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Impact of Mobile Phone Station on Health
Human civilisation has evolved from time to time. Initially, telephone was limited used. It was rarely used by public during early period because of its range and tools capabilities. In fact, it was used by government institution, military purposes, and noble groups only because it was so expensive. After, some brilliant people discovered mobile phone with modern components to be instead of landline.
Due to its efficiency, mobile phone becomes well-known and friendly to user in the whole world. Nowadays, almost everybody has a mobile phone. It is a process starting the communicator transmits their message. The human voice is captured in a wave form. The wave is relayed into mobile phone station and transferred to a satellite. It is communicated to a receiver in remote area then finally the message can be accepted by another user. There are some advantages of using it, but it also has many disadvantages which can cause bad effect into human health.
This essay will divided into three sections which are: introduction, main text about supportive studies the effects, challenges from the mobile phone industries and recommendations which are about precautions to apply new mobile phone station in residences area based on various researches.
The objective of this assignment is to reinforcement knowledge, implementing between theory-practice and predicting some possibilities related in short term impact and long term effects.
Supportive Studies on Its Impact on Health
In the modern era, cell phone has an important role in connecting people wherever they stay. For instance, a person living in desert can call his friend in London just within few second. Today, an advanced mobile phone has been invent with some features such as: 3G system, GPS locating system, note book, e-banking transaction, internet connection, even we can watch TV shows lively. Its function is not simply for communicating but also for varieties purposes. It looks like laptop can be carried easily along the day. However, besides its advantages the mobile phones also have disadvantages rumour that people believe it could cause harmful on human health.
Basically, cell phone's signal (in electromagnetic form) is converted to a mobile phone base station; then through instance process, and a mast transmits to satellite until reaching another user. Mobile phone base station has function as a sender and a receiver signal. Without its creature, the mobile phone will not function. However, radiation will be produced and affecting surrounding community. This is main issues need to be concentrate on.
In roughly every country, mobile phone is an integral part one of basic human needs. It is effective in cost and efficient. The mobile phones industry except that there will be roughly 1.6 billion users of mobile phones in the world in 2005 (WHO, 2010).
As demand of market increasing, there are numbers of cell station have to be installed. Cell stations are low-powered radio antennae that are in touch with users' handsets. According to World Health Organisation (WHO), in near the beginning of 2000 there were about 20,000 signal towers in process in the UK and about 82,000 cell sites in the US'. Recently, researchers did investigations said that Radio Frequency (RF) which is emitted from mobile phone causing health hazard. It is horrible news among mobile phone users especially ordinary person. This information seems unclear. Many experts have involved in dispute concerning such statement.
“increased incidence for tiredness (within 300m), for headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort Among people living closer than 300 m away from the base station, a French study found an, etc (200 m). For irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, etc (100 m). Women significantly more often than men complained of headache, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, depression, discomfort and visual perturbations.”
There are supportive evidences to back up its impact on health. Dr Henry Lai and Dr N P Singh (n.d) from the University of Washington in Seattle believe the radiation changed brain cell membranes. Stewart Group (2000) says exposure to RF radiation may inflict to biological functions, as well as brain. In addition, RF penetration is “around 2 cm into human heads at higher frequency 1800-1900 MHz” (National Researcher Council, 2008, P.16).
Based on an Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, reports have aroused in the media linking the use of mobile telephones with headaches, hot spots in the brain and brain cancer. In BBC News (2002) tells around 40% of mobile phone users complain that they suffer from headaches. Likewise, Mobile Phone and Safety UK (2010) states radioactive emissions from masts have been accused of causing leukaemia, brain tumours and a syndrome known as electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EH). In addition, Moulten (2006) cited by Krawczyk (2008) denotes there are some effects of human body on RF absorptions.
The neural behaviour effects of people surrounded by mobile phone cell stations "Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions"
Abdel-Rissole G, et al, Neurotoxicology. 2006 Aug 1.
Even all the studies has not provide solid evidence that electromagnetic radiation can cause cancer, however the studies advice that we should take precaution and follows WHO standards.
These are facts both from scientific sources and news that RF radiation will impact on health condition and aggravating public trust into mobile phone usage.
