Tetra or terrestrial trunket radio: Ref wiki
Tetra is a new mobile radio tech used for communication system. Tetra is a term used to describe the technology known as “Terrestrial Trunket radio'',(because of its automatic channel allocation from common poll), it is a specialised Professional Mobile Radio (PMR) and two ways transceivers known as “Walkie -Talkie”. IT has been specifically designed to provide a unique and strong private mobile communication services, in order to meet the demand of “Professional and Emergency Services Users”, ‘'who need fast one to one'' and ‘'one to many ‘'radio communication using voice and data in their routine daily work; Security, safety, and commercial organisations such as emergency services (police forces, fire brigade, ambulances), military forces, rail transportation staff, airports staff, rescue/search forces, carrier services, transport companies, boarder guards and so on use Tetra.
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Tetra network is the only official system for European Standard digital mobile radio and also worldwide standard radio communication. It has been developed by European Telecommunication Standard Institute (ETSI) standard and is endorsed by the European Radio Communication's Committee (ERCC). The system supports internet protocol for pocket data services, short data and status messaging for general and tailored applications.
The network is mostly governmental owned but we have also network and private operators owned too, whom invest in Tetra and sell communication services to private companies and governmental bodies. Professional mobile radio have been used before the cellular phone but Tetra system was introduced as the first truly system standard for digital PMR. Tetra standard has created a multi vendator market with different competitive suppliers.
Tetra offer a high level of reliability, accuracy and availability in extreme situations, as is designed for critical situations in which all the Public Service are completely out of operation. In this case all critical elements are duplicated in order to ensure continuity of their operation and highest level of accuracy, reliability and available are a must, also user and caller priorities are required to give priority to critical communication in such condition PMR system enter in operation, as reliability is a key criteria in the design of PMR radios and they could be used in a harsh environment.
Tetra: quick guide
PMR radios like cellular network use base station connected to mobile exchange and can be divided in three main categories.
Public safety and security network: Which are nationwide networks financed by public funds and provide communication for public security and safety and provide PMR radios communications to security and safety organisations. They consist of a large number of switches and stations and is vital that all their Network function together.
Private networks: Owned and adopted often by private organisations and they generally consist of small base stations, covering a limited geographical area, but they can extend with more network elements according to their needs.
Commercial network: Often called professional cellular Networks which offer nationwide coverage, where the operators invest and sell PMR radios to professionals such as, transportation, taxi, bus, carriers and security companies.
Tetra Network is adopted because it offers special functions such as group call, advanced group arrangement, immediate call delay and maximum security with dispatched service.
Ref: quick system overview
Tetra Network unique features include:
Push to talk Operation: In which less then second's connection is established with the push of a button.
Group communication: Which are important in recue operation, which Tetra offers through the co-ordinator of the field or dispatcher immediate and dynamic group communication.
Fleet management : The field operation is managed by a dispatcher who has special geographic workstation and helps to control the communication activates example in transportation company, the dispatcher manages the radio communication with the mobile units in the field, gives order and receives information. Tetra Network also offers some major advantage over conventional radio system because it is easy use and secure with intelligent switching in the network, person to person call as the same way of the cellular system, higher quality with full digital, better voice quality, more advanced data feature and more efficient use of valuable frequency spectrum.
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Tetra network like mobile system uses base station and handset that look like mobile phones, but it has also a help button that allows users to call for assistance very quickly and unlike mobile phone their base transmits constantly 24hours a day. Tetra network structure consist of one switching centre note (SCN) and a number of Tetra base (TBS).
Tetra digital system offer many function and features that are not available with analogue systems, such as integrated voice and data communication and multiple organisations sharing one network, it also differs from traditional open channel communications in the following ways:
Communication is encrypted both ways.
Creation of groups is not restricted by geographical areas or number of channels, better voice quality because of advantage digital voice coding.
Better spectre efficiency because of time-based multiplexing that provides multiply logical channels, compared to single channel.
Option for Dynamic changes in group communication membership.
Tetra network differs to other digital professional radio systems as it provides a standardised air interface, this means that the radio terminals from different vendors can be used in Tetra network, this multi-venditor environment provide economic and it is less expensive for PMR radios users.