4G Mobile System

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Introduction

*4G (Fourth Generation) Mobile System is an expected system that aims at integrating present wireless networking technologies and to be give support to these different technologies in order to solve the pending challenges facing the present wireless technologies. The 4G mobile system is a vision under research that is proposed to be out in the year 2010, there is news that claims that there are headways made already, and that there are some systems with the expected features of 4G but it is yet to be seen. The 4G mobile system is expected to solve the outstanding setbacks of the third generation mobile system, and it is expected to provide broadband, high speed large capacity data transmission, to provide users with high quality colour video images, 3D graphic, animation games etc., and it can be used anytime, anywhere and with any technology. The main idea of 4G mobile systems is for users to have no difficulty in transferring information or data irrespective of location and time and to be able have easy access to different wireless networking technologies. The 4G mobile technology has a ubiquitous or omnipresent facility that is; it is “universal, ever-present and everywhere”.

Sopan (2004) gave the following as “the reason to have 4G systems; to support interactive multimedia services: teleconferencing, wireless internet, etc., wider bandwidths, higher bit rates, Global mobility and service portability, low cost and scalability of mobile networks"

Also according to Ghadialy (2006), “the main features of 4G Technology will be able to support Interactive services like Video Conferencing (with more than 2 sites simultaneously), Wireless Internet, etc. The bandwidth would be much wider (100 MHz) and data would be transferred at much higher rates. The cost of the data transfer would be comparatively very less and global mobility would be possible. The networks will be all IP networks based on IPv6. The antennas will be much smarter and improved access technologies like OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA) will be used. Also the security features will be much better”.

He also went further to state the likely new features of the 4G technology -

“The entire network would be packet switched (IP based). All switches would be digital. Higher bandwidths would be available which would make cheap data transfer possible. The network security would be much tighter. Also QoS will improve. More efficient algorithms at the Physical layer will reduce the Inter-channel Interference and Co-channel Interference”.

The basic concept of the 4G mobile systems all sounds easy, since it is said to be a platform that seamlessly integrates various terminals, networks, and application to satisfy increasing human demands (Jawad, 2002). One of the most challenging issues facing deployment of 4G technologies is how to make the network architectures compatible with each other. The paramount questions are - Will it be easy to integrate all this technologies together to give a unique system that meets the ever insatiable demands of users? Will such systems be gotten at affordable rates? Will the billing rates bear a resemblance to the present services billing or will it be lesser? Will the challenges of switching from 3G system to 4G systems take mobile and wireless technologies to another sphere?

In this write up, a brief history of the mobile system will be touched, the possible migration from 3G to 4G will be talked on, and the technical requirements will be looked into. Lastly the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages and lastly the future of the technology under review would be considered.

History of Mobile Telephone Technologies

The analog cellular systems are considered the first generation of mobile telephony (1G). In the early 1980s, 1G system was deployed, this system was based on analog technology and cellular structure of mobile communication. At the same time, the cellular industry began developing the second generation of mobile telephony (2G).The difference between 1G and 2G is in the signaling techniques used: 1G used analog signaling, 2G used digital signaling. It was not until the early to mid 1990s that 2G was deployed, it offered circuit-switched data communication services at a low speed. This led to the hasty production of some digital system designs around world such as such as GSM (global system mobile), TDMA (time division multiple access), PDC (personal digital cellular) and CDMA (code division multiple access). Towards the late 1990’s 2.5G system was implemented to improve the standard of 2G, it provides high throughput for data services and increased capacity in radio frequency (RF) channels. The most significant feature of 2.5G is that the data channels are optimized for packet data, which introduces access to the Internet from mobile devices, whether telephone, PDA (personal digital assistant), or laptop.

The concept development on 3G generally began around 1991 as 2G systems just started and was deployed sometime in 2002 to eradicate previous incompatibilities and become a truly global system that would improve higher quality voice channels, as well as broadband data capabilities, up to 2Mbps.

The 4G mobile system will be deployed around 2010/2011 based on the general demand for higher access speed multimedia communication.

The table below gives a brief explanation of the evolution of the mobile telephone technologies (Jawad, 2002).

