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In the first part the business organisation world famous Johnson & Johnson, There are over 230 companies operating primarily in the health care and personal care industries, Johnson & Johnson has manufacturing facilities in many countries in the world. However, I would like to draw more focus on "Johnson & Johnson."
In second part a country named MEXICO with respect, discussed elaborately and it would be absurd and inappropriate to make an attempt to learn about Mexican law devoid of its historical background and without an interest of learning about its people, their problems and tragedies, their failures and successes, and their hopes and dreams. Only then may one proceed to place this universe of information within the political and diplomatic context of its old but uneven and sometimes prickly relationship with the United States.
Third and last but not the least business organisation named AKTEL, Over the past decades, globalization has now become a new world order, which virtually influences everything that comes in our mind. Developing countries like Bangladesh with vulnerable geopolitical locations and weak economies are now looking at globalization to strengthen their economy to fight any perceived threats. But the increasing role played by the western dominated institutions such as, the World Bank (WB), International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the World Trade Organization (WTO) in setting the rules under which globalization is played, has placed developing countries in a much disadvantageous position vis-à-vis the developed countries.
Headquartered on a small campus in New Jersey, Johnson & Johnson (J&J) is one of the most globalize companies in the world. The organization is made up of 60 countries and sells products in virtually every country in the world. Known for its customer-based values, the highly decentralized organization, Johnson & Johnson faces a major challenge managing many diverse companies.
(A): Rights, Conflicts and responsibilities:
There are certain issues that fall under the category of employees rights:
Employment contracts and conditions: All employees have a contract of employment like in J&J there are agency work, fixed or part-time work, and voluntary work. J&J is the world's largest and most diverse manufacturer of health care products as such it happens that they cut off huge number of employees time to time. However, depending on the contracts, they assure employees with the following benefits to ward off against the bad time:
Reimbursement Accounts: This let employees use pre-tax dollars to pay certain expenses.
Long Term Care
Saving plans and Pension Plans
Working hours and time off: In J&J some departments allow employees flexible hours yet too many working hours or understaffed.
Pay: It has a reputation of giving the employees good benefits and pay. Compensation is moderate but lower compared to Parma Industry Average.
Discrimination: In 2001, two J&J employees filed a complaint in federal district court in New Jersey, alleging a systemic pattern of racial discrimination in employment at J&J. This was the growing problem within corporate America: discrimination against African-American and Hispanic-American salaried employees in the areas of compensation and promotions.
Conflict can lead to constructive as well as destructive outcomes. Conflict, when managed constructively, is a necessary and positive condition for the development and growth of a company like J&J. Five conflict behaviours have been identified in J&J are: competing, collaborating, compromising, avoiding and accommodating. According to the research as J&J is a huge company similarity in beliefs, attitudes and values within the employees are usually conducive to reduced conflict, whereas discrepancies in beliefs, attitudes and values seem to lead to increased conflict. However it is again a problem for expanding nature of businesses. Consequently, low politics, low layoffs and need of teamwork is an important step towards reducing conflict.
The business of health care is the business of caring for people. J&J believes that human health and health of this planet are interconnected. As a global corporate citizen, J&J responsibilities are:
Effective, Compassionate Healthcare: People is the first priority, get early diagnoses, and quality care when needed
Investing in Medical progress in new research
Affordability and Access to health care products
Promoting good health
Discovering and Developing products
According to J&J, in proceeding with the business, Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) should be a core business concern and a key indicator of organizational excellence, and that should be managed and monitored similarly to other business indicators such as quality, productivity and financial performance. Process excellence is the driver for continuous improvement and sustainable results in EHS.
Competitors of Johnson and Johnson are: Eli Lilly & Co., Novartis AG, Proctor & Gamble Co.
Selling General and Administrative, PG
Selling General and Administrative, JNJ
The organization gains competitive advantage by letting the diverse companies create their own identities and pursue their own markets. In this environment, knowledge management injects life into the organization and translates into profits. Every year this company invests millions of dollars in education and training for its workforce, consistent with their own values. Although PG and JNJ are competitors with almost same market capitalization, PG has been investing more money in marketing and R&D than JNJ. JNJ should utilize their market position and thus more aggressive licensing deals is pretty fine with this company.
Like the typical huge companies in the world, JNJ also has internal political clash. The year 2009, has been marked by distraction from a restructuring that has taken too long to complete; it completely killed productivity at least in the Pharmaceutical R&D sector. Unfortunately, the Pharmaceutical sector goes through an organizational realignment just about every 2 years. All these things show unprofessional.
JNJ provide a Gracious Professionalism Award to celebrate outstanding sportsmanship and gracious professionalism.
