Theory and practice of change management

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Introduction:

The topic of this assignment is to find out the change process in the organization also it effect of that change on the organization. The old rules of an organization change into new rules and regulations .change can take place in two ways when some chose change for you or when you chose change for yourself. Change in an organization essentially means a modification of the way things get done in the system. To change the old rules and regulations and changes the old pattern of things and values for the survival and competition in the environment. Here the change includes the change in behaviour and attitudes of peoples, which is vital for any change effort to be sustained. Change is broadly accepted as almost always top-down and encouraged by the management of the modern organization in today's modern and competitive business environment, those being supervised would also resist to change, commanding an crucial thing for the managers to control and resolve the conflict before it could bring the change forward.

Communication:

(P E GRICE, 2009) Communication defines as "the effective exchange of meaning or understanding".

There is main point is exchange the accepting with others so its shows the communication is to way process. One element is sending message through a right channel to through information to receive for their message and creating the feedback which will confirm the shared the Communication is the process by which a message or information is exchanged from a sender to a receiver. For example a production manager who is acting like a sender may send a message to a sales manager asking for sales forecasts for the next year. So they can plan production levels. The sales manager after receiving the information will give him feedback with the information last year sales. it is example of communication between internal persons in effective way, i.e. when communications occur between employees of a business. communication therefore associates together all the different activities occupied in a business and confirm all members of organization are working towards same goal and know exactly what they should be doing and by when. Successful communication is therefore primary to the success of a business. (L.smith, p.mounter, 2007)

External communication:

External communication carries it into and out of the organization .A business will of course need to communicate with people or organisations outside of the business. This is known as external communication. For example a marketing manager will need to tell customers of a new special pricing offers or the finance director may need to ask banks for a loan.

Internal Communication:

According to (J.v.thill, C.bovee, 1997)."Internal communication refers to the exchange of information and ideas within the organization. Communication among the members of an organization is essential for effective functioning"; Internal communication is related to communication to the employees of the organization. When communications happen between employees of an organization is an internal communication. Communication therefore links together all the different activities worried in a business and confirm all employees are working towards the same goal and know exactly what they should be doing and by when Successful communication is therefore underlying to the success of a business.

According to (J.v.thill, C.bovee, 1997)."Internal communication refers to the exchange of information and ideas within the organization. Communication among the members of an organization is essential for effective functioning"; Internal communication is related to communication to the employees of the organization. When communications happen between employees of an organization is an internal communication. Communication therefore links together all the different activities worried in a business and confirm all employees are working towards the same goal and know exactly what they should be doing and by when Successful communication is therefore underlying to the success of a business.

FLOW OF INTERNAL COMMUNICATION:

Down ward flow:

Organization decision are usually made at the top and then its go downwards in the management and staff of the organization

Upward flow:

To solve the problem which organization is facing and for the making of intelligent and right decision top management depend upon the reports from the staffs and low level management.

Horizontal flow:

It is flow of communication between departments, either laterally or diagonally. This flow of Communication helps employ to share information and coordinate their tasks especially for solving complex problem.

Steps of internal communication of organization:

There are five steps for the internal communication in the organization as:

Reflect the organization vales and integrity:

There is all form of internal communication either is in written form or is in verbal form it show and present the attribute of the organization like professionalism and equality.

Communication should be equally accessible to all:

In the organization communication will be very effective when it is equally accessible for every member of organization for example when manager send any email for explaining some matter in the organization he as to send the email to everyone who will effecting with this message he shouldn't send email to only selective members

Information accessible to all but targeted to its audience. should be:

There is a number of internal members of an organization. Not all information is of equal relevance to all internal members. So it is important to send message only the relevant member of organization.

Source for internal communication.

It is very important for the internal communication that ensuring that the message is sending inside the organization and with the internal sources as well and a key part of good internal communication is using official source of communication in the organization.