Table 1: Short History of Mobile Telephone Technologies

Legend:

1xRTT = 2.5G CDMA data service up to 384 kbps NMT = Nordic mobile telephone

AMPS = advanced mobile phone service PDC = personal digital cellular

CDMA = code division multiple access PSTN = pubic switched telephone network

EDGE = enhanced data for global evolution TACS = total access communications system

FDMA = frequency division multiple access TDMA = time division multiple access

GPRS = general packet radio system WCDMA = wideband CDMA

GSM = global system for mobile

There is a need to scrutinize 3G mobile system in order to have a clearer perception of 4G. The essential question is - what is 3G?

Sopan (2004) explains how 3G came into existence and the technologies behind the system. “3G initiative came from device manufacturers, not from operators. In 1996 the development was initiated by Nippon Telephone & Telegraph (NTT) and Ericsson; in 1997 the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) in the USA chose CDMA as a technology for 3G; in 1998 the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) did the same thing; and finally, in 1998 wideband CDMA (W-CDMA) and cdma2000 were adopted for the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). W-CDMA and CDMA 2000 are two major proposals for 3G. In CDMA, the information bearing signal is multiplied with another faster rate, wider bandwidth digital signal that may carry a unique orthogonal code. W-CDMA uses dedicated time division multiplexing (TDM) whereby channel estimation information is collected from another signal stream. CDMA 2000 uses common code division multiplexing (CDM) whereby channel estimation information can be collected with the signal stream”. Beyond 3G/ 4G 4G mobile system is otherwise known as beyond 3G, the words can be used either ways but they mean the same thing. In mobile communication services, the 4G mobile services are the higher version of the 3G mobile communication services. Researches are being made on the vision of 4G mobile systems, it services and architectures. The researches as initiated the development of terminal protocol technology for high capacity, high speed packet services, public software platform technology that enables downloading application programs, multimode radio access platform technology, and high quality media coding technology over mobile networks.

The table gives a clear overview which compares the key parameters of 4G with 3G

3G (including 2.5G, sub3G)

4G

Major Requirement Driving Architecture

Predominantly voice driven - data was always add on

Converged data and voice over IP

Network Architecture

Wide area cell-based

Hybrid - Integration of Wireless LAN (WiFi, Bluetooth) and wide area

Speeds

384 Kbps to 2 Mbps

20 to 100 Mbps in mobile mode

Frequency Band

Dependent on country or continent (1800-2400 MHz)

Higher frequency bands (2-8 GHz)

Bandwidth

5-20 MHz

100 MHz (or more)

Switching Design Basis

Circuit and Packet

All digital with packetized voice

Access Technologies

W-CDMA, CDMA, 1xRTT, Edge

OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA)

Forward Error Correction

Convolutional rate 1/2, 1/3

Concatenated coding scheme

Component Design

Optimized antenna design, multi-band adapters

Smarter Antennas, software multiband and wideband radios

IP

A number of air link protocols, including IP 5.0

All IP (IP6.0)

Table 2: Comparing Key Parameters of 4G with 3G

What is 4G?

There are many reports on 4G mobile system. Several researchers, writers have given various explanations from various points of view concerning the vision of 4G. Some research works are in terms of the characteristics, services requirement, 4G architecture, other reports are based on the challenges of migrating from 3G, its benefits and limitations, and others talk about possible future researches beyond 4G. For this part of my assignment, it will basically focus on what is 4G? from several researchers perspectives.

Prof. Dr. Ramjee defined 4G “as a completely new fully IP-based integrated system of systems and network of networks achieved after convergence of wired and wireless networks as well as computers, consumer electronics, and communication technology and several others convergences that will be capable to provide 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps, respectively in outdoor and indoor environments, with end-to-end QoS and high security, offering any kind of services at any time as per user requirements, anywhere with seamless interoperability, always on, affordable cost, one billing and fully personalized”.

Here, Suk Yu Hui and Kai Hau Yeung (Dec, 2003) explains that “4G mobile systems focus on seamlessly integrating the existing wireless technologies including GSM, wireless LAN, and Bluetooth. This contrasts with 3G, which merely focuses on developing new standards and hardware. 4G systems will support comprehensive and personalized services, providing stable system performance and quality service”.

Also Jawad (Dec, 2002) gave this explanation “4G (fourth generation) mobile communication systems are projected to solve still-remaining problems of 3G (third generation) systems and to provide a wide variety of new services, from high-quality voice to high-definition video to high-data-rate wireless channels”.

