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Change is the transition from one type to another. Every organisation wants change to attain specific goal. Change is the fact of business life. Change improves the running and performance of organisation. If you look around at the present economic climate and see what is occurrence it's simple to see that some businesses are doing in actual fact well because theyknow howto create flexibility and can settle in to the changing fortunes in the economy. Other businesses areadopting a "batten down the hatch moreover ride out the storm" come within reach of. Some businesses are also 'implementing' change programmes to reform their business.
In today's business world, change is predictable. In order for organizations to be successful and hang about ready for action, they must be able to adjust to change, which is very difficult to do because of various barriers. The three main barriers to organizational change are lack of change readiness, poor leadership and poor communication. For the purpose of this article, we will be only discussing the barrier of poor communication.
In order to implement any kind of change there needs to be good communication. Communication needs to be collaborative among employees going every which way-up, down and across - every employee must be included. If employees don't feel like they have been communicated to properly, they will most likely not follow the change agent or leader. If leaders in fact want to lead, they need to communicate and include its followers in every step of the change process. Employees are more likely to get on-board with the change process if they participated and contributed to the plan.
A common definition used for change management is a set of processes that is employed to ensure that significant changes are implemented in an orderly, controlled and systematic fashion to effect organizational change. One of the goals of change management is with regards to the human aspects of overcoming resistance to change in order for organizational members to buy into change and achieve the organization's goal of an orderly and effective transformation.
Organizational change management takes into consideration both the processes and tools that managers use to make changes at an organizational level. Most organizations want change implemented with the least resistance and with the most buy-in as possible. For this to occur, change must be applied with a structured approach so that transition from one type of behaviour to another organization wide will be smooth.
In most cases, management's first responsibility is to identify processes or behaviours that are not proficient and come up with new behaviours, processes, etc that are more effective within an organization. Once changes are identified, it is important for managers to estimate the impact that they will have to the organization and individual employee on many levels includingtechnology, employee behaviour, work processes, etc.
At this view of management should assess the employee's reaction to an implemented change and try to understand the reaction to it. In many cases, change can be extremely beneficial with lots of positives; however certain changes do sometimes produce a tremendous amount of resistance. It is the job of management to help support workers through the process of these changes, which are at times very difficult. The end result is that management must help employees accept change and help them become well adjusted and effective once these changes have been implemented.
Change management deals with how changes to the system are managed so they don't degrade system performance and availability. Change management is especially critical in today's highly decentralized, network-based environment where users themselves may be applying many changes.
Need of change
Many organisations for mapping and cadastre face similar problems. First of all there is tension between the organisational principles of the public administration and the requirements of an executive organisation. The aim for serving customers impact heavily on organisations for mapping and cadastre because they need continuity in investments in ICT and organisational development.
The government however is restricted to its annual budget, which can differ from year to year because of the endorsement of the Parliament, the inflexible labour conditions, changing political priorities, apart from political instability and lack of money. Secondly, governments tend to impose some kind of cost recovery regime on this kind of executive organisations, causing decrease of legitimacy because customers are not satisfied in their desire to receive value. Thirdly executive organisations are almost everywhere on top of the list for staff and budget reductions because this kind of going concern activities seldom are politician's favourite priority. Fourthly, under investments in mapping and cadastre have the potential to cause backlogs which never can be overcome in the future.
Yet there is a need for radical change in many organisations for mapping and cadastre. In the field of mapping, there is a growing supply of alternative products, like satellite images and other aerospace surveys methods. These alternative products are mainly provided by the private sector. Mapping and cadastral organisations wanting to cope with changing environment face a real challenge. To revitalize an organisation is playing a simultaneous chess game, as the necessary change likely consists of various components.
- redefinition of mandates, tasks and responsibilities
- definition of mission, vision and strategy
- creation of transparent managerial and financial structures
- establishment of processes for customer relations
- introduction for process modelling and process management
- creation of a service focused organisation (corporate) culture
- good public relations and public affairs
These elements will be elaborated hereafter, substantially based on the practical experiences in the Cadastre and Land Registry Agency of the Netherlands, which changed into an independent public body in 1994. For a good understanding it should be known that this Agency is also active in the nationwide production and maintenance of (large scale: 1/1000) topographic maps (i.e. databases).
Levels or Steps in change
Process of change
Communication process within an organization is characterized by the nature of the organization structure. The content of the communication and the barriers leading to communication breakdown can reasonably be anticipated by knowing the organizational positions of the sender and the receiver.
In general, there are three types of formal communications in an organization:
1) Downward Communication:
Any communication which originates from a higher level of chain of command and is diverted toward the lower levels is called downward Communication. This essentially consists of policies, orders, directives, etc. Downward communications are needed:
- To instruct the employees about the work methods and jobs;
- Â To provide information about the rules, procedures and practices to the employees; and
- To provide the subordinates with feedback on their performance.
An important requirement of effective downward communication is that it needs to be translated into more operational and practical terms as it passes down the levels of hierarchy. Unless this translation makes the message relevant for the receiver, it defeats its intended purpose. For example, if the corporate objectives which are phrased in very generic terms are presented to the worker without specifying his targets, they would convey no message to him to act upon.
2) Upward Communication:
Both management and employees often neglect the role of upward communication in an organization. However, many of the decisions regarding the policies and targets, made at the upper levels of hierarchy, depend heavily on the information received through the upward channels of communication. The upward communication is useful.
- To provide feedback to the management about the implemented Programmers and policies;
- To provide information about output, quality of products, etc.
- To collect the job relevant feelings and reactions of the employees; and
- To receive the complaints and grievances of the employees
3) Horizontal Communication:
Messages exchanged among employees who are at the same level in the organizational hierarchy are called horizontal communication. Such communication is important for effective organizational functioning in two ways:
- It facilitates coordination of work at the inter-departmental level, and
- It permits exchange of jobs, related experiences and knowledge. It must, however, be noted that the horizontal communication to be useful, requires going beyond the petty feelings of one-upmanship, jealousies, favoritism etc