An elaboration of communication theories

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Introduction

The following is a collection of journal articles by various authors. Each author has taken it upon themselves to voice his or her own opinions and views of communication theories.

Symbolic Interactionism

Journal article by Leslie Doty Hollingsworth; Social Work, Vol. 44, 1999.

The main purpose of this article is to use that which has been written and spoken to support the reality of African American families as a distinct cultural group, use symbolic interactionism in conceptualizing an association between the African American culture and the socialization of African American children, and lastly to explain opposition to trans-racial adoption within this framework. The National Association of Black Social Workers felt that black children should not be adopted by white families because black children need to be able to identify self-determination from birth to death of all Black people. The young ones also need to begin at birth how to identify with Black people in a Black community and because the philosophy that we need our own to build a strong nation.

Journal article by Monica A. Longmore; The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 35, 1998.

The main purpose is to explore the theoretical background of the symbolic interactionist perspective, basic assumptions, concepts, and explanations applied to sexuality, thus giving a better understanding to explore the theoretical background of the symbolic interactionist perspective, including its historical emergence, basic assumptions, concepts, and explanations. Sex research has contributed to our understanding of the interpersonal processes and personal strategies involved in identity formation and the processes involved in socialization in various sexual subcultures. The journal elaborated identity in homosexual activities, cyber-sex, adolescent, sexual communication and gender. It emphasized that sexual scripting has a social as well as an intra-psychic dimension; sexual scripting highlights the important symbolic interactionist assumption that to communicate sexually it is essential to see the world from the other person's point of view and to see things, including oneself, from the other's perspective. It all depends on the persons' ability to role take.

Rhetoric

Journal article by David A. Frank; Argumentation and Advocacy, Vol. 34, 1998.

In development of this thesis, the author seeks to restore the New Rhetoric's dialectic of rapprochement as a program of reconciliation that features argument as the process of making judgments. In this essay, he revisits the New Rhetoric's dialectic and then identifies the situated logic that emanated from this dialectic. This article studies the dialectical ambiguity and dialectic rapprochement that question English law, of Zionist Chaim Perelman. Perelman was careful to juxtapose, not efface, the dialectic of formal logic and the role played by demonstration in mathematics and geometry with the dialectic of argumentation.

Journal article by Donald N. McCloskey; Journal of Economic Literature; Jun83, Vol. 21 Issue 2, p481, 37p, 2 charts

This article highlighted information on economics and methodologies. It discusses the way economists argue amongst themselves and others. The elaboration stated that rhetoric is disciplined conversations, and how certain methodologies are based off of modernism. Modernism was found to be a poor method because it is not well argued, mainly because its roots lie more the philosophizing of physicists. A rhetorical cure for such disabilities would reject philosophy as a guide to science, or would reject at least a philosophy that pretended to justify the knowledgeable.

Semiotics

Journal article by Elizabeth T. Hayes; African American Review, Vol. 38, 2004.

This article searched the meanings of namelessness through identities. It went into depth of Toni Morrison's Beloved and Gloria Naylor's Mama Day: a named house and a nameless woman and gave many examples from Beloved and Mama Day. This discussion of symbolism, giving a name to a house and making identities of inanimate objects analogizes that rooms symbolize women, not only because rooms have the womb-like property of enclosing human beings, but also because they are "the place assigned for a woman's occupation."

Framing

Journal article by Ashcraft, Catherine; Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy; Apr2009, Vol. 52 Issue 7, p636-638, 3p

The article discusses the relationship between literacy and sexuality. The author discusses how media literacy teaching methods emphasize connections between student identity and literacy development and suggests sexuality is an aspect of student identity that should not be ignored. She comments on how fears of teenage sexuality and its framing in mass media and education have hindered attempts to utilize sexuality in literacy development. She suggests public policies do not focus on emotional and psychological aspects of teenage sexuality and comments that sexuality in curriculum content can improve student engagement and academic success.

Ethics; Daniel C. Scavone; Salem Press, Inc.; 1994

Plato believed that human beings could be guided, whether by their own reason or wisdom or by good laws, so as to live virtuously. Plato's ethics provided the impetus to his theory of forms; his ideas have exerted an ongoing influence on ethical theory by framing the questions that have occupied ethicists and by securing the place of reason in the resolution of ethical issues. In Plato's last years, his ethical approach underwent a change little noticed in discussions of mainstream Platonism. By using a system of repetitive propaganda to work on popular emotions, he will steer them to virtue.

Cultivation theory

Journal article by Roskos-Ewoldsen, Beverly, Davies, John, and Roskos-Ewoldsen, David R.

It is disputed that the mental models approach can expand our understanding of cultivation theory. The authors survey the research on mental models, situation models including the event indexing model, and cultural models. Based on this literature, it is propose several ways in which cultivation theory can be expanded to provide a richer understanding of how the media influence people's perception of their social reality and understanding of their culture. The process breaks down an idea and studies different parts of its subgroups.