Another research which was extracted from mobile IT Forum (mITF) 4G Mobile System Requirement Document (2005) stated that “the fourth – generation mobile communication are expected to become an infrastructure for a richer society of the future, offering enhanced convenience and economic performance for use in life, as well as higher reliability and security compared to the third – generation mobile communication systems (IMT – 2000) through the realization of faster transmission speeds, wider bandwidth communications and seamless connections with other systems (e.g. mobile communications, broadcasting)”.

4G FEATURES

There are many features of the 4G mobile systems since it encompasses virtually all wireless technologies and they can be discussed from various points of view. The most essential features of 4G mobile networks gotten from are;

  • They must be all-IP with end-to-end capabilities to show the dramatic transition from the circuit-switched architectures towards facilitating multimedia applications.
  • There will be a transformation from closed Radio Access Network (RAN) architectures to open systems (since the Internet is based on the concept of open systems) with interoperability. This system will allow network integrators to be able to build a strong mobile network since the base stations will be built by RAN vendors and mobile gateways will be built by IP vendors. The following advantages can be got from transition to open systems:

–It gives room for the radio domain and IP domains.

–It gets the mobile industry on the price-performance curve of the router industry.

–It gives much greater flexibility in vendor selection.

–New radio technologies can easily be initiated into the network.

  • The 4G mobile technology will be based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) and Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna technology. Since it is agreed on that OFDMA is the ideal way to handle packet traffic, and MIMO increases throughput in good signal-noise conditions.
  • It will support higher speed services (up to 50 Mbps per sector on the downlink and 25 Mbps per sector on the uplink [assumes a 10-MHz carrier]) for multimedia applications that require high throughput and very low latency.
  • Lower costs will be a vital factor of a 4G deployment. The move to open systems will decrease costs significantly. A variety of IEEE technologies have experienced such a decrease.
  • Also a better and much more logical intellectual property rights (IPR) licensing environment will be available. Such licensing is always challenging in the wireless world, where patents are seen as a revenue source. The purpose is to focus on lower costs, better transparency, and more predictability in royalty payments.

In a research work by Suk Yu Hui and Kai Hau Yeung, the features were mainly from the users’ point of view of 4G networks and they explained below:

  • High usability: anytime, anywhere, and with any technology: One of the unique aspect of the 4G networks are all-IP based heterogeneous networks that allow users to use any system at any time and anywhere. It allows users with integrated terminal to use wide range of applications provided by multiple wireless networks.
  • Support for multimedia services at low transmission cost: The 4G systems will be able to provide both telecommunications services and also data and multimedia services including video service, which requires transmission of a large amount of data. It is essential for 4G system to provide a reliable god system that will support multimedia services and high data rate also the cost of transmission per bit should be reasonable if possible it should be lower than the existing cost being charged at present.
  • Personalized Services and Flexibility: Personalized service will be provided by the new-generation network. The demand of users varies and this should be taken into consideration by the service provider when designing the services of the 4G system. The users’ demands should be looked from different angles and perspectives such as the economic status, occupation and the different location of the user. The mobility of the user should also be noted by the mobility management, so that attention should not mainly be focused on the users’ terminal but it should be on the movement of the users. The 4G network’s security design should be flexible for users.
  • Integrated services: In some documents it is also called convergence services; the idea here is simply to combine various wireless network services, terminals, applications and technology on a common platform that can provide ubiquitous facilities for integrated services. This enables users to use multiple services from any service provider at the same time.

Suk Yu Hui and Kai Hau Yeung (Dec, 2003) gave an example of a young lady using a 4G mobile and wants to get information n the movies showing in any cinema nearest to her. Here, her mobile connects her to different wireless systems at the same time. In this example, she had a Global Positioning System (GPS) - which shows her current location, a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) which gives her lists of movies shown in the cinema and a Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) for making call to any cinema of her choice to watch any move she desires. The example, shows the use of several wireless services which vary in the Quality of Service (QoS) level, security policies, device settings, charging methods, and applications. It will be of great benefit to 4G mobile system if such services are integrated into the 4G applications. To be able to achieve such service transformation based on the features above, there have to be a considerable effort made in the transfer from 3G to 4G and this can not be done without encountering different challenges.

