Mobile and Wireless Communications




This assignment will cover the subjects of wired and wireless radio communication system and overlapping problems. As per my knowledge the overlapping will have more possibilities in wired radio communication and fewer possibilities in wireless communication. In this assignment I have mentioned many solutions for overlapping problems, like WAG's, TCP. This assignment will give full details of TCP radio communication and installation with segment structure, data transfer, and error detection details.


in this topic mainly discuss about wired radio communication, radio communication and overlapping and wireless access group(WAG), Transmission control protocol(TCP) on radio communication and overlap. The radio communication system consists of more radio base stations and in which are connected in serial manner, with at least one radio terminal. The more stations of radio base stations are communicated with the connected radio station with the help of radio. The radio network connection capable to transmit information of radio channels by using all the radio based stations. Radio communication is the process of transmitting the information signals by modulation of it in free space or medium. The WAG(wireless Access Group) will suggest to set any of the AP's(access points) level or wireless by automatically using the channel at prescribed options. The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the important Protocol of the two protocols. The other protocol is Internet Protocol (IP), the two protocols combined together as TCP/IP. In which the TCP will work at high level transmissions. TCP can send a group of bytes from one computer program to another computer program it includes sending of mails with attached files.


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When the network connecting the wired communication line then it is called as the first wired communication line in multi communication system. When the first wired communication line moves from the first zone then the first wired communication line becomes second communication zone, it said to be a second radio station. So basically when first radio communication station moves to other zone automatically the second radio communication will occupy its zone place, it means the first radio communication is connected with second radio communication. The connecting and retrieving the information means connecting only the vacant radio channel, it's called as first radio base station process. As per above statement the first and second radio communication system are connected by more than one, so it is called as multi or plurality wired communication channels.


During this process the signals may overlap, when radio frequency is being set, the signal will be high at peak frequency and low at low frequency. The signal spectrum mostly uses mid frequency. The message signal bandwidth and spectrum width are related, to transmit the data, and decoder to receive it. Overlap will occur between two adjacent signals. The Access points are double tuners used in wireless communications that can receive or transmits the desired signals with same channel and same carrier frequency. The APs are made to access at a particular peak frequency to overcome overlapping, interfering, collisions of adjacent cells. The multiple APs will divide the channel into in to two non overlapping channels. Each AP will be selected at a particular range of a channel before transmission. The channels are reduced in order to avoid collisions. The divided APs are made to operate at peak state of the frequency. In the wireless LAN overlapping channel will reduce the collisions, interference, mixing of signals.Operating the APs in peak frequency and mid frequency will arise a new problem.


Study on the concept of overlapping by ‘Mitch Burton' tells us that, when signals are sent through same channel, the signal will not overlap or mix. Let us assume we have four wireless nodes as city, region, campus, in-building. The channel should be divided into two instead of one. Thus dividing the channels, interference of APs will be reduced to less than 4%-1% based on the number of divisions of the channels.

The current which is generated in wireless transmission uses filters which will reduce the APs interference. Time is slotted and the message signal must be sent at a particular time given to that signal in a particular channel. Thus we can say that by using two channels overlapping is reduced by selecting certain band width for each channel.

WAG's advice on overlap:

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By using this process we can avoid the interference on booting initially better than the expected and satisfied level. The implemented wireless management devices can do the best job at a desired programmed.

This shows that it needs more number of APs to cover an area or specified place with manually -assigned spectrum management. This shows that the operators should understand well about the manually -assigned spectrum device.In WiFi position we must use two instead of one non overlapping channel so that the collisions will reduce with adjacent cells to a greater extent. There will be another expected problem if two channels are also not enough, they are. 1.When message moving through many building floors. 2 When use of more than one channel, the other channels may mix.3.When passing message with unknown place.

During the above process there will be little overlapping in channels and hence collision of adjacent cells is also low. The design must have:1. further problems of overlapping channels will be solved by ‘official' WiFi services. 2. for the purpose of developing relationship with near networks will be done only with deploy wireless. (alternatively, try to get your kit deployed first) 3. the ISM band will rectify the unwanted or not related technologies which are used in system but it not necessary to limit our wireless networking options. This is for security systems purposes. 4. the police of radio communication on campus will be rectify only by developing policies of networking and observing the regimes.

TCP on radio communication & overlap: TCP have three ports they are shown below,

* Source port (16 bits) - identifies the sending port

* Destination port (16 bits) - identifies the receiving port

* Sequence number (32 bits) - has a dual role .

Reliable Transmission:

During the transmission of data there will be loss of packets. This problem can overcome by using TCP, in which data is settled in a serial manner so that if there is any loss in packets while transferring data can be recognized easily. By this the lost data bytes can be resent.


When the first wired line, wired communication, wired control lines & said wired communication lines connecting with radio base stations one by one and the information will relayed as per system receives first come first information basis. By this way the information will transfer one radio system to another radio system. In this topic we discuss about to avoid collisions and ensure high performance, fairness and efficiency.


1. K. Appel, W. Haken, and J. Koch, Every planar map is four colorable. II. Reducibility. Illinois J. Math., 21(3):491-567, 1977

2. Mitch Burton, Channel overlap calculations for 802.11b Networks. TechOnline, November 2002.