the capacity only 512MB, the performance of the computer system are become slower. If the user are using 1GB of the memory, the computer system are become more faster than before.

For example, when user want to start the computer system, sometimes if user are using low capacity of the memory the computer system will enter the window in slow way. Different with the big capacity of the memory, a computer system will become more faster and the system can become more stable when user are using computer system more than 3hours.

Nowadays, RAM can be differentiate in several type of RAM which is DDR, DDRII, DDRIII. This RAM are will be separate into CPU and notebook, for CPU RAM it will be using a SDRAM, and for a notebook it will be using a SODIMM. The size of the RAM are different, for the SDRAM it more bigger than the SODIMM, because the space of the notebook and CPU are different. Below show the differences between SDRAM in figure 1 and SODIMM in figure 2.

Figure 1 Figure 2

ROM (Read Only Memory) is a different from a RAM, it only can read the and hold the instruction for starting up the computer system. ROM is a memory that only can read the memory and instruct each of the instruction in the computer system. Example, CD-ROM is a type of memory that can insert a disk into it to play the song, movie, or any of the instruction in the disk it have. When user insert a disk into the CD-ROM, the disk can play only but cannot give any instruction to it.

Additional of computer memory to store data is HDD(Hard Disk). HDD or its known as Hard Disk is a memory that can store a data such as file, music, video, and etc. An HDD also often called a "disk drive," "hard drive," or "hard disk drive," that stores and provides relatively quick access to large amounts of data on an electromagnetically charged surface or set of surfaces. Nowadays, computers typically come with a hard disk that contains several billion bytes (gigabytes) of storage.

Usually one computer system are using 320GB of capacity of the HDD to store the data in the HDD. Computer system need this HDD to save the window and to install the driver to run the computer system. Example, one computer system it have motherboard, RAM, processor, power supply and etc. All this component are link to use the window such as XP, Vista, 7. HDD will be format using the cd that will put it the cd in the CD-ROM. This CD-ROM will read the cd to reboot the system. After finish the reboot from the cd, the HDD will save all the data in the partition that user make it in the HDD. This partition is to use to save the data and save the software that user install in the computer system. Usually the partition is local disk C that are use to store the data and to save the installation software or driver.

An HDD are connected to the motherboard using the sata to connect the HDD to a motherboard. Hard Disk are really a set of �disk�, which is, each of the disk has data recorded electromagnetically in the circle or �tracks� on the disk. The head of the Hard Disk is to record or reads the information of data on the tracks. There are two heads, one of the head is side of a disk, and the other one is read or write the data as the disk are spins. Every read or write operation requires that the data be located, which is an operation that are called a �seek�. But, the data is already in a disk cache, somehow, the data will be located more quickly.

The Hard Disk/Drive unit, the speed of the Hard Disk/Drive come with a set rotation speed varying from 4500rpm to 7200rpm. Which is, it means the disk access time are measured in milliseconds. Today�s Hard Disk, even though the physical location can be identify with cylinder, track, and sector locations, it is actually are mapped to a Logical Block Address(LBA), which is mean it works woth the larger address.

An HDD can be two types which is internal HDD and external HDD. Internal HDD are usually use in the computer system whether in CPU or in the notebook. External HDD are light and easy to carry to anywhere, it will use a USB connector to connect the HDD to the computer system which is want to send the data, transfer the data and etc.

SUMMARY

In this assignment, I have explore about the microprocessor system and computer memory. In this world user want a better performance and do not have any problem when user using the computer system. That is why microprocessor is too important in the computer system.

Microprocessor is the main thing in the computer system, because it is the main memory that have to read and give instruction to the computer system what to do next. Microprocessor also can give a better performance to the user, so that when user using the computer system, the computer system will be fast and do not have any stuck when using the computer system.

Computer memory is to store the data that user want to save it. There are several computer memory which is RAM, ROM, HDD, external HDD. All this computer memory have their it own function. For the better performance to the computer system are RAM, RAM can give the faster performance to the computer system. It also have it own capacity. All the memory that I concern have it own capacity of size.

In this era, microprocessor and computer memory is important to the computer system. So that, user can use the computer system very well.

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