Key Challenges and Possible Solutions

MOBILE STATION

Multimode User Terminals

It helps in eliminating the option of using several hardware components and terminals. To combine various wireless networks and services in a 4G systems, multimode user terminals should be installed in the system because they are able to work hand in hand with various wireless networks by reconfiguring themselves. It makes each particular communication session easy because it choose the appropriate wireless networks for each sessions. This can be achieved by using a software defined radio.

E. Buracchini (2000; cited by Suk Yu Hui and Kai Hau Yeung 2003) stated that “The most promising way of implementing multimode user terminals is to adopt the software radio approach”. The figure below which was adopted from Suk Yu Hui and Kai Hau Yeung (2003) gives an ideal picture of a software radio.

Figure 1 shows the design of an ideal software radio

The software radio comprises of two parts; the analog and digital part. In the analog part, it has an antenna, a band pass filter (BPF), and a low noise amplifier (LNA) which aids the transfer of signals to the digital part. The analog part of the software radio transfers the process via the analog/digital converter (ADC) which converts the signal into digital and then transfers it to the Base band DSP (Digital Signal Processor) which then processes the digital signal in agreement with the wireless environment. There are still technological problems in the current software radio technology because it is not totally compatible for all the different wireless networks due to the following; it is impractical to have just one antenna and LNA that will cover the large range of frequency band of all the wireless networks. This can only be solved if there are many analog parts that will cater for various frequency bands and it will cause further problem because the terminal becomes larger due to the design complexity. The existing ADCs pose another challenge because there speed cannot be compared to the GSM or Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS). These systems waveforms which require at least 17 bits resolution with very high sampling rates (over 100 Msamples/s) and the present ADCs are still two to three orders of magnitude slower than required.

Wireless System Discovery

In order for 4G services to be used, multimode user terminals should be able to discover and choose the target wireless systems. The 4G system because of its different wireless technologies and access protocol when compared to current GSM system shows more complexity in scanning for available networks. The current GSM systems, base stations periodically broadcast signaling messages for service subscription to mobile stations. The 4G solves this problem by scanning and downloading the suitable software to reconfigure the software radio.

There are a number of ways to facilitate the downloading of software modules and this is shown the figure below.

(Available at: URL: http://www.stanford.edu/class/ee360/lec17_sp1.pdf )

Figure 2 A multimode terminals attached to the WLAN scanning the available systems to download suitable software which can either be done manually or automatically.

Figure 2 shows how a multimode terminal attached to a WLAN scans available wireless networks by using the software radio devices to download suitable software from any of the available system, it then reconfigure itself after getting the appropriate software. Each downloading method such as a PC server, smart card, memory card, or over the air (OTA) as shown in the figure has its own benefits and drawbacks with respect to speed, accuracy, resource usage, and convenience. In achieving wireless system discovery, OTA is the most challenging way but its accessibility frees users from the tediousness of downloading. Operators will also enjoy simplified network management.

Le and Aghvami (cited by Suk Yu Hui and Kai Hau Yeung, 2003) proposed “an OTA downloading approach in which multimode user terminals constantly monitor a predefined broadcasting channel (global pilot and download channel, GPDCH) to check for available networks. Once they detect a new available network, they can decide whether or not a change should be made”. The only challenge in wireless system discovery is the long downloading time and slow speed of the GPDCH.

Wireless System Selection

With the help of 4G user terminals, individuals can choose any available wireless network for each particular communication session. Since every network has distinctive characteristics, using an appropriate network for a particular service may optimize system performance and resource usage. Furthermore, the right network selection can ensure the quality of service (QoS) required by each session. On the other hand, it is difficult to select an appropriate network for each communication session since network availability varies from time to time. Besides, sufficient facts of each network are required before a selection is made. This contains; precise knowledge of the supported service types, system data rates, QoS requirements, communication costs, and user preferences.

H. Eguchi, M. Nakajima, and G. Wu (cited by Suk Yu Hui and Kai Hau Yeung, 2003) proposed “a selection scheme in which Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) messages, location information of the source mobile node, available networks of both mobile nodes, and user preferences are all taken into account in the selection when a mobile node makes a call to another mobile node”.