Internal communication guidelines:

Managers are responsible for the selecting the guidelines for the internal communication inside the organization and control the implementation of that

Communication Skills:

when a manager want to adopt the ability and habits of good communicator first he need acknowledge the fact that they need to improve communication skills with the passes of time. They need to take collection of the way they communicate and the way in which their work and responsibilities are going. It is the fact only the change in life is only constant, and the more one accepts one's strengths and works towards covering with their shortcomings, importantly in the area of communication skills, the better will be their connections and the more their social recognition. In modern business life, effective communication skills have become a major factor even while hiring employees like during interviewing candidates, most interviewers hire them on the basis of the way they communicate because they believe people can improve the skills of communication during their jobs.(Communicationskills, 2009)

Roger Fisher and William Ury list four skills that can be learned which will improve communication in conflict situations. The first is active listening. The goal of active listening, they say, is to understand you opponent as well as you understand yourself. Pay close attention to what the other side is saying. Ask the opponent to clarify or repeat anything that is unclear or seems unreasonable . Attempt to repeat their case, as they have presented it, back to them. This shows that you are listening and that you understand what they have said. It does not indicate that you agree with what they said-nor do you have to. You just need to indicate that you do understand them.

Fisher and Ury's second rule is to speak directly to your opponent. This is not considered appropriate in some cultures, but when permitted, it helps to increase understanding. Avoid being distracted by outside parties or other things going on in the same room. Focus on what you have to say, and on saying it in a way that your opponent can understand.

Their third rule is to speak about yourself, not about your opponent. Describe your own feelings and perceptions, rather than focusing on your opponent's motives, misdeeds, or failing. By saying, "I felt let down," rather than "You broke your promise," you will convey the same information. But you will do so in a way that does not provoke a defensive or hostile reaction from your opponent. (This is often referred to as using "I-statements" or "I-messages," rather than "you messages." You messages suggest blame, and encourage the recipient to deny wrong-doing or blame back. I messages simply state a problem, without blaming someone for it. This makes it easier for the other side to help solve the problem, without having to admit they were wrong.

Communication Skill for Managers:

This allows managers to effectively create understanding about who, what, when and how things are occurring. Remember that all communication involves three elements i.e. a sender, a message, and a receiver. For an effective communication, all the three elements must be in play.

Following are some questions to consider when communicating about change:

  • Which is better, oral communication or written communication? & Why?
  • Was my messages clearly communicated? And how do I know?
  • Was there an opportunity to communicate about the change? i.e. "at the right place, at the right time, in the right way".
  • Did I receive effective feedback?
  • What are my next steps?

The percentage of communication time businesspeople spend on various communication channels (Writing 9% Speaking %30 listening %45 reading 16%

Change management:

Change management is about transform or adjust organization in order to maintain or improve their effectiveness.

Managers are accountable for confirming that the organization perform effectively.

"Change management is about modifying or transforming organization in order the maintain or improve their effectiveness."It is an organization effectiveness it is the degree to which manager can intervene to affect the way organization response to change (J. Hayes, 2007)

NEED OF CHANGE:

For the growth of every company they need change in some certain situations .An organization need change when the moral of the employee in the company is going low or they have very high turnover of employee in the organization. if the productivity level of an organization is going low they need change in the employee behaviour and work distribution.

There is one more situation when organization needs change when one company merge with other company they need to change to adjustment with each other system or making the new system. Change accrue when an organization want to restructuring in the organization

Nature of change:

First organization needs to find out the effect of the change and decide is it positive change or negative and it's depend upon the result of the change and the influence to implementation of the change.

Change process:

For change first we need to identify the need of change in the organization like Tesco they find the need of change in their way of customers service. They find out if they will introduce self service stores for their business they will provide quick service to their customers and safe their time. They introduce a first ever store without the checkout They have two type of outcome first they are providing quick and satisfactory service to customers and in other way they are eliminating human resources from the organization . Changes can occur in two ways.

  1. Sometimes it is your choice to make a change; it is a change that you choose.
  2. Sometimes a change is made for you by others; it is a change that chooses you.

Change Behaviour:

Which thing people have problems?

How they fell about the change and plan to implement (Vision).

Find out the resistance forces and try to overcome these successfully.

The greater the pain then the greater the desire to change.

