Self development helps us to recognise that change is a natural part of our life. It is inevitable. It also assists us to take a holistic view of change. In 500 B.C Heraclitus wrote “Everything flows and everything is constantly changing. You cannot step twice in the same river, for other waters are constantly flowing on”.
The way we work is change in dramatically. Information technology has helped organisation to operate more effectively in global market. The terms and conditions of employment are also changing. Many organisations are restructuring to make themselves flatter or smaller or semi autonomous works units. Multiskilled, self directed teams are being developed.
As a result of these changes, job security is now a thing of the past. During the process of self development learner create a portfolio of their skill and knowledge. Many professional associations encourage their members to develop portfolios, which give details of their qualifications, experience and continuing professional development. Some organisation creates a self development group with friends or colleagues.
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Thus changes are generally meant for development and are normal in most of business organizations. Evolutionary changes are permanent in business, which take place at a normal pace, whenever various changes take place out of this normal course of business.
The most important ingredients to successfully manage change in an organization are: executive sponsorship, effective communication, and accountability. All of these are direct responsibilities of management. Thus, unsuccessful change initiatives are most frequently caused by poor management performance.
Change in business
Change is the transition from one type to another. Change in business is a normal routine. Changes are meant for development of the organisation. Changes have positive effects that helps in supporting the developments of a company. but at the same time changes have some drawbacks. When a change is implemented in a company, some employees accept it, where as some resist it. Managers are responsible for change and these managers are called change coordinators. The change coordinators are responsible for the change implementation and also for controlling and managing the change and taking care of the negative effects and the resistance that occurs during change implementation. This management is called change management.
Change management is the process of controlling and managing changes in business organisations. According to SHRM Glossary of Human Resources Terms, www.shrm.org.”The systematic approach and application of knowledge, tools and resources to deal with change. Change management means defining and adopting corporate strategies, structures, procedures and technologies to deal with changes in external conditions and the business environment”.
There are a lot of rules for effective management of change. If the management apply those simple principles the managing organisational change become more successful. Change management establishes some meaning planning and sensitive implementation, and all the above consultation with, and involvement of, the workers affected by the changes. If the management force to change on workers or in organisation, normally there may occur so many problem inside and outside of the organisation. Whenever an organizationapplynew things on people there will be difficulties. Participation, involvement and open, early, full communication are the important factors. .Change must be realistic, achievable and measurable.
TYPES OF CHANGE
There are different kinds of change that require different strategies and plans to get the employees engagement and acceptance of change. The three types of change that they are most probably used in all organisations are developmental, transitional and transformational change. Change management theories always support how to handle with developmental and transitional change, but they are poor at dealing with implementing transformational change.
Developmental changes occur when that company try to improve their existing business. Whether a firm decided to upgrade their processes, methods or performance standards is be considered developmental change. The companies perform developmental changes in order to competitive with each other. For example accounting software Tally changed with Sap.
Transitional change replaces the existing process and procedures of the business. That means it implement completely a new business. Transitional phase is the period when the old process is being cancelled and the new process is being implemented. Transitional change does not bring about change in culture and in behaviour but it is better than developmental change.
The result of transitional change is unknown so some employees may feel like that they are not suitable for the job. Thus the employees must training at each stage of the new process of transitional change. This will make a feeling in employees mind that they are involved and engaged in change.
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After the transitional period transformational change starts. Transformational change includes both developmental and transitional change. Sometimes the company face the problems like significant changes in supply and demand, unexpected competition, lack of revenue or other major shifts in how they do business, developmental or transitional change cannot solve this problem, then the company may be forced to transform itself.
STEPS OF CHANGE
“It must be remembered that there is nothing more difficult to plan, more doubtful of success, nor more dangerous to manage, than the creation of a new system. For the initiator has the enmity of all who would profit by the preservation of the old institutions and merely lukewarm defenders in those who would gain by the new ones."- Machiavelli
Following are the major five steps of change:-
1. Initiate Change
it is the step of selecting the right people who are committed for implementing the change. They have to recognise the required change (defining the problem or opportunity), and commencing the change process.
2. Define Change
after identifying what needs to be changed, the next thing to do is to find out the possible ideas of change and identify and select the best one. The requirements to complete this step are ensure that the possible new idea is well studied and researched and is suitable for the development of the organisation. Then only the change can be implemented.
3. Plan Implementation
In this step the managers must plan about how and when to implement the new change. He can make or collect a lot of plan from different sources and finally select and implement most suitable one.
4. Implement Change
In this step the company carry out the implementation plan. The managers prepare everything required for change implementation. Once the time and all the requirement are ready, then the managers can implement the change.
