Change is the transition from one type to another. Every organisation has a specific goal. Change in organisation to attain specific goal. Change is the fact of business life. Change improves the functioning and performance of organisation. In today's business world, change is predictable. For a business organisation to survive in the market successfully, the company must undergo various developmental changes. These changes bring out many disturbance and hence difficult to implement the change. Change implementation has positive effects and at the same time negative effects. Communication is an important aspect of change implementation and management.
Change management is a collection of steps that helps to implement change in a systematic way so as to bring about development in the business organization. Change management is the management and controlling of change. The main reason of change is to bring about development so as to overcome certain negative aspects or problems.
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Managers are the personalities concerned with change and they take into consideration the different steps and procedures of implementing change. The change managers come across many resistors and it is their duty to bring about least resistant changes in the organization.
The change implementing manager must be then concerned with the results and effects of the change within the organization. For this he needs to continuously monitor the change all the time.
Communication means of exchange of ideas one person to another. It is a process through which an information, idea or opinion is transferred to more number of persons. The information transferred must be understandable to the receiver. The word communication has been derived from the Latin word 'communis' which means common. Thus communication means sharing of ideas in common. When we communicate we are trying to share information or ideas. Thus communication takes place when one person transfers information and understanding to another person. It is refers to the exchange of ideas, feelings, emotions, knowledge and information between two or more persons.
Communication is defined as "the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another, it is essentially a bridge of meaning between people. By using the bridge of meaning a person can safely cross the river of misunderstanding."
Process of communication
The communication process indicates seven major points such as sender, encoding, message, transmission channel, receiver, decoding, and feedback. Communication can break down at any one of these elements.
- Sender: - The communication process starts with sender. Sender is necessary for communication. Without sender there is no communication. The sender wishes to send a message to the receiver.
- Message: - The message means what the sender wants to convey to the receiver. Message is necessary for communication. Message like words, letter etc. Every message has a reason or objective.
- Encoding: - Encoding the matter is a important part of communication. Using appropriate words and symbols can make the message clear and useful. To encode is to put message into words or images.
- Transmission channel: - The channel is the medium of sending message from one person to another. Channel necessary for sending message one person to another. In face-to-face communication air is the channel. In a written communication letters and reports are the channel. Without channel there is no communication.
- Receiver: - Every communication has a receiver. The receiver is a person or a group for whom the communication effort is intended. If the message does not reach a receiver, communication has not taken place. The situation is not much improved if the message reaches a receiver but the receiver but the receiver doesn't understand it.
- Decoding: - Decoding is the process by which the receiver interprets the message and translate it into meaningful information. Decoding involves two things: one is technically receiving the message as it has been sent, and the other is interpreting the message the way sender wants receiver to understand.
- Feedback: - feedback is reaction. Without it, the sender of the message cannot know whether the recipient has received the entire message or grasped its intent. The need for feedback should be clearly understood.
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There are two types of communication, internal communication and external communication. Internal communication means communication between different persons or departments within organisation. Communicate with different levels, higher level, Middle level and Lower level. In a business communication flows are upward, downward, horizontal and crosswise.
The developmental changes are always a big concern to the managers and the organizations. The managers have to make strategic plans and steps in bringing about successful implementation of change. This phenomenon or the work done by the managers is called change management. This area of management needs a lot of study and ideas. The change implementation is not as easy as it seems. The concerned people must be really strong enough to convince others that the change implemented will bring development to the organization.
Types of changes
Mainly there are three types of change in organisation. They are;
- Developmental change
- Transitional change
- Transformational change
Developmental change occurs when there is a need for development in any organization. This change is to change the current existing system and to make it better. This change does not change the entire system but instead makes small developmental changes. This change is called developmental change.
Transitional changes are the changes in which the complete change from the existing system is needed. This change is implemented within duration of time and for this different steps and plans of implementations are used, This change is very effective and is used to make high development in organizations.
Transformational change is the change which is implemented so as to survive in the business market. This transformational change is not planned not use any implementation steps but it just happens in course of time and hence it is the most interesting. The business organization tends to transform from one state to another. This is called transformational change.
Need of change
Many organisations face the problems of tackling change and its implementation. The need of change mainly occurs due to the rapid development in various different fields that are related to the business field and organizations. These various fields are technology, infrastructure etc. Technology is the major field that undergoes rapid change within short duration of time period. The companies come across different technologies and are bound to be using these technologies as they bring in a lot of development to the organization. The introduction of computers and software was a major breakthrough in the field of business. This made the companies to implement this technology as it was very efficient and had all the aspects that could help for development of the business organization. This software get updated and become better every year and hence the companies are more bound to use them and hence they implement the change. These changes are implemented and managed by the change coordinators of the organization. These are the major needs of change and change is a normal routine.
Levels or Steps in change implementation
Change implementation is the main function of the managers or change coordinator of the organisation. In an organisation before implementing the change, the change coordinator must know the merits and de-merits of that change. Then he must take the opinion about his subordinates. The decision take in change is a major part of every business organisation. So the coordinator must communicate in all levels and take all opinion about the change. There are six major steps take when apply the change. These are;
- Define the change: - Define the change is the first stage of change implementation. In which the manager or the change coordinator of the organisation can define the change. He must do the detailed study about the change to be implemented and find out the merits and de-merits of the change. Then he asks the opinion about the change in his subordinates and people.
