Smart Helmet

Published:

Part 1: Introduction

1.1 BACKGROUND INVENTION

This invention relates to a radio communication system for a motorcycle wherein a radio communication circuits is attached on a helmet and performs radio communication with another radio communication circuits attached on another helmet. This helmet provides a wireless communication between two helmets for intercommunication or entertainment system. It is also included with solar energy system which will recharge the battery so that it will be constantly applicable. That is why we call it “Smart Helmet”.

As we know, there a number of different types of helmets that is use across many different type of industries and environment. However, they all are use in form of protective gear. For example, wearing hard hats is standard practice when working in construction site, as well as when operating heavy industrial equipment, etc. Sports athletes, such as baseball and football players, also wear helmets for protection and it is one of the most critical pieces of equipment for a professional race car driver. Helmets are also used in the military services and one type of helmet that is one of the more commonly seen is a motorcycle rider helmet. Motorcycle riding helmets are very sophisticated and specialized for the activity.

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In recent years, helmet wearers have encountered a wide array of methods by which audio content can be delivered to and transmitted from a helmet, such as a motorcycle or racing car helmet. Current systems for listening to music while riding a motorcycle generally involve a factory installed or aftermarket radio and speaker system mounted on the motorcycle. This is due to hard communication between each other within a motorcycle because of interruption in wind and engine noise. Thus, we invent a communication system ability to communicate with each other. The speaker system must be powerful enough to overcome the road, engine and wind noise to allow a rider to listen to the music when the motorcycle is at highway speeds. In this system, the rider usually has a wire connecting the helmet to a radio mounted on the helmet and the speakers. These systems may also include a microphone integrated into the helmet to allow riders to communicate each other.

1.2 PROJECT OBJECTIVES

There are several main objectives for this project:

* To understands the basic concept of two way communication and solar energy system.

* To understands Push-to-Talk technology system

* To understands how solar energy system operates

* To enhance the ability of the helmet

* To perform circuit operation

* To gain knowledge on circuit designing and structure

1.3 PROJECT GOALS

The Overall Project Goal was to enhance the quality and effectiveness of LSC grantees' services to clients by providing training and technical assistance and serving as an information clearinghouse on technology innovations for the legal services community. There were two specific goals as identified in the Evaluation Framework approved by LSC:

1. Provide training, technical assistance and informational resources that increase the understanding legal services program directors, managers and technology staff have about the ways the use of available technologies can improve services to clients.

2. Publicize, promote and provide resource materials about successful local/national technology projects to foster the replication of technology innovations throughout the legal services community.

1.4 PROJECT SCOPE

General Project Scope:

The project will include rehabilitation or replacement of SN 050-0088. A bridge condition report (BCR), hydraulic report, type size and location (TS&L) study, location drainage study and project report will be required and should follow the applicable Department manuals and guidelines. Intersection geometrics will be studied as needed in accordance with Department policies. Geotechnical testing and analysis will be required for development of type size and location drawings for the structure. The scope of work shall include all items necessary to provide an approved project report, bridge condition report, hydraulic report, location drainage study and type size and location drawings as needed.

1) Data Collection:

Review data supplied by the district (old plans, pictures, traffic counts, survey data, crash data, right-of-way information, road-way data, and examples). Field check project, and review data from other sources.

2) Field Survey:

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A topographical survey will be required. Horizontal and vertical control will be provided by the District for the existing alignment. Survey of the existing structure shall include all necessary detail to meet Department policy and to support the proposed scope of construction. The survey shall extend down side roads and beyond existing right of way in order to accommodate anticipated proposed construction. Roadway survey shall extend at least 50' beyond the existing right of way and include any necessary drainage features. Survey shall extend 600' down intersecting roads and cross sections will be taken every 50' and at all entrances and special features.

Bridge and hydraulic surveys will be required under this contract. Hydraulic surveys will follow Department policies.

3) Right of Way:

The Department will draft existing right of way (station and offsets) on to the topography - including property lines and owner identification. The district will provide names, addresses, and tax parcel I.D. numbers for all nearby property owners. IDOT will also mail the property owner letters regarding easements or proposed right of way. No right of way plats or plans will be included in this contract. The consultant will determine construction limits and proposed right of way and easement needs. The consultant will provide construction limits and all proposed ROW or easements on the plan and profile sheets.

