Making pseudo-event should be prohibited in serious or political news.
News, one of the most attractive methods of mass media, ordinary people absorbs information easily from daily TV program or newspapers. The news also makes the world globalization possible. Jordan (1993) claims that: the Circulation of daily newspaper which will be sold and paid is about 61.6 millions in weekday. For instance, just as the phenomenon which happened in London underground, more than 2 people will read the same newspaper when they are on the way to work or study, this makes the final number of readers to be 2 times the number of newspapers in circulation. However, important questions have to be asked regarding the reliability of journalism because can audiences believe with total confidence what is shown in newspapers or TV programs? The answer has to be no, journalists are not infallible nor are they above portraying information in bias favouritism. This is fine to make pseudo-event just for entertainment in tabloid newspaper such as The Sun or The Daily Show (States News Service, 2008), but making pseudo-event in serious or political news should be prohibited.
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Roberts (2008) presented evidence that pseudo-event has used by more than 48 percent of all adults and 60 percent of young voters as a source of campaign news in the 2004 presidential election from previous studies. For instance, In late 2004, National Annenberg Election Survey which is a research of American television viewers at the University of Pennsylvania has showed that readers of The Daily Show had a more accurate idea of the facts behind the 2004 presidential election than most others, Sadly, watching or reading political news presented in pseudo-event through mass media will only distort the facts and make people less likely to accept new ideas, but the general public is inclined to absorb news in less serious ways. Data and facts are just not that important any more sometimes, fake news could also fool mainstream media.
For example, a famous tragedy news known as US Virginia Tech massacre, it was a school shooting that took place April 16, 2007 on the campus of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in the US, 32 people were killed and many others wounded, finally the perpetrator committed suicide. This massacre changed the title of the deadliest shooting incident by a single gunman in the history of the United States. The pseudo-event in every mainstream newspaper website portrayed the perpetrator as a 24 years old Chinese, who was not a student at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. The source of this miss information was from Chicago Sun-Times a tabloid newspaper. Most readers immediately assumed this information to be correct and it caused widespread shock. However, this dramatic 'news' became to a pseudo-event as the perpetrator was actually a 23 years old Korean student named Seung-Hui Cho, majoring in English at Virginia Tech. Pape and Featherstone (2005, P37) claimed that: writing a news story should stick to the facts and tell each fact one at a time. Without any support materials which called six WS (Who, What, When, Where, Why, How) when a journalist writes a story, Educating the ordinary audience to analyse the evidence by employing the six WS can allow them to have a better grasp of the facts.
As a important tool of government, journalism been used by them in addition to enhance their self-image, but also in order to cover Scandals. Boorstin (1992) claimed: a pseudo-event is not spontaneous, but comes about because someone has planned, or incited it. To affairs at the feet of public relations and journalistic practices became to a purpose of journalism. In most of countries such as USA, UK, government always use media to benefit their election, the methods could be: using advertisement, show to audience about sweet events which the leader of that party have done. There have no doubt that this artifice is very success, but making pseudo-events to cover scandals or save a leader of country should be prohibited. This phenomenon is getting more serious now not only in USA, but also in UK, it could lead the masses became to Suspect how faithful their government to them.
There have a well know pseudo-events, which not only let the previous Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair and his labour party involved in, but also let the Media mogul BBC experienced a crisis of survival in 2004.This news is about the Death of Dr David Christopher Kelly, who was an employee of the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence (MoD) and an expert in biological warfare and a former United Nations weapons inspector in Iraq. The first news been reported by a journalist named Andrew Gilligan in BBC on 29 May 2003 by The Today Programme, he claimed that a British intelligence officials told him that ,aim to start the Iraq war, the government of Tony Blair has placed the 45-minute suspicious Intelligence in the dossier. Afterward, Gilligan identified Alastair Campbell as the person responsible in The Mail on Sunday newspaper directly. These series reports caused a huge political storm; the British government denied any involvement in the intelligence content of the dossier, and forced the BBC to announce the name of the source, owing to they knew that, so it was impossible to know the mastermind about the preparation of the dossier if the person was not a member of the Joint Intelligence Committee. As a member who had been involved in the work of UN weapons inspections in Iraq, David Christopher Kelly's name was not only been showed in public, but he also been charged with investigating the scandal by the British parliament, then he was committed suicide after that investigates. With more deeply investigation, British Chief Justice Hutton issue a statement that there have no evidence to support Gilligan's report in January 28, 2004. Even finally Tony Blair and his government did survived from this scandal, but this pseudo-event was seriously affected Blair's personal political reputation, also it made his public support rate uncontrollability declined, also his Labour government lost their confidence from the masses.
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However, Ponce de Leon (2002) suggested: Pseudo-events were conceived to be valuable new and thus be attraction to journalists. Nowadays, we see increasingly sophisticated billion-dollar public relations firms been given easy access to local television news programs. Broadcasting pseudo-events has become an important way to sell products or push political agendas. Even we know it is dangerous to let a government rely on mass media, but a old saying as: the Water can also overturn a boat, What has happened in many countries is news agency been controlled by government, if the government could use pseudo-event in a proper way, it may become to a perfect tools to let them get their achievement.
For instance, the Iraq war which has been started by USA in 2003.During that time, the USA government cooperated with American mass media, endless military pseudo-events been created to confuse the other countries. Even finally these untrue news was collapsed of itself, but there have no doubt that they have successfully influenced the consequence of the war and let the government of George. W. Bush tasted a Little bit sweetness.
In conclusion, Truth is the most important structure of journalism; journalists may end their career life by making pseudo-event. Present news will be the history in the future, thus as a person who is interested in media studies, I should feel responsible to respect history. Unfortunately, more and more journalists have been pursued by a kind of sensation; they will still make pseudo-event for money or for their career. The only way to eliminate pseudo-event which surrounds us is to awakening journalists' conscience, and establishment a faithful world. The core competitiveness of the mass media area is integrity; journalists should adhere to the principles of the authenticity. Moreover, the truth means life must be established in every journalists mind, then to against all kinds of pseudo-event.
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