This project is a research on a network that does not exist on to the market yet. It is a research of promising future to the global society. The main objective is to find out how will it be different from the current network onto human lives when it is introduced and when will it be officially published and used. More details of this upcoming network have been cleared out and enlightened in this project.
To sum up all 4G is a fourth generation network that is not officially introduced to the global market. It is promised that is it will improve more of the human living standards and satisfies most human requirements. It will obviously be better than the current network, 3G in many ways.
The speed will be 50 times of that in 3G network.
The capacity of users and provision of service will be greater than that of 3G
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The architecture of the network will be designed to be fault tolerant
The network will be built to provide a flexible but higher security
The media is promised to be rich in application therefore more content flow
Some of the information in this project was gathered or provided by the companies that are still on research about the 4G and some of which was gathered from wireless multimedia communications books. Reference to all sources is provide or stated in the appendices.
Table of Contents
Aims of 4G
Importance on human life
Definition of wireless
Evolution of wireless network
Application of 4G and 3G
Requirements of 4g technologies
Challenges to be faced when changing to 4g networks
Device to be used in 4G
List of Figures
List of Symbols, Abbreviations and Nomenclature
WiMax-Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
1G-first generation network
2G-secong generation network
3G-third generation network
3GPP-third generation network partnership project
4G-fourth generation network
GSM-Global System for Mobile
WCDMA - Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
HSPA - High Speed Packet Access
LTE - Long Term Evolution
TTI-Transmission Time Interval
IMT-International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced
TDD-time division duplex
GPS -Global Positioning Systems
FDD- Frequency division duplex
QoS- Quality of services
CDMA -Code Division Multiple Access
4G networks is the latest and fourth generation network which has much greater improvements as compared to the last network 3G. It is improved in various aspects like transmission rate/ bandwidth, network accumulation and capacity.
1.1 AIMS OF 4G
Multimode user terminal; this technology intends to propose smart antennas and software radio to achieve terminal mobility or change of location while still trying to access the network.
Wireless system discovery and selection; they intend that the network will provide an interconnection between all service providers in a region for the finale user to choose for their own desired network having the best signal.
Personal mobility; this technology intend to provide users their massages no matter where they are and what devices they are using.
Security and privacy; the service for 4G intends to provide a security that is flexible for users.
Fault tolerance; this is whereby when one system shuts down the whole system suffers the damage. The 4G network intends to provide a system that will be fault tolerant.
Billing system; 4G wireless system intends to provide the user with all available service providers for user to switch between then. The system will then introduce a billing architecture that provides a single bill for all services used.
1.2 IMPORTANCE ON HUMAN LIFE
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
1.1.1 Enhanced GPS Services
In addition to locating individuals, a 4G version of GPS technology might be able to virtualise people or cars at a variety of places.
1.1.2 Media-Rich Applications
As bandwidth barriers fall, the media will have rich content flowing seamlessly between devices. Media-oriented applications (especially as data download speeds reach or exceed 100 megabits per second) would be more advanced.
1.1.3 Navigational Aids
It intends to navigate geographical representation of building in large places accessed by moving cars
Telemedicine would be used as a life saving application where a paramedic assisting the victim of a traffic accident in remote locations can access medical records and have video-conference assistance from a surgeon for an emergency intervention.
1.1.5 Very High Data Rates
4G will represent another quantum leap in mobile internet speeds and picture quality because the speed will be up to 50 times than that available on 3G that is data rates will be around 100 Mps for 4G services.
1.1.6 Virtual Presence
For the first time the technology will be providing a service that will be three dimensional and virtually real. This will make viewers fell like they are in an event even if they are not
1.1.7 Distance learning
4G could be important when it comes to distance advanced learning, meaning having classes at home. Video conferencing could be an aspect in this activity because high quality video in this technology could be transmitted at real time.
1.1.8 Fast contend delivery
Information could be easily accessed faster which might avoid the delaying of time. Most people are impatient to wait for a response to a request that has been done in a longer time and by using this technology the time wasted on accessing information could be avoided.
1.1.9 Mobile banking
With this technology the network is promised o be secure so online banking would be one of the priorities to be considered. This is because wireless network is easy for hackers to hack in information and used it to their own advantage, so the transformation of signal has to be so much secure to transmit and be received without being corrupted. One of the aspects of this technology is to secure the network from being hacked into.
The technology uses a modem small like a USB or flash drive. With this device one can access signal from every direction within the region. One can gain access when in a car, at home, in a road or everywhere and the bit rate would still exceed the one in 3 G technologies.
More gaming technology and multimedia would be advanced in this technology bring more pleasure to the end users. The games would be played online at a high quality rate, and the download and using of multimedia would be much more exciting.