4) Drafting:

The consultant will plot existing and proposed plan and profile sheets, proposed drainage sheets, existing and proposed cross sections. Development of typical sections, preliminary staging details, proposed construction limits, proposed right of way and exhibits for included studies and reports will also be necessary along with any other work to complete the phase I study and other reports/studies.

The consultant shall send the district one full size copy of the plan sheets for utility mark-ups. The district will make copies and send them to the utility companies. The consultant will then incorporate any utility information onto the plan sheets.

5) Alternate Design Studies:

Alternatives will be studied to provide bicycle and pedestrian accommodations as part of structure rehabilitation or replacement. The preferred alternative will be incorporated into the planning and design of the project.

6) Location Drainage Studies:

See the IDOT Drainage manual section 2-100 thru 2-500 for required format and analysis. Work includes studying the existing drainage patterns including structures, ditches, outlets, etc., developing drainage areas, determining discharges; developing a required system, comparing existing and proposed, developing alternates, determining impacts, developing recommendations, determination of culvert extensions, preliminary inlet spacing, capacity calculations; in-line storm water detention design; ditch design, minor culvert analysis, sizing storm sewer, and everything else needed to complete a drainage report for the project.

The drainage study should address flooding records within the project as appropriate.

7) Hydraulic Report and Bridge Condition Report:

Work shall include all items necessary to complete a hydraulic report and bridge condition report (BCR) for the structure. This includes, but is not limited to, hydraulic survey, bridge inspection/load rating, hydraulic analysis, staging feasibility determination and cost comparison.

8) Type Size & Location Study:

TS&L studies will meet the requirements of the District and the Bureau of Bridges and Structures. Geotechnical testing and analysis will be necessary for development of the TS&L. A preliminary TS&L shall be submitted to the District for review before transmittal to the Bridge Office.

9) Intersection Design Studies:

Two intersections are anticipated to be included in the scope of work (Dee Bennet Road and Starved Rock Road). Intersection design studies may be required at these locations. Traffic counts will determine the need for an IDS at each location. Typically 3 submittals are required - draft, pre-final and final. IDS work includes signal warrant analysis at all locations, combination lighting, and capacity analysis at all locations, as well as all other requirements set forth in the Bureau of Design and Environment Manual. Traffic data will be provided by the district.

10) Preliminary Report:

Work includes written report, calculating quantities, cost estimates, crash analysis, approval forms, structure fact sheet, design exception forms (if needed), roadway design, exhibits, photos, maps, typical sections, plan and profiles, IDS plans, environmental exhibits, existing and proposed vertical and horizontal data, design criteria checklist, tree schedule, culvert rehabilitation diagram, traffic management analysis, preliminary erosion control plan, and any other project related documents to complete the project report.

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The district will provide the following for insertion into the report if needed: Crash data and exhibits; coordination meeting minutes; hazardous mailbox support surveys; bridge condition report approval; letters to property owners and other local officials; environmental studies, analysis, and reports; and pavement design if needed.

11) Public Meetings (2 planned):

Consultant will prepare exhibits and handouts, locate and reserve the meeting room and attend meetings - such as the dry run, local official meeting, and the public meeting. Two public meetings (open house format) are anticipated, the first to evaluate alternatives and the second after the EA and all IDS's are completed. The first will be considered an informational meeting and the second a public hearing. Comments from each meeting may need to be incorporated into the project.

Exhibits needed for public hearing: Location map, Crash maps, Purpose and Need, Summary of Key Environmental impacts, Full size set of plan and profile drawings including cross sections, approved IDS's , two sets of aerial exhibits / color drawings, board mounted proposed typical sections, draft project report, and a copy of the EA report that is approved by the FHWA for public review. The district will send letters to local officials, prepare minutes for local official meetings, and send response letters to citizens or groups as needed.

The EA, after approval by the FHWA for public hearing, will be made available at the public hearing and for a minimum of 15 days in advance of the public hearing. The published hearing notice will announce the availability of the EA and where it may be obtained or reviewed.

Public meeting exhibits are similar. The public meeting does not require environmental documents or approved IDS's.

