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Every country or region within a country has a unique common heritage or joint experience. Therefore culture can be defined as the complex system of values, traits, morals shared by society. Since the cultural diversity varies from one society to another therefore, having people of different cultural background may come up with more creative and effective problem-solving techniques. A good manager needs to know their people in the workplace in order to get the most out of them.
This essay would represent the understanding between the managers and his behavior towards his staffs. This essay would also include some theories regarding communication, the theory like change theory Kurt Lewin, Shannon and weaver model of communication theory and other theories. Diversity can help organizations of identify and capitalize on opportunities to improve products and services it would attract, retain, motivate and utilize human resources effectively thus, improve the quality of decision-making at all organizational levels andreap the many benefits from being perceived as a socially-conscious and progressive organization which would be shown by the help of some examples too.
Communication has always been an important component of success in the business world as it allows you to build strong and positive relations and also make sure that all decision and issues are shared raised and addressed. In today's economy where companies are split geographically and working in a fast pace, moving and international environment, the transmission of business situations is absolutely vital.
Organizations need well-managed diversity if they are to meet or exceed the expectations of key stakeholder groups: customers and clients, employees, suppliers, and the communities and societies within which they operate, which can be solved easily if the cultural diversity of that organization is well formulated. Diversity in an organization makes it innovative and creative. Diversity represents a company's fundamental attitude that it not only respects and values the individuality of its employees but also understands how to tap the potentially significant contributions inherent in diversity.
Kurt Lewin theorized a three-stage model of change that has come to be known as the unfreezing-change-refreeze model that requires prior learning to be rejected and replaced.
The first stage, becoming motivated to change also known as unfreezing. This phase of change is built on the theory that human behavior is established by past observational learning and cultural influences. Change requires adding new forces
for change or removal of some of the existing factors that are at play in perpetuating the behavior.
Disconfirmation where present conditions lead to dissatisfaction, such as not
meeting personal goals. However, the larger the gap between what is believed
and what needs to be believed for change to occur, the more likely the new
information will be ignored. Unfreezing is divided into three sub stages.
Three stages occur in response to learning anxiety: denial and maneuvering & bargaining. It is necessary to move past the possible anxieties for change to progress. This can be accomplished by either having the survival anxiety be greater than the learning anxiety or, preferably, learning anxiety could be reduced.
The second stage, change what needs to be changed called unfrozen and moving to a new state Once there is sufficient dissatisfaction with the current conditions and a real desire to make some change exists, it is necessary to identify exactly what needs to be changed. Three possible impacts from processing new information are: words take on new or expanded meaning, concepts are interpreted within a broader context, and there is an adjustment in the scale used in evaluating new input. A concise view of the new state is required to clearly identify the gap between the present state and that being proposed. Activities that aid in making the change include imitation of role models and looking for personalized solutions through trial-and-error learning.
The third stage making the change permanent known as refreezing. Refreezing is the final stage where new behavior becomes habitual, which includes developing a new self-concept & identity and establishing new interpersonal relationships.
Shannon and Weaver's Communication Model has five basic factors, arranged in a linear format. The components in this model are information, source, transmitter, receiver, and destination. The information source selects a desired message out of a set of possible messages. The transmitter changes the message into a signal that is sent over the communication channel to the receiver.
The receiver is a sort of inverse transmitter, changing the transmitted signal back into a message, and interpreting this message. This message is then sent to the destination. The destination may be another receiver ( the message is passed on to someone else), or the message may rest with the initial receiver, and the transmission is achieved. In the process of transmitting a message, certain information that was not intended by the information source is unavoidably added to the signal (or message).
This noise can be internal (coming from the receiver surroundings) or external ( coming from other sources). Such internal or external noise can either strengthen the intended effect of a message (if the information confirms the message), or weaken the intended effect (if the information in the noise contradicts the original message).
Hofsted gave the theory which includes five dimensions .Power distance that is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. This represents inequality but defined from below, not from above. It suggests that a society's level of inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by the leaders. Power and inequality, of course, are extremely fundamental facts of any society.
Individualism on the one side, collectivism that is the degree to which individuals are classified into groups. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate family. On the collectivist side, we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, often extended families (with uncles, aunts and grandparents) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. The word 'collectivism' in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group, not to the state. Again, the issue addressed by this dimension is an extremely fundamental one, regarding all societies in the world.
