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The word communication is taken from the word communicate which is also taken from the word commune. The word commune means to share ideas, feelings, according to the Grolier's dictionary. Communication is the process of imparting or interchanging of thoughts and opinions by speech, writing or signs. There are several types and kinds of communication. Some types of communication are: mass communication, group communication, individual, public, interpersonal and intrapersonal communication, corporate communication.
Kinds of involves how the communication process is carried out, this can also be considered the setting of communication. The kinds of communication are formal, informal, grapevine and bypass communication.
Kinds of communication may either be formal or informal communication.
Types of Communication.
Formal communication includes a planned format. Formal communication is prepared thoroughly by the sender or agents of the sender. It is planned in familiar mediums known or expected to be known by the receiver or receivers. Formal communication may be in the form of written messages such as letters, memorandum, reports, etc. the sender ensures the message is properly formatted for effectiveness. Prepared speeches for meeting purposes or in rare cases, entertainment, is done to ensure effectiveness and optimum persuasion of the receiver or receivers involved. In formal written communication, since the reader can always go back and re-read the message, repetition usually is not desirable in written communication, except occasionally to emphasize a point. Writers are expected to exert enough effort to arrive at original ways of making a point instead of relying on clichés. Formal writing has a logical pattern that stays on track without digressing. Writers revise their message carefully so that sentences read smoothly. Individual sentences are well structured, and the sentences flow together. Each word counts, and, instead relying on casual transitions like "well ...," the writer finds transitional expressions that indicate the underlying logic of the message. Writers also adhere to the conventions of standard grammar.
Informal communication is unplanned presentations, conversations and other modes of communicating. Over ninety percent of all communication done daily is informal communication. ‘Often conversations are personalized to appeal to a specific individual. Common interest and goals usually forms the backbone of everyday conversation' (Hall 1988). Informal conversation may contain (a) repetition or redundancy, to make sure the listener does not miss the message, (b) clichés or stock phrases-easier to produce when someone is speaking off the cuff ["hot enough to fry an egg," "as clean as a hound's tooth"]; (c) loose organization and digressions-making a point, moving on, but circling back; (d) loose sentence structure-grammatical parts may not fit together well or the structure of the sentence may be changed in mid-sentence; (e) reliance on filler words-well, you know, uhhhh-to occupy what otherwise would be silence when the speaker cannot think of the next word; (f) departures from the conventions of standard grammar. Informal communications are usually not completely documented and are meaningful only to those familiar with the project it involves.
Discussions with coworkers Telephone inquiries Sketches on the back of envelopes Notes to subordinates and superiors Discussions with peers or persons with which we relate.
The grapevine is a form of communication that depends on the social interrelationships among employees. Information tends to flow faster in grapevines than in any other form of communication. The most powerful communication tool in the workplace is the “grapevine”. If manipulated properly, this form of communication can greatly benefit a company. If ignored, the grapevine can create havoc within an organization. Astute managers have come to realize several aspects concerning the grapevine: The grapevine will never be eliminated, that it circulates information quickly and is oblivious to any damage it creates. One way to combat the potential destructive consequences of the inaccurate information is to take the time to listen to the grapevine instead of ignoring it. Once managers are aware of the content of the grapevine, they can head off potential problems by manipulating further grapevine communications by injecting factual information into the pipeline. This actually serves a dual purpose.
Bypass communication usually takes the form of grapevine communication but is usually used to spread news of importance among many senders and receivers. The information passed on is usually true even if distorted or exaggerated somehow. An example of such communication is the news of death in regards to a well known figure or untimely tragedies. Bypass may be interrupted at any point of the process since there is no guarantee the news must be passed on. Bypass communication may be limited to only one community or spread among many over a large geographical area. This communication is usually done by passing on information in circumstances realized to the sender or unaware to the sender. Example telling a story of great importance in a public- transport (Example-bus).
The sender may only be aware of the receiver the information is being directed to, yet the information may be passed on to unsuspecting or unintended listeners who in return becomes senders of the messages later in the process.
Types of communication
Communication varies according to the number of people involve and the extent in which people communicate. These types of communication we look at in more details.