Challenges from Phone Industries
There is debate between experts which supporting bad effect mobile phone station on health versus group says that mobile phone does not have negative impact to be used. Some scientific studies have linked use of mobiles to headaches, memory loss and cancer; whereas the industry claims that they are perfectly safe.
Mobile-industry companies were defends themselves from the rumours about the bad effect of mobile phones on health to protect their reputation. Furthermore, many researchers funded by mobile phone companies and they concluded that there is no adverse effects on human health caused by electromagnetic mobile phones and masts.
‘'There is essentially no evidence that microwave exposure from mobile telephones causes cancer, and no clear evidence that such exposure accelerates the growth of an already-existing cancer ‘'(ARPANSA, 2009, n.p).
International body WHO says that there should be many important considerations when evaluating possible health effects of RF fields. One is the frequency of its operation. Current mobile phone systems work at frequencies between 800 and 1800 MHz. it is important to have the two RF fields and ionizing radiation separate, such as X-rays or gamma rays. In contrast the RF field are called non-ionizing, because it's doesn't grounds effect on the body with the radioactivity.
Thus, there is no persuasive evidence of the rise in danger of cancer or any other disease with use of mobile phones in the residential areas (WHO, 2010).
There are three prominent body's recommendations related of mobile phone base stations in relation with residential areas. Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones (2001) recommends that a precautionary approach to the use of mobile phone technologies be adopted until much more detailed and scientifically strong information on any health effects becomes available.
WHO (2010) gives recommendation focusing on government as
organizer and individual as user. Government have to introduce additional precautionary methods to reduce contact to RF fields to surrounding area. Policy should be established with a deep study of safety product. Individually, they might use exposure by restraining the length of calls, or use new ways such as handset to keep the mobile phones away from heads and the body organ.
The Mobile Phone and Safety in UK advised to stay away from mobile phone masts more than ten metres.
This essay has tried to analysis the impacts of mobile phone station on human health. It can be extracted that there have been disagreement between scientists who supported and opposed mobile phone and its stations causing health hazards. Public acquired information from media telling that radio frequency (RF) is causing harm physically and psychologically to community it creates fright among residents who are using mobile phone and also close to mast phone station.
As phone users is getting tend yearly, huge company funding research in examining of electromagnetic influences into human body. It seems there are politics or economics reasons behind this issue to facing telecommunication business in modern era.
Several international bodies have suggested different approaches on how to come across the problems, since there is no scientific case yet to investigate RF weakness. To protect mass from mobile phone station radiation, both government and individual should do a concrete step to reduce radiation risk. The government, policies have to be established to control the amount of radiation, and to check mast formation in residential area. Individually, it is called to use mobile in safe way which is to keep it away from head and body part. Last but not least, living away at least fifteen meters from mobile mast station can reduce electromagnetic radiation.
Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, (2009), Mobile telephones and health effects, available online at URL: http://www.arpansa.gov.au/mobilephones/index.cfm, accessed on April 02, 2010.
BBC News, (2002), Are mobile phone a health hazards? http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/314363.stm, available online at URL: accessed on April 01, 2010.
Department of Health, (2000), Mobile phone base station and health, available online at URL: http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4123983.pdf, accessed on April 02, 2010.
Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones (2001), Summary and recommendation, http://www.iegmp.org.uk/documents/iegmp_1.pdf, accessed on April 02, 2010.
Krawczyk, Andrzej (2008), Electromagnetic Field Health and environment: proceedings of EHE'07, IOS Press: UK, P.265.
Mobile Phone and Safety (2010), Mobile phone and Public Health, available online at URL: http://www.mobilephonesandsafety.co.uk/mobile-phone-masts-public-health.html, accessed on April 03, 2010.
National Researcher Council, (2008), Identification of research needs potential relating to potential biological or adverse health effects of wireless communication devices, National Academy Science: USA, P.16.
Stewart, 2000, Report on Mobile Phones and Health, Independent Expert Group on Mobile phones, available online at URL: http://www.iegmp.org.uk/report/announcement.htm, accessed on April 03, 2010.
WHO, (2010), Electromagnetic fields and public health: mobile telephones and their base stations, available at URL: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs193/en/, accessed on April 04, 2010.
Impact of Mobile Phone Station on Health