Masculinity, femininity, refers to the distribution of roles between the genders which is another fundamental issue for any society to which a range of solutions are found. The IBM studies revealed that (a) women's values differ less among societies than men's values; (b) men's values from one country to another contain a dimension from very assertive and competitive and maximally different from women's values on the one side, to modest and caring and similar to women's values on the other. The assertive pole has been called 'masculine' and the modest, caring pole 'feminine'. The women in feminine countries have the same modest, caring values as the men; in the masculine countries they are somewhat assertive and competitive, but not as much as the men, so that these countries show a gap between men's values and women's values.
An uncertainty avoidance deal with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity.It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. Unstructured situations are novel, unknown, surprising, and different from usual. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules, safety and security measures, and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional, and motivated by inner nervous energy. The opposite type, uncertainty accepting cultures, are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to; they try to have as few rules as possible, and on the philosophical and religious level they are relativist and allow many currents to flow side by side. People within these cultures are more phlegmatic and contemplative, and not expected by their environment to express emotions.
Long- term orientation and short-term orientation this fifth dimension was found in a study among students in 23 countries around the world, using a questionnaire designed by Chinese scholars it can be said to deal with Virtue regardless of Truth. Values associated with Long Term Orientation are thrift and perseverance; values associated with Short Term Orientation are respect for tradition, fulfilling social obligations, and protecting one's 'face'. Both are the positively and the negatively rated values of Confucius.
Douglas McGregor has examined theories on behavior of individuals at work, and he has formulated two models which he calls Theory X and Theory Y.The Assumptions of theory x can be defined as follows,
The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he can. Because of their dislike for work, most people must be controlled and threatened before they will work hard enough. The average human prefers to be directed, dislikes responsibility, is unambiguous, and desires security above everything. These assumptions lie behind most organizational principles today, and give rise both to "tough" management with punishments and tight controls, and "soft" management which aims at harmony at work.
Both these are "wrong" because man needs more than financial rewards at work; he also needs some deeper higher order motivation - the opportunity to fulfill himself. Theory X managers do not give their staff this opportunity so that the employees behave in the expected fashion.
The assumptions of theory Y are the expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest. Control and punishment are not the only ways to make people work, man will direct himself if he is committed to the aims of the organization. If a job is satisfying, then the result will be commitment to the organization. The average man learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept but to seek responsibility. Imagination, creativity, and ingenuity can be used to solve work problems by a large number of employees. Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average man are only partially utilized.
The world is now setting into a new phase rapidly .If people learn more about the effect of culture on behavior this will help reduce misunderstanding between the people of different culture.
Culture is the attitudes that we learn in childhood which later shown in our adulthood. We should be able to adjust our self to the new culture as the time passes. Many businesses now days need a diversified staff in their companies, so that a diversified staff can read the trends and response to the increasing diversified customers.
Having staffs with different culture makes it easy to create different products that are required by these markets as people from different culture have a different views and opinions about the products and people they are more able to have better understanding what the customers need. Whenever people go to buy something they would feel comfortable speaking with the person of same culture than other people at the shop. Due to this reason the manager should have to diversify staff all over his workplace which would make the people coming to their place more regular since there they can shop more comfortable and easily communicate with the staff members.
Cultural diversity can also bring some negative behavior among the staff. Since having a large diversified work force there will be some discrimination, hate, clashes within the staff members. Most of the sufferings are face by women in this kind of diversified workplaces. Many are the victims of sexual harassment, unequal wages, and others problems. Many women are blocked to reach important positions due to these factors in the workplaces.
Nowadays many local businesses are attracted towards foreign markets. Every local market these days are targeting the foreign people to sell their products. Some examples of such businesses are Mcdonalds, Starbucks and Nike etc. each business has to learn the culture of that place before they well settle to lunch their products. These businesses are well developed and establish due to the different cultural diversity within the staff. The manager would be willing to put the staff of different cultures on the workplace knowing the benefits they would do to the business.
Having a well suitable, effective, diversity would enhance productivity and take the company to success using the resources effectively. How the company deals with the diversity would make the difference in how they compete in increasing global markets. Therefore a company should staff from different culture which would help solve the problems within the company.