N. Montavont and T. Noel, 2002 (cited by Suk Yu Hui and Kai Hau Yeung, 2003) also suggest that “network resources and minimum QoS requirements should be considered in network selection”.

Regardless of all said there are many issues to be resolved in selecting the suitable wireless system.

SYSTEM

Terminal Mobility

Terminal mobility is an important fact that needs to be taken into consideration for the sake of moving from one wireless network geographical location to another. In terminal mobility we will talk about two major areas, namely: location management and handoff management.

Location management takes care of roaming terminals information such as original and current located cells, authentication information, and QoS capabilities. When roaming the terminal seeks around and finds possible network signals.

Handoff management takes care of ongoing communication when the terminal roams. This brings us to one of the architectures of 4G mobile system - Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6). MIPv6 is a standardized IP-based mobility protocol for IPv6 wireless systems and each 4G terminal will have an IPv6 home address. This architecture helps the terminal get another address (called a care-of address) when roaming in a different wireless network geographical location. The terminal’s home address and care-of address are combined and an update is made to support continuous communication. The MIPv6 handoff process encompasses two part; horizontal handoff and vertical handoff. Figure 3 below shows an example of horizontal handoff and vertical handoff

Figure 3 Vertical handoff and horizontal handoff of a mobile terminal

Horizontal handoff happens when the terminal shifts from one cell to another within the same wireless system while vertical handoff takes care of the movement between two different wireless systems (e.g., from WLAN to GSM). It is pertinent to note that MIPv6 handoff process is difficult to implement in 4G networks because it causes - system overload, high handover latency, and packet losses, it degrades system performance especially QoS performance, measuring handoffs among different wireless systems is very complicated. Researches are going on to find a better handoff policy and algorithm which can solve the above problem in a heterogeneous system.

Network Infrastructure and QoS Support

The wireless environment can be categorized into two parts: non-IP-based systems (mostly optimized for voice delivery e.g. GSM) and IP-based systems (are usually optimized for data services e.g. 802.11 WLAN). In a 4G wireless environments, the problem in integrating these two systems becomes apparent. Research challenges such as QoS guarantee for end-to-end services need to be dealt with, because they are not easy to tackle, especially when time-sensitive or multimedia applications are considered. Current QoS designs are usually made with a particular wireless system in mind. Since in 4G there will be different wireless systems involved, providing QoS only in some wireless system cannot guarantee end-to-end services because each systems are designed differently. Internetworking with most common QoS architectures is studied in 3GPP in order to solve these challenges.

Security and Privacy

The criteria in security design must be flexibility and it must be applicable to 4G systems. Existing networks have different security standards and requirements and 4G is said to be the convergence of these existing networks. The question here is, will the 4G system use these security standards and requirements of 2G and 3G networks or will it be able to design a unique security standard and requirement that will be compatible to the terminals? However, “the existing security schemes for wireless systems are inadequate for 4G networks”, as stated in J. Al-Muhtadi, D. Mickunas, and R. Campbell (2002). The problem with security inflexibility is currently being considered by researchers to design reconfigurable security mechanisms.

Fault Tolerance and Survivability

The wired and high-speed data networks (e.g., public switched telephone networks and asynchronous transfer mode networks) has an extensively designed fault tolerance which gives the networks improved reliability, availability, and survivability. In contrast to wireless network, they are configured as a tree-topology that has several levels; any damage to one level will affect that level and the levels below it. If this can happen to one wireless network then it will be worse in 4G network system where there are multiple tree topology networks working together. Their fault-tolerant designs should consider power consumption, user mobility, QoS management, security, system capacity, and link error rates of many different wireless networks.

SERVICES

Multiple Operators and Billing System

The billing services rendered by today’s mobile system are usually done by a mobile operator, customers are charged a flat rate based on subscribed services, call durations, and transferred data volume. However, in 4G the billing services will involve various service providers - content/service provider, service aggregator, internet service provider, mobile operator, and WLAN provider – which will make the billing and accounting system more complicated to the customers since they have to subscribe to several operators. There is solution to this challenge and to achieve it, operators need to design new business architecture, accounting processes, and accounting data maintenance.