5. Monitoring Change
Once a change has been implemented it is important to ensure that the desired benefits are obtained. This may require some time for monitoring. So that whatever has changed is able to be fully accepted by the organisation. This may also require further modifications and improvements.
Communication is the integral part of business management. It is the passing of information. It involves the interchange of thought or information between persons. It is a necessary factor to perform the job. As far as a manager is concerned he should communicate the policies, plans, programmes to other persons. Communication ends only when it reaches the destination. We can generally say that good managers are good communicator
The word communication has been derived from the Latin word ‘communis' which means common. There for communication means sharing of ideas in common. When we communicate, we are trying to share information or ideas. So communication takes place when one person transfers information and understanding to another person. It refers to the exchange of ideas, feelings, emotions, knowledge and information between two or more persons
Communication is the means of exchange of information. That is communication means transferring of ideas, opinion, emotions etc.. from one person to another.
The meaning of communication in business is broad based. It includes everything that may be used to convey message from one person to another person. Hence it is not that appeals, observations, instructions and orders in business constitute communication.
According to Louis Allen, “communication is the sum of all things one person does, when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding.
PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION
Communication is a process that conveys information between persons or organisation. Communication process consist seven basic elements. Such as
- Sender - Sender is a person who send the message.
- Message- message is what the sender wants to send to other person.
- Encoding- it is the process of put the message in to words or image.
- Transmission Channel- a transmission channel is must to transmit the message from sender to the receiver.
- Receiver- receiver is the person or a group to whom the message is send.
- Decoding- it is the process that the receiver interpret the message and translates in to meaningful information.
- Feedback- it is the reaction.
Barriers of Communication
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Communication barriers refer to the obstacles or problems that stand in the way of effective communication. These communication problems raise many interpersonal and interdepartmental problems. Following the major barriers in communication-
Organisational communication is the two way process. In the communication process, on the one end there is the sender and the other end there is the receiver. These separations constitute physical barriers. Thus physical distance between the sender and receiver of a message serves obstacles to effective communication.
It arises by the feeling, desires and hopes of persons included in communication. These exist both in sender and receiver of communication. Psychological barriers include self-centred attitudes, consciousness about one's status, closed mind, poor communication skill, etc....
In organisation, people come from different region, back ground and speak different languages. Often communication gap arises due to indigestible language of the sender, even if the sender use very simple language, there may be a chance to occur problems.
The defects in the devises use in communication are purely external and often met with in the control of the members who engaged in the communication process. The telephone, the postal system, internet, etc... may break down or face some disturbance and may not convey the message.
When overload comes, there is a chance to delete or misinterpretations of information or the message.
There are different hierarchical statuses in an organisation. This hierarchy are ranked according to the status. Sometimes there is a chance to occur some barriers.
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
Communication may be internal or external, formal or informal, spoken or written. In fact it can even a single smile.
Communication between different members and department of a business organisation is known as internal communication.
It is the communication between the organisation and its environment. That is communication between business staff and the outsiders. It may be communication with customers or financial institutions or government etc.....
It is the communication through the formal means. That is the flow of information along the lines of authorities that has been already established in the organisation.
Eg:- when a supervisor issue orders and instructions to his subordinates, it is said to be a formal communication.
Informal communication also known as Grapevine. Informal communication occurs among people to satisfy their social needs which are not possible through the formal communication system. So informal communication is the inter-personal relation among the workers working within an organisation.
Flows of Communication
Communication flow deals with direction of communication in an organisation. It may be downward communication, upward communication and sideward communication.
Downward communication originates from higher level of an organisation and flow to downwards trough different management levels. Downward communication also known as superior-initiate communication.
Upward communication originates from lower level of an organisation and travels upward through the scalar chain. Sometimes upward communication didn't get proper attention, some managers do not pay much attention to what their subordinates have to say. Upward communication also known as subordinates initiated communication.
Sideward communication also known as crosswise communication, horizontal communication. Sideward communication includes horizontal flow of information and ideas with workers on the same organisation level.
IMPORTANCE OF INTERNAL COMMUNICATION
Internal communication is very important in change management. Internal communication plays a vital role in each and every steps of change implementation. The manager responsible for change or the change coordinator has to communicate with different members of his employees. He must first communicate with the employees who are in a higher level in the organization and must ask them permission for implementing change. For this he needs to show them the positive effects of the change and hence convince them that the change is going to bring in a lot of development to the organization. The higher level managers once convinced will approve the change implementation and thus the change coordinator can carry on with the change implementation. The change coordinator then have to communicate horizontally with the employees of his same level and convince them also. He can then impose the change and then communicate with the lower level staff. He should then continuously monitor the change and should get feedbacks. For this he needs to communicate with the employees and others who are using the new change. Like this he must note down the negative effects and then try to solve them. This is how internal communication is said to be important in the organization for change implementation.