With this document I intend to emphasize the importance of the Open Systems Interconnection. Through this work my aim is to underscore the great significance of the Open System Interconnection and the vital role that its basic fundamental principles have served in current and future networking systems of today. I intend to depict its operational process by giving detail on each independent layer and their important function in facilitating the system in delivering a satisfying product to the end user.
The Open Systems Interconnection standard model is now deemed the principal architectural model for inter-computing and internetworking communications. The system's workings are most transparent when broken down into seven different layers that are located within a set of network functions. The composition of the model encompasses that of standard networking principals that serve as the standard worldwide. The system also provides an excellent model to discover the working of network systems and also the design element. The Open Systems Interconnection serves as a blueprint for network communications, and has laid the foundation for the evolution of computer networking of the future.
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Developed in 1984 by the International Standards Organization, the Open Systems Interconnection serves as the primary model of design for most existing networks of today. The seven layers used to define the model are essential in creating a concrete picture of the workings of communicative networks. Although the layers work together, a change in one layer would not directly affect the actions of other layers. The layers don't exactly need to know how the other layers function, but one of their main objectives is to know how to correctly pass information on to the following layer. Although able to work independent of each other, the layers can be categorized into two groups. Their exists the upper layer which deals more with applications and software and then the lower layer that deals with the movement of information. The seven layers are the Physical Layer, Data Link Layer, Network Layer, Transport Layer, Session Layer, Presentation Layer, and Application Layer.
The Physical Layer projects the distinctiveness of the physical networking arrangement. It provides a physical summation for the hardware and movement that takes place throughout the networking process. Hardware involved in this layer may include radio waves, voltage levels, interface pins, and several other parts that play important roles in this layer. Aside from providing a visualization of the networking system, the physical layer's primary responsibilities are to send and receive bits of information. When the physical layer is grouped with the second layer, the combined components identify as a networks interface. The second layer is the Data Link Layer and it functions to move data between network entities and correct transmission faults.
The Data Link layer serves as a director to make sure that communication occurs effectively and efficiently from the physical layer. The Data Link Layer is able to accomplish this by verifying that a series or bits, commonly identified as packets are identified and arrive at their proper destination. After information is prepared through the physical layer and data link layer, it is then passed on to the Network Layer. The Network Layer functions as an initial brain of the system by delegating information to the correct ending locations. This layer also allows for information to be shared with other linked in networks via routers and is also the home of the IP protocol.
The fourth layer also functions in somewhat of a director role as it makes sure that that the information that is sent by the Data Link Layer arrives in the condition in which it was originally sent. The Data Link Layer completes this function by breaking down the information into fragments and rebuilding the same information into its original form when it reaches its destination. The Network Layer also ensures that the fragments are delivered in the original allotted file size designated by the network. The Network has the ability to detect errors and send them back to preceding levels and request retransmission. The fifth layer is called the Session Layer. The session layer is responsible for managing the applications between networks. The Session Layer is able to accomplish this by the control it has over communicating nodes that exchange information. The sixth layer is called the Presentation Layer and it exists so that it may introduce information to the Application Layer, which is the last layer. To facilitate the transfer of data, the Presentation layer has the ability to transfer data into different data sets. The Presentation Layer's ability to complete this activity makes it possible for different programming languages to work together in a networking system. The Application Layer is what users of networks are most familiar with in terms of the Open Systems Interconnection. All the components of the Open Systems Interconnection are designed so that when the information is available to the user at the end stage it is very accessible and user friendly. Familiar applications to users would include Email, Access to files, directories, and plenty more.
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Due to the great magnitude of the Open Systems Interconnection, it is important for all individuals in related fields to know and understand this system and its importance. If having problems remembering the entire name of each layer, I recommend using a method which involves an acronym. I use the make shift word “PAND PTS” ,this funny acronym is what I use in order to help me recall the seven layers of the Open Systems Interconnection.
The Open Systems Interconnection has served as a very important tool in the evolution of modern day networking. It has served as an invaluable applicable model that has revolutionized the way in which communication takes place today. The fundamentals included within the Open Systems Interconnection will continue to serve as guides for future technological advancements and discoveries.