Personal Mobility

It focuses on the movement of users instead of users’ terminals. It entails the provision of personal communications and personalized operating environments. The idea of personal communications simply talks of how an individual can receive information or data correctly as it was sent irrespective of location or type of system being used. The figure below shows a mobile user receiving video messages via a personalized video message application to explain the concept of personal communications. A personalized operating environment is a service that allows adaptable service presentation that is compatible with the terminal despite various networks. For instance, when an individual roams outside his/her home network to a visiting network his/her agents will migrate to the new network location therefore making personal communication easy. Person A calls Mary, A’s agent calls Mary’s home network requesting for the location of Mary’s agent. Mary’s home network looks up Mary’s profile and gives the location of Mary’s agent to A’s agent. The caller’s agent can now correspond with Mary’s agent. It is important to note that there are different agents used for different services.

The Technologies behind 4G Mobile System

There are various access technologies for different mobile generation as seen above in the table. There are some access technologies being proposed for 4G by standard bodies. They are;

OFDM - stands for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, it is a frequency technique used to transmit large data on a radio signal. It actually breaks down radio signals into bits and sends them on different frequency simultaneously to the receiver. Its benefit is that its carriers are orthogonal and are able to offer spectral efficiency. This can be achieved because there are no guard band which can cause interference. Ajay .R. Mishra (2004) stated that “The spectrum for OFDM falls between 200MHz – 3.5GHz with a spectral efficiency of about 1 bit/s/Hz. By using this access technology it is expected to accomplish these requirements in 4G- higher coverage and capacity, desired QoS at a considerable cost.”

MC-CDMA stands for Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access is often referred to as "CDMA-OFDM” because it carries the best of both and it guarantees excellent performance in severe multipath conditions. It allocates spectrum among multiple simultaneous users and it allows flexible system design between cellular system and signal cell system.

MIMO - stands for Multiple Input, Multiple Output; it is a smart antenna technology that sends information out over two or more antennas. The radio signal of MIMO bounces off obstacles like a tree or building (which might cause interference or fading in conventional radio signal) and creates multiple paths which it uses in transmitting more information to the receiver. It expected that the MIMO in 4G will increase the throughput of transmitting data in an urban environment.

SDR (Software Defined Radio) - it is sometimes referred to as a software radio. The SDR is “a radio communication system that can send and receive a new form of radio protocol just by running new software” (Wikipedia).The software radio comprises of two parts; the analog and digital part. In the analog part, it has an antenna, a band pass filter (BPF), and a low noise amplifier (LNA) which aids the transfer of analog signals to the digital part. The analog signals are sent via the analog/digital converter (ADC) which converts the signal into digital and transfers it to the Base band DSP (Digital Signal Processor) which then processes the digital signal in conformity with the wireless environment.

UWB (Ultra Wideband) – “UWB is a short-range, low-power wireless radio technology that can support very high data rates for personal connectivity. UWB technology has the capacity to handle the very high bandwidths required to transport multiple audio and video streams. This new technology operates at a level that most systems interpret as noise and, as a result, does not cause interference to other radios such as cell phones, cordless phones or broadcast television sets. These applications will benefit from UWB; PC and peripheral devices, mobile devices, and consumer electronics”. Ultra Wideband (UWB) Technology, http://www.intel.com/technology/comms/uwb/faq.htm

IPv6- This stands for Internet Protocol version 6. The core of 4G network is based on IPv6 and it can carry more information than the IP address that is currently in use (IPv4). Each node will be given a 4G-IP address (based on IPv6), which will be a permanent home IP address and a dynamic care-of address its actual location when roaming. The IPv6 (128 bits) has 4 times the number of bits in an IPv4 address (32bits). The first 32bit of the IPv6 address is the home address while the second is the care-of address, the third 32 bit can be signed as a tunnel (Mobile IP), and the last address can be local network address for virtual private network (VPN) sharing purpose.

Disadvantages

  • Cost: Cost is a limitation for 4G system because the equipment needed to execute the vision of 4G is very expensive.
  • Operating areas: In 2G systems, it can operate in various areas but the problem it has is that it as been unable to supply network in most rural areas and in metropolitan areas with many tall buildings. If this problem is not sorted out it will be integrated into the 4G system.
  • The relationship gap amongst the major players in mobile networks i.e. telecommunication vendors, operators and service provider and the internet provider may cause a staggeringly difficult 4G billing issue.

