the physical abuse of the children

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The purpose of this paper seeks to know whether the characteristics shown by some of the parents are directly or indirectly related to the physical abuse of the children. And the acknowledgement is going to be made basing it at the conclusion arrived.


What has prompted this study is the rampant cases of physical child abuse which have been escalating by the day .This vice his wide spread across the United State of America. The perpetuators of the physical child abuse have been found in most cases to be the parents who gave birth to these children. This phenomena is actually not limited to any subset or any section of the population as it has been shown to affect across the social divide, where families regardless of their social economic status or ethnic .The children also undergo physical abuse irrespective of their age or sex .Demographic and social factors have been identified with the cause of physical child abuse. The increased levels of physical abuse of children are associated with stress the parents undergo especial single parents who have to juggle everything including their careers and their responsibilities as sole providers. Sadly these abuses thrive under secrecy where the victims hide their sorrows because they fear their parents and also holds the believe that they must have been on the wrong while others still have gotten used to these kind of harsh treatment. Physical a buse can be easily noticed because of the physical signs like bruises or injuries inflicted on the victims. This glaring risk needs to be studied exhaustively and hence this research comes in hand as it points out correlation between the traits the parents bear and the physical a buse of the children.


The parent’s characteristics have no relationship with the physical a buse of the children.


Physical abuse is mostly a kind of mistreatment and is a wide category of mannerism that can include caning, emotional abuse, sexual abuse and neglect. As a normal rule physical abuse can be defined as the infliction of physical harm by caretaker or apparent on a child. It is not a must for the harm to be knowingly inflicted, and in most of situations physical abuse is never intended and may be as a result of intense disciplinary actions or corporal punishment that are too much resulting in physical injury or the risk of inflicting physical injury. Physical abuse usually occurs at the same time with other forms of child maltreatment. A primitive and common example of this is when a father hits his boy with a closed fist and at the same time being intimidated or belittled through verbal abuses .Such cases are considered to be both physical and at the same time emotional abuse because both of them have occurred simultaneously.

Coming up with the best definition of physical abuse is hard because of different standards that can be applied to it. For example, determining the point at which normal child up bringing behaviors can turn out to be an act of child a buse? In the United States, definitions vary according to different states however, there are two types of definitions standards that are used to specify and clarify what physical a buse mean. The first is the harm standard, which considers behavior as abusive only if it results in demonstrable harm or injuries. This harm could be in form of scalds, bruises, bites, burns, abrasions, cuts, fractures, or any of a number of other injuries. The other definitional standard for physical abuse is that of endangerment. For this standard, physical harm or assault by either a birth parent or caregiver that pose a substantial risk of physical injury is taken to mean abuse. Examples of actions and behaviors that would be classified abusive when it comes to this standard definition, is among others, punching a child, subjection to heat, drowning,, scalding, poisoning, suffocating, biting, shaking, choking, and stabbing. However these actions and behaviors might not result in demonstrable injuries like cuts or bruises, they are still classified as abusive when it comes to endangerment standard. Making comparisons between the two standards, it can always be seen that injury to the kid is equal to definitions of harm while action towards harm behavior is centre of endangerment definitions. More so, harm definitions standards are more precise and more objective as compared to standards of endangerment. The difference between corporal punishment and physical abuse is never precise.


The major limitations of this research is that so many physical a buse go un reported hence getting exact statistics is so difficult and this might lead to making wrong conclusion. A also arriving at concrete definition of physical child a buse will be a problem because toeing the line between normal child disciple and physical child a buse is difficult .Less research has been exhaustively done basing on this topic and so getting enough material will prove as a challenge since there is scarcity of reference. The chosen topic also is so sensitive and while collecting data it will be so hard because people will be so suspicious especially the victims themselves because this particular behavior happen in most homesteads but the victims are usually quiet about the issue


Most of the recent research has focused mainly on child abuse in families undergoing divorce as compared to the population in general. In one of the studies of families preferred for child counseling for custody or evaluations, for example, there were so many allegations of child abuse leveled against one parent or caregiver in at least three quarters of the families, and out of this, almost half of the allegations were mentioned irrespective of the social status or gender of the birth parent involved. The overall rate of substantiation for all types of child abuse (34%) was the same as for previous studies of the general population, contradicting the idea that parents are more likely to make unfounded allegations of abuse during custody disputes (Johnston et al., 2005)

Review of perpetrator characteristics has examined this literature carefully (Black etal, 2001). Some certain traits or characteristics are discussed exhaustively this is because they are very vital to the treatment and maintenance of abusive interaction which are in form patterns. Many of these suggested parent characteristics raises levels of stress and psychological disturbances for example depression, mental disorders and physical symptoms or bad parenting strategies .Some evidence vividly highlights parental role which trigger specific examples of psychiatric disorders.