Journal article by Brian L. Quick; Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media; March, 2009

In applying the ecological model to patients' perspectives of doctors, the focus of this investigation concentrates on the media context. The research examined was television representations of doctors and influence it has in shaping patient perceptions of doctors, particularly within the context of a single medical drama. This investigation extends the research by examining the influence of exposure to Grey's Anatomy, spanning from Season 2 to the first five episodes of Season 3, on viewers' perceptions of real-world doctor's courage along with how this perception is associated with patient satisfaction.

Cultural Approach to Organization

Journal article by Frank Blackler; Organization Studies, Vol. 16, No. 6, 1021-1046 (1995)

The paper offers a review and critique of current approaches, and outlines an alternative. Common images of knowledge in the organizational literature as embodied and encoded are identified and, to summarize popular writings on knowledge work, a typology of organizations and knowledge types is constructed. Yet the concept of knowledge is complex and its relevance to organization theory has been insufficiently developed. In this article knowledge is analyzed as an active process that is mediated, situated, provisional, pragmatic and contested. Rather than documenting the types of knowledge that capitalism currently demands the approach suggests that attention should be focused on the systems through which people achieve their knowing, on the changes that are occurring within such systems, and on the processes through which new knowledge may be generated.

Journal article by John Gennari; Black American Literature Forum; Fall91, Vol.25 Issue 3, p449, 75p

The paper criticizes the ideologies and development of jazz. It distinguishes jazz music from other forms of defined features in song language. Jazz, in other words, is a rich, multi-layered culture that has created and communicated its meanings in a myriad of ways. It describes the adjustments in the role of jazz performance in its organizational approach and instrumental combination, while viewing different cultural influences that shaped the development of jazz music.

Agenda Setting

Journal article by Allan K. McDougall; American Review of Canadian Studies; Autumn2004, Vol. 34 Issue 3, p580-582, 3p

Professor Soroka wrote a well-structured analysis of linkages between the media, public, and policy agendas in Canada using an agenda-setting framework. His approach was formal, quantitative, and rests on the issue-based agenda-setting framework literature largely found in political communication. The English professor asked his vocational students to develop narrative essays and instruction manuals to teach others how to perform the tasks asked of them in their classes. By the end his point that adaptive thinking should be encouraged in schools as effort saving strategies are situated cognitions.

Journal article by Thomas Kunkel; American Journalism Review; Dec2006/Jan2007, Vol. 28 Issue 6, p4-4, 1p, 1 color

The author discusses the phenomenon of media power being shifted from the institutional few to the many due to the power of blogging and using the Internet. The writer believes this change is overdue and that media arrogance is responsible for a populist backlash. However, journalists and bloggers both depend upon one another and exist uneasily together, particularly when it comes to agenda-setting.

Spiral of Silence

Journal article by Bowen, Frances; Journal of Management Studies; Sep2003, Vol. 40 Issue 6, p1393-1417, 25p, 3 diagrams

In particular, individuals will be more likely to speak up when they believe that their position is supported by others, and remain silent when they believe that it is not. The author explains this using the 'spiral of silence' proposed by Noelle-Neumann and widely used in public opinion research, which explains how majority opinions become dominant over time and minority opinions weakened. It is argued in this paper that the fear and threat of isolation are particularly powerful for members of invisible minorities such as gay and lesbian employees.

Journal article by Garth D. Taylor; Public Opinion Quarterly; Fall82, Vol. 46 Issue 3, p311-335, 25p, 6 charts, 2 diagrams

This article is a formal analysis of the theory of the spiral of silence and the theory of pluralistic ignorance. The spiral of silence states that one's perception of the distribution of public opinion will affect their willingness to express personal views. The goal of this paper is to show how to clarify one's understanding of the conditions and consequences of public opinion. After a study was done between the majority and minority votes it was

Standpoint

Journal article by P.WH.,F.S.; New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry & Poetics; 1993, p906-909, 4p

The article presents a definition of the term philosophy and poetry. The activity of philosophical reflection or disputation can hardly be identical with the activity of composing a poem. But a text can embody the outcome of both activities. A persistent tradition in rhetorical theory, denies the validity of the contrast, arguing that every text has an intelligible content, a formal structure, and a practical standpoint, and that any discourse in which these are pursued exclusively or independently is necessarily impoverished and perverted.

Journal article by Karen Houle; Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies; 2009, Vol. 30 Issue 1, p172-193, 22p

The article examines feminist standpoint theory (FST). The democratic community and the stranger's role are linked alongside normative theory and structural concerns related to epistemic power. The author delves into several aspects of FST, including difference, local versus arbitrary, and those who fill the margin. The quasi-concept is explored and juxtaposed to notions of democracy and difference. The author further explains how the tensions related to FST are irresolvable in light of what is considered strange and what is considered familiar.

Muted Group Theory

Journal article by Amanda K. Harris; Women & Language; Fall99, Vol. 22 Issue 2, p54-54, 1/4p

This paper is an introduction to the critical feminist theory of muted groups, as developed by Cheris Kramarae, and argues it is a communication theory of revolutionary proportions. Kramarae claims that language is literally a man-made tool used by a dominant culture to marginalize other groups and to deter them from full participation in their given societies. This paper uses a review of recent literature to present arguments for its impact on another important aspect of human communication by nonverbal language.

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