The consultant will forward display advertisements for each public meeting/hearing to two different newspapers chosen by the District and pay for these advertisements. This will be a direct cost. Rental of a meeting room will also be a direct cost.

12) Handling Traffic:

Stage construction, detours and combinations of the two will be considered for this project. The consultant will identify construction methods and sequences which will minimize motorists' inconvenience and incorporate this information into the Traffic Management Analysis for the project. The work will be limited to a conceptual plan only since detailed plans will be done in Phase II. A Queuing and Delay Analysis will be performed since IL 178 is considered to be “approaching significance” by Safety Policy 3-07. The consultant will provide pertinent data and District 3 will perform the analysis.

13) Progress meetings:

The district estimates that 3 progress meetings with IDOT and 12 consultant in-house meeting will be required. Outside of typical administration.

14) Final Report:

Compilation of the final report will be based on information from public meetings, comments from District circulation and other input which may impact the project. This also includes hours for revising preliminary report, printing, assembling, and binding the final report.

15) Environment:

Anticipated Categorical Exclusion - Follow Department policies

This work includes examination of Environmental Survey Request (ESR) results to determine impacts and determine appropriate environmental documentation. The consultant will provide excavation depths and quantities for areas identified for special waste and will catalog trees impacts and make recommendations for tree replacement locations.

IDOT will develop and submit ESR to Central Office for processing. If it is determined that an Environmental Assessment (EA) is the appropriate form of documentation the extra work will be added by supplemental agreement.

Impacts to parks or Historic properties will be included in a supplement (if required).

The district will prepare any Wetland Impact Evaluation forms (if required).

16) Administration:

Project administration - including payroll, billing and filing. This also includes project administration by sub-consultants.

17) Quality Control/Quality Assurance:

This is a required line item for both labor hours and billing. This item is to include QC/QA hours of the prime consultant as well as any sub-consultant.

1.5 SYSTEM OPERATION

1.6 PUSH-TO-TALK INTRODUCTION

Push-to-talk (PTT), also known as Press-to-Transmit, is a method of conversing on half-duplex communication lines, including two-way radio, using a momentary button to switch from voice reception mode to transmit mode and communication can only travel in one direction at any given moment. However, it is not limited in distance as with normal walkie-talkies, as the conversation is carried across the mobile network. A normal cell phone call is full-duplex, meaning both parties can hear each other at the same time.

To control which person can speak and be heard, PTT requires the person speaking to press a button while talking and then release it when they are done. The listener then presses their button to respond. This way the system knows which direction the signal should be traveling in. Most PTT systems allow group calling, meaning one person can speak to everyone in their assigned or current group at once, just by pressing a PTT key.

Other key features of the service mean that users immediately recognize it as different from 'normal' voice.

• group calls are possible as well as one-to-one calls (but still only one person can talk at a time)
• presence information is normally associated with this service, so users can see on their phone screen whether other people are logged on to the PTT service and will therefore be available if called
• PTT voice services are typically priced below normal mobile phone calls (but obviously this is a marketing issue)
• call hold times are typically much shorter - the walkie-talkie style of speech lends itself to the short, snappy transfer of specific information, rather than normal lengthier conversations
• the 'always-on' nature of data networks makes for near instant call setup times that make it very easy to use.

1.7 SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM INTRODUCTION

In today's climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental concern, alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. One such alternative is solar energy.

Solar energy is quite simply the energy produced directly by the sun and collected elsewhere, normally the Earth. The sun creates its energy through a thermonuclear process that converts about 650,000,000 tons of hydrogen to helium every second. The process creates heat and electromagnetic radiation. The heat remains in the sun and is instrumental in maintaining the thermonuclear reaction. The electromagnetic radiation (including visible light, infra-red light, and ultra-violet radiation) streams out into space in all directions.

Only a very small fraction of the total radiation produced reaches the Earth. The radiation that does reach the Earth is the indirect source of nearly every type of energy used today. The exceptions are geothermal energy, and nuclear fission and fusion. Even fossil fuels owe their origins to the sun; they were once living plants and animals whose life was dependent upon the sun.

Much of the world's required energy can be supplied directly by solar power. More still can be provided indirectly. The practicality of doing so will be examined, as well as the benefits and drawbacks. In addition, the uses solar energy is currently applied to will be noted.