In one of the rare empirical evaluations of conceptual model of parenting tested a discipline mediated model with a sample of adolescents and their parents( Green wald ,Bank ,Reid,and Krutsn1997) .It was Initially hypothesized that harsh discipline actions would be generated by primitive and inadequate disciplinary actions or tactics and skills. The findings did reveal that the birth parental discipline triggered the relationship between mental stress and inadequate parental practices of disciplinary actions .Parental harsh behavior was not found to be major predicator ,but indiscipline children led to parental discipline but never to physical abuse parenting practices. The connection between stress and improper parenting was completely taken over by parental discipline. In addition to evaluating ineffective parenting behaviours, the authors encourage careful assessment of the parent’s perception and effective reaction to parent-child interactions in understanding abusive interactions (John, E.B. Myers 2002)

In relation to abuse ,this model is concerned with identifying the various interactions a mong characteristics related to family functioning ,such as children’s coping efforts, parental care giving and discipline and other family characteristics . Development ecological model emphasizes the development i.e. child and parent-characteristics immediate interactional i.e.parenting,parent-child interactional processes and broader contextual,cultural and evolutionary characteristics with child maltreatment (Belksy,1993) .Hence within this international domain, child physical a buse seems to represent the interplay among child, parent and family factors and is unsome unquelikely to be accounted for by some unique individual or family characterics.



Research design is a source of glue that brings the research project together. A design is basically used to propagate the research. To test the hypothesis, a data file will be created that combines cases from three different Surveys although the surveys may differ in a number of ways, all three will make use of the Conflict Tactics measure in order to get data on characteristics parents have in relation to physical child abuse. All the three cases also will randomly choose caregiver or either the father or the mother for the purpose of the interview. Hence, in each survey case it is expected that almost half of the respondents would either be the father or the mother for whom the referred child belongs to. The research design will heavily depend on the interview as a way of achieving the best results.


The Procedure of conducting the research will begin by selecting the target group of the and then the questions to be asked are also formulated followed by the interview being conducted through phones and one on one so the details of the target group should be exhaustively done .The criteria to used in population to pick out the children to be interviewed on the issue of the physical abuse whereby at least one of the child under 18 who has been living at home for quite a while will be selected. All the three surveys will apply random method of selection this will be followed by analysis of the data and coming up with the results which are used to draw conclusions and hence put in writing.


Sampling is the act of choosing units example communities, nations or colleges from a population of interest so as to be fair in generalizing the results and this is done by studying the sample .There are two types of sampling probability and Non probability sampling. The samples will be picked basing on ethnic composition, socioeconomic status, and age .This will make the analysis orderly and easier to conduct. The sample will consist of two parts which are: a composition of people who are of 18 years of age based on national probability sample and over who are legally married or cohabiting with male and female and over-samples of married or cohabiting African-American


The instruments that are going to be employed in this study would include the use of printers, computers and secondary data storage like flash discs. Other instruments would include the use of phones, calculators, calendars, watches, spot lights, Umbrellas, Vehicles and writing materials


Ethical issues must be considered while conducting this study whereby the kinds of questions to be asked should be carefully framed and language to be used should not be vulgar. The questions to be asked also should shun a way from being personal and the manner in which these questions are asked should be polite for the topic of this study is very sensitive and if words are not correctly chosen then the study might be hampered because the respondents will be suspicious and might withhold some vital information.


It is always important to bear in mind that there are distinct respondents in each survey, for

this cannot be like a panel study in whereby reinter viewing of the same respondents is done at three time points. This is what is referred to as a trend study. In this study, the target for which

Dynamism is being looked into will not be sole respondents, but a targeted group such as a

a village , a school like college, country or a region. Therefore, a valid trend study holds the fact that the sample at each given time point be inclusive of the social unit at that time, the best example is the three nationally inclusive samples used in this case for this study. If for instance, the ethnic composition of a given society undergoes metamorphosis over time, a panel study following up part 1 respondents would no longer be inclusive because part 2 measurements would never correctly reflect the ethnic composition. This is what is called internal validity i.e. for the study to be viewed as internally valid it must represent every composition of a targeted group so that the study will clearly steer away from being reduced to a panel study hence turning the study as not valid


External validity is almost the same as generalizing. Validity can be defined as the almost truth of inferences, propositions, or conclusions. So, external study is the degree with which the conclusion making is drawn upon in your study and would appeal for other persons in other places and at different times. There are two principles on how evidence for a generalization are provided. The first one is called sampling model. In this sampling model, one starts by identifying the population to be generalized. Then, a fair sample is drawn from that population and research is conducted with the sample. Finally, since the sample is represents the population, generalization of results can be done automatically back to the population. There are myriad of problems associated with this approach one major one is that may be one does not whom the generalization would be done to. So in this study external validity should draw general conclusion of whether there is relationship between the characteristics of the parents and physical child a buse.