1.3 DEFINITION OF WIRELESS
This wireless is a transmission of data through remote transmission system that uses electromagnetic spectrum waves such as radio waves as a carries to the signal. Frequencies are set in range to be carried as by electromagnetic spectrum as data source.
The following figure 1.1 shows electromagnetic spectrum waves used as a carrier to the data to be transferred.
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Figure 1.1 shows electromagnetic spectrum
1.1.1 Electronics Application
Electronics is much more applicable and important in technology. From since World War 2, it has been useful in communication field. Because of electronics there are mobile phones, lap tops, satellites, television, automatic car and super computers. For all of these to connect we also need electronics.
Electronics is mostly important in transferring of data or signal. Some of the components in electronics are used to transmit process and receive signal. Some signal could be transmitted wireless and some could be transmitted via cable but in this case we will be discussing on how signal is transferred through space or on wireless.
In a radio station signal is processed in electrical form and then transmitted into space using antennas. When transmitted into space these antennas convert electrics signals into electromagnetic waves like radio wave which could carry the signal to a destined place. The transmitter converts low- level audio signal to modulated shifts. In a destined place there is a receiver. This device is used to demodulate the signal that has been received and amplifies it to be the same as original signal. But before demodulation, the antenna converts the electromagnetic wave into electrical signal which could be easily understood by components in a receiver for filtration and processing for outputting.
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The following picture shows a process of transmitting signal wireless.
The above figure 1.2 shows a transceiver which receives and transmit information at the same time using one antenna
The following process shows transmitter section block
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The above figure 1.3 shows a transmitter dialog box
This device has modulator, frequency synthesizer and RF amplifier.
Modulator- convert original into modulated radio signal.
Frequency Synthesizer- it creates a specific RF frequency which is used to transmitted signal
The following process shows receiver section block
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Figure 1.4 above shows a receiver dialog box
It processes RF signal into low frequency signal that can be demodulated into the original
The signal is passed onto the filter which removes the unwanted radio signals outside the channels designated for wireless. Frequency within the desired band is then amplified and demodulated, but before demodulation the filter signal will go to the second frequency mixer to convert IF frequency into a lower frequency.
These are passive devices. They do not decrease nor amplify the signal but rather provide signal gain. If the direction of the antennas is focused on to the direction of the source the signal strength would be strong, but if the direction changes the signal would e weak. The communication can have a greater distance if the signal is stronger and direction is accurate. But if not then the communication distance would not be greater.
The following picture shows an antenna normally used in base stations
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Figure 1.5 above shows an example of an antenna
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Figure 1.6 above shows an example of satellites
They are able to provide communication over a wide geographical area.
They are put in space because there is little or no air to damage them.
They are both receivers and transmitters
They are used everyday
They can link many user simultaneously
They have types of services
MOBILE SATTELITES SERVICER; which have land mobile, maritime mobile and aeronautical mobile. Service used in mobile communication
BROADCAST SATTELITES SERVICE; they normally broadcast directly to home. Used for television signal transmitter
NAVIGATION SATTELITES SERVICE; they are used in global positioning system
MATERIOLOGICAL SATTELITES SERVICE; they are used for search and rescue
From the above satellites we use Mobile satellite service for the technology of 4G.
1.4 EVOLUTION OF WIRELESS NETWORK
Figure 1.7 above shows evolution of mobile phone from the 1st generation on the left to the latest on the right
1.1.1 First Generation Network
The 1st generation wireless network was established in the 1980s and it was known as 1G network. It was an analogue network and could only transfer or carry voice traffic. Analogue phones were used this network for communication.
1.1.2 Second Generation Network
The second generation wireless network was 2G network and was introduced in the early 1990s to allow more transmission per communication i.e. the capacity and speed of network and bandwidth was increased as compared to the 1st generation network. This network was a digital network, and this was about one of the thing that made 2G different from 1G.
1.1.3 Third Generation Network
During the late 1990s the third generation network 3G network was introduced. It was introduces to allow multimedia applications. It took nearly a decade to be fully operational for the engineers to improve the data transmission of the network.
3GPP is a third generation partnership project and it is collaboration between groups of telecommunication associations. It has the following technologies
GSM: Global System for Mobile
GSM include GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) and EDGE
(Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution)
WCDMA - Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
HSPA - High Speed Packet Access
LTE - Long Term Evolution
3GPP2 is also a third generation partnership project in collaboration with groups of telecommunication association.
1.1.4 Fourth Generation Network
The fourth generation network was introduced but not yet published in 2009. It is not yet rolled into the global market because of some ongoing research about the technology. It is promised to be much more effective on speed, video technology and security of the network. The network will still use some of the accessories used in 2G and 3G to reduce cost hence Legacy.