Advantages

  • High- speed data transmission.
  • It will support interactive service like video conferencing (with more than 2 sites simultaneously).
  • It will support wireless internet.
  • The bandwidth will be much wider (100 MHz).
  • The cost of data transfer would be comparatively very less.
  • Global mobility would be possible.
  • The network security would be much tighter.
  • The quality of service (QoS) will improve.
  • Efficient algorithm at the physical layer will reduce the inter-channel interference and co-channel interference

Future Technology under review

Future Expectations

  • 4G for now is an emerging technology proposed by various standardized body and mobile network organizations that will integrate several existing mobile technologies together to perform the following;

- High- speed data transmission

- It will support interactive service like video conferencing

- It will support wireless internet.

- The bandwidth will be much wider (100 MHz).

- The cost of data transfer would be comparatively very less

- Global mobility and usability would be possible.

- The network security would be flexible and much tighter.

- There will be an improved quality of service (QoS).

  • It is therefore difficult to state what kind of technology that will be available until 4G is actually deployed.

.

REFERENCE

  • Jawad Ibrahim “4G Features” Bechtel Telecommunication Technical Journal Vol. 1, no. 1, Dec. 200, pp. 11-14. Available at: URL : http://www.bechteltelecoms.com/docs/Article2.pdf (Accessed 04/03/07)
  • Suk Yu Hui and Kai Hau Yeung (Dec, 2003) “challenges in the migration to 4G Mobile Systems”. Available at: URL: http://www.stanford.edu/class/ee360/lec17_sp1.pdf (Accessed 04/03/07) IEEE Communications Magazine
  • mobile IT Forum (mITF) (27 Mar, 2006) “4G Technical Survey Report – System Infrastructure Forum.” Available at: URL: http://www.mitf.org/public_e/archives/index.html (Accessed 04/03/07)
  • mobile IT Forum (mITF) (6 Oct, 2005) “4G Mobile System Requirement Document” Available at: URL: http://www.mitf.org/public_e/archives/index.html (Accessed 04/03/07)
  • Zahid Ghadialy (14 May, 2006) “Frequently Asked Questions on 4G” Available at: URL: http://www.3g4g.co.uk/4G/faq.html (Accessed 04/03/07)
  • Emerging Wireless Technologies “A look into the future of wireless communications – beyond 3G” Available at: URL: http://www.safecomprogram.gov/NR/rdonlyres/5C74C631-ACF6-433F-B313-C04D041A5489/0/Look_Future_Wireless_Communications_Beyond3G.pdf (Accessed 04/03/07)
  • Jun-seok Hwang, Roy R. Consulta & Hyun-young Yoon (PTC’07 Proceedings) “4G Mobile Networks – Technology Beyond 2.5G And 3G” Available at: URL: http://www.ptc07.org/program/papers/T24_RoyConsulta.pdf (Accessed 04/03/07)
  • Sopan Take (7/19/2004) “Evolution of the Mobile Technology” Available at: URL: http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/7-18-2004-56792.asp. (Accessed 04/03/07).
  • Prof. Dr. Ramjee Prasad (May, 2005) “Convergence paving a path towards 4G” Available at: URL: http://www.cwc.oulu.fi/iwct2005/slides/Oulu_May_2005.pdf Accessed (04/03/07)
  • 4G - Beyond 2.5G and 3G Wireless Networks. Available at: URL: http://www.mobileinfo.com/3G/4GVision&Technologies.htm cited in (Links on 4G Mobile/Wireless Available at: URL: http://www.3g4g.co.uk/4G/Links/ )
  • E. Buracchini, “The Software Radio Concept,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 9, 2000, pp. 138–43.
  • T. H. Le and A. H. Aghvami, “Performance of an Accessing and Allocation Scheme for the Download Channel in Software Radio,” Proc. IEEE Wireless Commun. and Net. Conf., vol. 2, 2000, pp. 517–21
  • H. Eguchi, M. Nakajima, and G. Wu, “Signaling Schemes over a Dedicated Wireless Signaling System in the Heterogeneous Network,” Proc. IEEE VTC, Spring 2002, pp.464–67
  • Montavont and T. Noel, “Handover Management for Mobile Nodes in IPv6 Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 8, Aug. 2002, pp. 38–43.

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A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

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