Intrapersonal Communication deals with communicating with oneself. Only one person is involved in this type of communication therefore there is no boundary or limits to the process. The first step in communication is to communicate with oneself. This is an innate ability by all human beings. It is from Intrapersonal communication from which all other possibilities of successful communication are derived. This form of communication has a limitless scope in implementation. It varies from non-verbal communications to verbal. Example, in case of person's thinking, he or she may choose to ask questions relevant to one. All thinking processes are forms of intrapersonal communication.
Interpersonal communication is also referred to as face to face communication (same time in the same place). This takes place with two persons or a person to a group in cases where one person addresses the audience. In one on one communication, each person can potentially contribute to the conversation about 50 % of the time. The first medium being what is referred to as ‘face to face' communication. The most common form of interpersonal communication is a dyad (conversation between two people). Some dyads exist for long period of time, as in a marriage or partnership. Communicating well in a dyad requires good conversational skills. Communicators must know how to start and end the conversation, how to make one selves understood, how to respond to the partner's statements clearly, how to be sensitive to their partner's concerns as well as showing attentively, how to take turns, and how to listen. These abilities together are called communication competence. Reluctance to interact (shyness) is called communication apprehension. Persuasion is the process of convincing others that one's ideas or views are valuable or important, this may serve as an important factor in interpersonal communication.
Group communication involves a group of persons in numbers of three to approximately ten people. When more people are involved, there is less opportunity for each individual to contribute to the discussion. There is also a greater need for one or more members of the group to control or direct the conversation. Communication may also occur in small groups, such as families, clubs, work groups, friendship groups, or religious groups. Communicators need a common communication skill as in dyadic conversation. Factors called group dynamics come into play in a small group communication. The group may try to work towards a common goal, a general sense of understanding or agreement with others members of the group. There are factors that affect the communication or serves as a disadvantage to group communication. These are: Group think may occur, in which a group reaches decisions so quickly that its members mistakenly ignore other good ideas. Small-group members sometimes experience disagreement or even conflict. Some members may be more persuasive than others and cause the members to form sides, or cliques, within the group. Several small groups may need to interact among each other within a single organization. In these cases, the groups must communicate well, both among themselves and with other groups, so that their members can perform their work effectively and make good decisions.
Public communication occurs with ten or more people communicating in person. Because of the large number, only one person at a time can address the group, so persons generally spend most or all of the time listening, with little opportunity to speak to the others. The effectiveness of public communication is affected by such factors as time, setting (location of meeting) and mediums of communicating.
Mass communication requires electronic technology in which a few persons may communicate to many people at one time through public address systems, radio, television, or computers. The number of people involved can reach into the millions, but individuals have little or no opportunity to contribute to the messages being sent over the electronic media. This communication is usually one-sided, so feedback from the receivers is delayed, if it can be sent at all. Mass communication as it relates to television and radio usually attracts an audience on common grounds. The programmers are planned to captivate listeners and viewers attention in almost all cases. Bulletin boards are used in strategic locations to bring public awareness on specific matters of interest. Electronic bulletin boards and web pages are the backbone of the internet which thrives on mass communication.
Corporate communication involves communication in the business or corporate level. Tangible tools of communication used in any organization are business letters, memorandums, reports, etc. machines that are used to aid in business communication are: type writers, telephone, computer and fax machines. In many cases communication is of a direct or indirect nature. Corporate communication speaks to organizational communication routes, the routes of communication may be diagonal, vertical or horizontal communication.
Diagonal speaks to how one organization member will communicate with another member in different departments at different level of the corporate ladder. Diagonal communication also includes how companies of different purpose communicate with each other; these companies are of varying dependency on each other. This form of ‘cross' communication usually takes on the form of formal speech or written notices but seldom uses an informal communication pattern. Horizontal communication may be routed in the same organization to persons in the same job positions or different organization same job positions as well as dependencies. An example may be bank tellers from communicating with each other. This usually takes on the form of informal speech. Vertical communication involves employer- employee communication bands, these usually takes the form of formal communication.
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