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The photograph in figure 1.8 above states â€˜4G WORLD WELCOM TO ANYWHEREâ€™ meaning that with 4G technology one can access internet or go online where ever and whenever they wish to. It is a reliable network ever to be used having a high speed without cable and very much portable. With this network it is promised that everything is possible for example being on a bus while chatting on face book with your friend or streaming movies while you are on a trip to someplace. One can also use it in the sea because its access has a wide range of signal from source to finale user.
1.5 APPLICATION OF 4G AND 3G
It has a promising download speed of 1 Giga bit per second, which enable it to stream more efficiently and simple. This is because of the implementation of WiMax other than Wi-Fi which already exists and used to support 3g technology.
It could use this download speed for high quality video conferencing and high quality games online New published HDTV uses this technology to broadcast high definition television.
WiMax has a wide range of signal from base station and it does not require direct line of sight between source and user.
WiMax can provide up to 1000 users at a time including businesses and organizations. That is higher usability and global roaming.
4G data rate is expected to be 50 times higher than 3g systems.
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Figure 1.9 above shows a difference between the two technologies i.e. 4G and 3G
Figure 2.0 shows the architecture of a 4G technology
The third generation has a download speed of 600-800 Kbits/sec which is way less than that of 4G. The 3G download speed limits it to download only high quality sounds, use global roaming, and mobile TV and distance video surveillance.
3G or Wi-Fi has a limited range and it requires direct line of sight from source to user.
1.6 REQUIREMENTS OF 4G TECHNOLOGIES
For the development of 4G material that transmit or makes it possible for this high transmission rate to take place had to also be develop. The following is a list of techniques used to make 4G possible to occur.
Smart Antennas; these antennas can speed up the space-time data exchange rates
Spatial Multiplexing; Series of antennas linked to a single transmitter and receiver
MIMO; (Multiple input multiple output) the system increase the data throughput for mobile high-speeds and capacity of the wireless channel at the transmitter and receiver.
Figure 2.1 above shows the MIMO system antennas
It will work include technologies of 2G, 3G, Microwave access for metropolitan areas and Bluetooth or small wireless application.
Only packet switched networks
4G could be built on 3G spectrum but higher capacity demand might form a need for even more spectrum
Modulation in 4G is more efficient than in 3G
Use of IP v6 to support large number of devices that are enabled to support wireless
Every device will be both a transceiver and a router hence eliminating spoke and hubs
They will be using beam forming to allow multiple subscribers simultaneously at different sectors to use spectrum bandwidth.
OFDM uses frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) to limit interference and allow reuse.
Flash-orthogonal-frequency-division multiple (OFDM) would have high speed wireless broadband solution
HSDPA use packet scheduling which maximize system throughput while satisfying QoS requirements of users and assigns which user share transmission channel
By using a higher-order modulation and coding schemes the system throughput will increase.
Use of ad hoc networks to provide the opportunity to exploit variations in channel condition and transmit to the user employing the current best channel.
1.7 CHALLENGES TO BE FACED WHEN CHANGING TO 4G NETWORKS
Human and software bugs
Service to be provided might not be trusted as there are so many service providers to choose access from
It is a network to provide good mobility but yet less privacy as there would be tracking systems to individuals
There will be a challenge to the users as to which service provider is to be accountable
1.8 DEVICE TO BE USED IN 4G
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Figure 2.2 shows HTC mobile phones
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Figure 2.3 shows Samsung laptops
Figure 2.4 shows the Latest iphones as one of the devices to be using 4G network
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Figure 2.5 shows a modem to be used in a 4g technology. One of which will improve the portability of the network
This device is a modem that is going to be used as a link for the 4G technology. It is a pen drive modem, portable to carry in a pocked and use everywhere at anytime.
4G technologies are promised to bring important features to human life that will upgrade the current lifestyle for people.
Electronics is the main application of wireless technologies and it is because of electronics application that wireless technologies exist. Circuits making a transmitter, receiver or transceivers are made using electronics application to make the transmission of wireless data possible.
The 4G technologies have evolved from previous technologies i.e. 3G, 2G and 1G as a way of legacy to the technologies. The changes in equipments that 4G has are not greater as compared to the current technology 3G. This is because it is expensive and not easy to convert to another technology without using the resource for the existing one. Even though 4G will be using some of the resource in the current technology, some of the products or devices would be introduced to suite the technology or to make it possible.
4G wireless systems are expected to extend wireless services to high data rates in high-mobility environment. With this technology the challenges that will be face will be on the service, the system and the mobile stations. 4G will be a convergence platform providing a clear advantage in terms of coverage, bandwidth and power consumption. As a result of increased speed multimedia supports and other resources will be improved.