- Receive change request: - Receive all requests for changes, perfectly through a single change coordinator. Change requests can be submitted on a change request form that includes the date and time of the request. Receive Change request is necessary for taking before implementing the change. Some workers didn't support this change, because they fear that maybe lost their current job.
- Plan for implementation of changes: - After receiving all requests the coordinator plan what, which, or when the change implement will done. They choose the more suitable change and then plan to implement it. Planning is essential for implement the change.
- Implement and monitor the changes: - At this stage, apply the change and monitor the results. If the required result is not achieved, or if other systems or applications are negatively affected, back out the changes.
- Evaluate and report on changes implemented: - Provide feedback on all changes to the change coordinator, whether they were successful or not. The change coordinator is responsible for examining trends in the application of changes. In this stage the change coordinator evaluate the customer reaction or opinion about the new change and make a report. This is the major step in change implementation. After this stage organization conduct a board meeting and take a decision whether implement or not.
- Modify change management plan if necessary: - In this stage the coordinator remove the negative aspects of change. It will give a good positive result in business.
Impact of change in communication process
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The changes in the organisation will influence the method of communication to a high extend. And so is important to manage the change properly so it is not affect the communication flow within in the organisation. In view of in a present situation as example, assume that a manager is resigning from a firm, and a new manger is been appointed this change will definitely cause difference in normal play of the organization. as changes are mostly rejected by the employees it will take time to adjust with the new manager and this will lead the new managers job challenging one, if the manager communicate in proper track this problems can be solved .if the manager is having the skill to deal with situation he can overcome this challenges. Hence the impact of change will affect the various aspect of an organization.
Obstacles or challenges and their solutions in context of change
There exist many obstructers or challenges which will affect the smooth running of a firm; they may be communication gap between the managers and employees, between top level management and middle level management. This can be overcome by the following methods
Newsletter and other information such as intranet website may not be usually used by all employees at all circumstances. So it is better to implement a desktop policy, such as making the company intranet website as the default webpage in the internet browsers, such a policy will enable employees to look at the website whenever they open the internet browsers. Make a rule in a company that all the members should check or visit their employee portals, newsletters, and other information sources.
Challenges met when dealing with an international team.
The main two mode of communication with the international team is over the phone, emails & instant messaging. In all these three cases we are very much dependent on the Telecommunication & Internet service provider. If anything goes wrong with the service provider's link then we will lose contact with the international team, since they are not communicating face to face, there will be a small communication gap, and it is difficult to establish effective communication between international teams.
Manager's role in communication in context of change
- When a change is happened in an organisation it is the duty of the manager to verify that if the internal communication is successful or not.
- if the communication is not complete the manager has make sure it has reached every one, this is one of most imported step in by a manger which will help the company to grow more rapidly and smoothly.
- Manager has to see that the employees are checking their mails, website and portals regularly
- He has to make sure that all employees are one time for group meeting and group gathering in various occasions, at which various information's about the changes of the firms are discussed
Change policy should be implemented in firm so that it will help the new mangers to run the firm smoothly and professionally
Barriers of change in communication process
There are number of barriers to successful change - both in terms of implementing it and equally if not more essentially satisfying it. The important barriers of change are given bellow:
- Not enough understanding about the change itself and poor arrangement following it. For example, no clear vision, direction, priorities.
- Lack of leadership is needed to motivate and connect people's energies as well as to keep persistently moving forward
- Lack of focus and strong project management of the change
- No clear process for managing endings and beginnings, and co-ordinating the change process
- People's issues/ barriers to change are not defined and there are no actions to address them leading to low appointment, poor confidence.
- People practices are not reviewed is needed to ensure the change is sustained and to enable people to operate in a new way
- Successes are not predictable, communicate is needed to increase the pace of change and increase promise to the new way of doing things.
- Progress is not measured and the learning is not reviewed is needed to sustain the change.
The most important developmental factor in every business organization is the implementation of change. Change is thus considered as a normal procedure or activity in every organization. Change implementation and change management is one of the major concerns of every organization. Change management is the major concern of the manager who implements the change. These managers are called change coordinators. The main activity that helps the change coordinators to implement change is internal communication. Internal communication is the communication between the employees within the same organization. This internal communication helps the managers to introduce the change in the organization. Using the different flows of communication the change coordinator must communicate with the concerned employees and convince them about the development that the change can bring about. The feedbacks from the concerned employees are also very important as they help in bringing about improvement in the change that is implemented. All this happens with the help of internal communication. Internal communication continuously helps to monitor the change and its results and hence proves very effective for change management. Hence internal communication proves to be very important for change management and implementation.
- Clampitt, Ph., 1991, Communicating for Managerial Effectiveness, Sage Publications, New York.
- Prof. A.P. Krishnan, 2006, Business Communication, Calicut university publications, India.
- Dance, F.E.X., 1970, the concept of Communication, in: "The Journal of Communication", nr. 20