Employee welfare and company welfare

People don't resist change. They resist doing something wrong. Recruitment and getting started

Managers Role in Change:

Change in an organization essentially means a modification of the way things get done in the system. To change the old rules and regulations and changes the old pattern of things norm and values for the survival and competition in the environment. Here the change includes the change in behaviour and attitudes of peoples, which is vital for any change effort to be sustained.

During any change process, there are three important roles that people fill.

It is possible to occupy different roles during the process of change.

Change Sponsor: -

These are individuals or groups with the powers to determine that a change will occurs. Change sponsor legitimize the change by sanctioning or decreeing it. In most organizations a change sponsor is usually upper level management.

Change Agent: -

These are individuals or groups responsible for seeing that a previously determined change occurs. This is normally the role of middle and lower level management. Traditionally management training focused on learning the basics of planning, organizing, delegating, monitoring and controlling. However, as a manager of today's environment, you probably spend less time on the traditional management functions and more time in roles such as

Change Target: -

These are the individuals or groups who are asked to change something i.e. knowledge, skills, attitudes, or behaviour as a result of the change. This is normally a working group. As a manager, it is your job to assist them in adapting to the change.

Resource Allocator:

Finding of resources is one more important role of an manager. Resources allocation means that properly to be paid the resources of the organization between different departments of the organization.

Information Disseminator:

Set and distribution of the information is also the vital task of a Human resource manager, e.g. you are getting of information and data from the top management to pass the lower management. Most managers presume that a problem is solved when employees verbally agree to a change.

"Fisher and Ury explain that a good agreement is one which is wise and efficient, and which improves the parties' relationship. Wise agreements satisfy the parties' interests and are fair and lasting. The authors' goal is to dev1elop a method for reaching good agreements. Negotiations often take the form of positional bargaining. In positional bargaining each part opens with their position on an issue. The parties then bargain from their separate opening positions to agree on one position (R. Fisher and W.Ury, 1983)

Conflict Management:

According to (T.Jhon, I.B courtland, 1997) conflict is not compulsory bad, as long as it is handled in a constructive Faison"

It is very important for manager to have ability of handling the conflict. There can be in two ways constructive and destructive. To a team effectiveness.it can arise any number of reasons like may be team of people or individuals they are competing for recourses and may be they are disagree about who is responsible for the specific work.

Resolving Conflict:

Effective teams know how to manage conflict in best way

Protection: Deal the problem or situation on initial stage of happening

Communication: explained the problem and communicate them the people involved in conflict to resolve.

Openness: get feeling out in the open before the problem before seeking solutions.

Research: seek factual reasons for the problem before seeking solution.

Flexibility: don't let ant one look into a position before

Fair Play: don't let anyone avoid a fair solution by hiding behind the rules

Alliance: Get parties to fight to gather against an "out force instead of again each other.

Conclusion:

Change in an organization is very important process for the survival for business because in the competitive business world only the survival of fittestManager should know what he is going to say and should control his fear. Always think before talk and believe his information is right .he should repeat major point in the message.Managers prepare him to listen other and try to focus on the speaker what he is trying to say. He need to focus on the message and give him feedback on that listening. He has to ask any question for the understanding of message and try to accept the accents of the speaker for the effective communication.

References:

  1. J.Hayes (2007), The Theory and Practice of change Management, Palgrave macmillan,edition 7th,chapter2 .pp30
  2. W.Stallings, R.Vanslyke (1998) Business data communication, Alan Apt Prentic hall, 3rd edition
  3. J.Thill, C.I.bovee (1997)Excellence in Business Communication, Pearson Education International,5th edition,pp7.
  4. J.Hayes(2007),The Theory and Practice of change Management, Palgrave macmillan,edition 7th,chapter3.pp33
  5. Communicationskills [online]{Accesson(12/12/2009}verifiedon:http://www.communicationskills.co.in/index.htm
  6. L. Smith, P.Mounter (n) effective internal communication, pp 244
  7. R. Fisher, W. Ury(1983) Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In, New York: Penguin Books, P 11
  8. Colorado Eduction[online]{access on 10/12/2009} verified on: http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/example/fish7513.htm

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