Zig Bee technology

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Here I want to share some of my views, which I came across while making this term paper. Our respected sir Mr.Gagandeep Singh has assigned me a topic of "Zig Bee technology". For this I took help of some of my friends who made me understand certain clause and Google search engine.

So with this combined help I have completed work. This was an interesting topic and I came to know many advantages of it from which I was unaware off.


There are many data transfer and voices wireless technologies such as Bluetooth, GSM and Wi-Fi. These technologies have been developed for people to communicate and large data transfer. These all wireless technologies all share one property a relatively large amount of data is sent, at high data rate. But when we wanted to send tiny amounts of data? Then we need Zig bee technology.

Zig Bee is wireless technology that uses a low-cost, low-power, wireless networking standard. The low cost allows the technology to be widely deployed in wireless control and monitoring applications, the low power-usage allows longer life with smaller batteries, and the mesh networking provides high reliability and larger range

The ZigBee specification identifies three kinds of devices that incorporate ZigBee radios, with all three found in a typical ZigBee network.

  1. Zig bee coordinator: it organizes the network and maintains routing tables
  2. Routers: it can communicate to the coordinator and pass data from other devices. It can talk to the other routers, and to reduced function end devices.
  3. Reduced function end devices: it can talk to routers and the coordinator, but not to each other


Robert poor wanted to launch a very low cost wireless networking like a Bluetooth and Wi-Fi but these are not more suitable in many applications. So he launched zigbee in1997 at MIT Media labs. Commercial companies have now emerged from these research efforts, and they available the product like radio chips and software. It was realised that this technology must be:

  • Low cost
  • Easy to install
  • Reliable

Zig bee technology become released and follows these features. Considerations led to the realisation that the ideal network topology would be a mesh network, with peer-to-peer communication.

IEE802.15.4 mainly designed for low cost and low power wireless solution. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard was completed in May 2003.

  • In the summer of 2003, Philips Semiconductors, a major mesh network supporter. Philips Lighting has, however, continued Philips' participation, and Philips remains a promoter member on the ZigBee Alliance Board of Directors.
  • The ZigBee Alliance announced in October 2004 that the membership had more than doubled in the preceding year and had grown to more than 100 member companies, in 22 countries. By April 2005 membership had grown to more than 150 companies, and by December 2005 membership had passed 200 companies.
  • The ZigBee specifications were ratified on 14 December 2004.
  • The ZigBee Alliance announces public availability of Specification 1.0 on 13 June 2005, known as ZigBee 2004 Specification.
  • The ZigBee Alliance announces the completion and immediate member availability of the enhanced version of the ZigBee Standard in September 2006, known as ZigBee 2006 Specification. During the last quarter of 2007, ZigBee PRO, the enhanced ZigBee specification was finalized.

Zig bee Architecture:

Zig Bee technology are implemented by layered of OSI model so it architecture of same as OSI model of networking. It works on the three main layer of OSI model physical layer, MAC data link layer, network and application layer. The Zig Bee stack uses the IEEE 802.15.4 Physical and Medium Access Control (MAC) Layers.

  • The physical layer is the lower layer of zig bee stack. It was designed to accommodate the need for a low cost and for high levels of integration. This layer specified by IEE802.15.4 and it describes a peer-to-peer radio using direct sequence spread spectrum and direct sequence uses for simple analogy circuit.
  • In the zig bee technology there are multiple topologies are used .The media access control (MAC) layer was designed to allow multiple topologies without complexity. The power management operation doesn't require multiple modes of operation. The MAC allows a reduced functionality device (RFD) that needn't have flash nor large amounts of ROM or RAM. The MAC was designed to handle large numbers of devices.
  • The zig bee specifies the logical network, security and application software which are implemented by zig bee architecture. The network layer has been designed to allow the network to spatially grow without requiring high power transmitters. The network layer also can handle large amounts of nodes with relatively low latencies. The application is defined by profiles, it is two types: public and private.

Zig bee network uses three devices types:

  1. Full function device (FFD)
  2. Network coordinator
  3. Reduced function device (RFD)
  • The full function device (FFD): It supports all 802.15.4 functions. It can perform function for any topology. It can capable of being the Network coordinator. It can talk to any other device.Additional memory and computing power make it ideal for network router functions or it could be used in network-edge devices. It generally line powered.
  • Network coordinator: It maintains overall network knowledge. It can acts as an intermediate router. It's the most sophisticated of the three types and requires the most memory and computing power.
  • Reduced function device (RFD): It has limited to star topology. It communicates with full function devices and serves as routers. It cannot become a network coordinator. Its implementation is simple for RAM and ROM and implemented with low costs. It generally battered powered.

Zig Bee advantages:

  1. The typical Zig Bee radio is extremely cost-effective. So Zig Bee has low cost.
  2. Zig Bee has low power consumption and its radios operate at 1 mW RF power.
  3. It is reliable and self configuration.
  4. It Support for multiple network topologies: Static, dynamic, star and mesh.
  5. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS).
  6. It supports large number of nodes. Up to 65,000 nodes on a network.
  7. Collision avoidance.
  8. It is very secure so it has privacy.
  9. Clear channel assessment
  10. It can be used globally.
  11. It has easy to develop and it has long battery life.
  12. Security and data integrity is the main benefit of zig bee technology. The Zig Bee specification provides a security toolbox approach to ensuring reliable and secure networks. Access control lists, packet freshness timers and 128-bit encryption based on the NIST Certified Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) help protect transmitted data.

Uses of Zig bee: Zig bee requires low data rates and low power consumption.

It uses in these areas:

  • Home Entertainment and Control- Smart lighting, advanced temperature control, safety and security, movies and music
  • Home Awareness- Water sensors, power sensors, smoke and fire detectors, smart appliances and access sensors
  • Mobile Services- m-payment, m-monitoring and control, m-security and access control, m-healthcare and tele-assist
  • Commercial Building- Energy monitoring, HVAC, lighting, access control
  • Industrial Plant- Process control, asset management, environmental management, energy management, industrial device control

Zig Bee Applications:

  1. Zig Bee is wireless networks with low-cost, low-power solutions.
  2. It provides remote control, battery-operated products and sensors.
  3. It provides the ability to run for years on inexpensive batteries for a host of monitoring applications: Lighting controls, AMR (Automatic Meter Reading), smoke and CO detectors, wireless telemetry, HVAC control, heating control, home security, Environmental controls, drapery and shade controls, etc.
  4. Zig Bee networks consist of multiple traffic types with their own unique characteristics, including periodic data, intermittent data, and repetitive low latency data.
  5. It manages energy resources, save cost. This technology takes positively impact on the environment and management of energy demand, while improving comfort and safety in buildings and homes.


Zig bee plays an important role in the future of computer and communication technology. Zig bee is 32 KB stack size and the other wireless technologies have low stack size as 4KB. On the basis of IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee is designed for remote controls and sensors, which are very many in number, but need only small data packets and, mainly, extremely low power consumption for life. The ZigBee Alliance targets applications across consumer, commercial, industrial and government markets worldwide. Unwired applications are highly sought after in many networks that are characterized by numerous nodes consuming minimum power and enjoying long battery lives. ZigBee technology is designed to best suit these applications, for the reason that it enables reduced costs of development and very

Fast market adoption.


  • http://www.zigbee.org/en/documents/zigbeeoverview4.pdf
  • http://www.palowireless.com/zigbee/tutorials.asp
  • http://www.zigbee.org/en/resources