Average Number of People Employed by JNJ
Average headcount for 2008/09 financial year (continuing businesses)
Temporary contract employees
Rest of World
Annual Change in People Employed
Net change between 31st March 2008 and 31st March 2009 (continuing businesses)
Temporary contract employees
Total net change
Rest of World
The table above shows that there has been a net annual reduction of 182 people in the group. This reduction is largely made up of decreases in North America and the Rest of World. The quality of employee relations is a priority for JNJ and the company is proud of having high level of commitment and loyalty from its employees.
(D) Information Technology:
To maintain decentralize structure, provide development for all employees and deliver knowledge and skill rapidly, Johnson & Johnson create an e-University in 2002. It's an electronic platform that offers a searchable resource for learning and development opportunities for Johnson & Johnson employees around the world.
It consolidates disparate learning technologies into a single system
It allows Johnson & Johnson to control quality and cost.
It connects learning units
JNJ gets diversity of thought.
Cross fertilization and fast web based education and classroom.
Any allegation or report of fiscal improprieties or complaints about internal accounting controls or other accounting or auditing matters are immediately forwarded to the General Counsel, Vice President - Internal Audit and Corporate Secretary. All such communications are reported to the Audit Committee.
The Presiding Director is advised promptly of any such communication that alleges misconduct on the part of Company management or raises legal, ethical or compliance concerns about Company policies or practices.
Communication process with factory: Authorized spokesperson speak on behalf of BOD to the investors, Analyst meetings, Earnings press release, Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Product Pipeline Information.
(F) Freedom of action
The Johnson & Johnson offers employees innovative internal procedures for resolving employee relations concerns fairly, quickly and as amicably as possible. This program for resolving issues "Common Ground" offers Open Door, Facilitation and Mediation steps.
Open Door: By discussing the problems with the supervisor, HR professionals and then promoting an open dialogue between two parties.
Facilitation: if Open dialogue does not work then creative solution can be done.
(G) Censorship on internet:
Social media tools can be utilized to facilitate the timely and accurate exchange of information and better engage the public.
Johnson and Johnson should utilize the R&D to discover the side effect of pharmaceutical products and it should be posted in the internet.
(H) Computers and work
As a leader in health care around the world, the Johnson & Johnson Family of Companies is committed to helping employees lead happy, healthy, and productive lives. Company provides:
Comprehensive programs and services that reflect a holistic view of work to help support individual effectiveness at work and at home
leadership in work/life practices
The Texas state attorney general accused the pharmaceutical and consumer goods giant Johnson and Johnson inc. of exaggerating the benefits and minimizing the known adverse effects associated with its second-generation antipsychotic Risperdal (risperidone), marketed by subsidiary Janssen L.P in 2007. They are also accused of bribing a personal in Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP). Although Johnson & Johnson's ethical code states that medically relevant product information's should be fair, balanced and comprehensive.
We live in disparate times. There seems to be an increase in the occurrence of natural disasters and acts of terrorism, creating an increased dependence on government services and emergency responders. By contrast, public safety budgets are shrinking and there are fewer resources to address this greater, widespread need. The answer may be what homeland security officials have yet to do - engage the public as a full partner. With virtually no capital investment, public safety agencies can create an innovative partnership by capitalizing on tools the public uses everyday
Three amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) are set to expire (sunset) on December 31, 2009. S. 1692, bills reported favourably by the Senate Judiciary Committee with an amendment in the nature of a substitute, would extend the sunset date by four years and make various modifications to existing authorities. H.R. 3845 would likewise establish a new sunset of December 31, 2013, but it would reauthorize only two of the three expiring provisions. The three sun setting amendments expanded the scope of federal intelligence-gathering authority following the 9/11 terrorist attacks.
The foundation of the culture of Johnson & Johnson is its Credo values. Johnson & Johnson's Credo value states that it is responsible to their employees who work throughout the world. So, as a business organization Johnson & Johnson faces these aforementioned ethical issues and handled them successfully. In this assignment it is found that there are some problems which create some complexity to meet the ethical issues of an organization. Further descriptions of marketing policies are not publicly available.
Country with respect of overall system in related of law:
The purpose of this assignment is to provide a general description of the major features and current characteristics of the Mexican legal system, its principal components, and some of its distinct legal institutions, including-as an introduction to what is an eminently descriptive work- a brief historical background and basic information about Mexico as a country, its territory, people, culture, and economy.
(A) The Legal System:
Structure of Government
The basic structure of the Mexican government is set forth under Article 40 of the Political Constitution of the United States of Mexico (Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos) (hereinafter Mexican Constitution) which establishes Mexico as a "representative, democratic and federal republic."
Civil Law Systems
The Mexican government is based on the ancient Roman system of codified law known as the "civil law" system. In the civil law system, the legislative branch plays a key role in the development and passage of laws through its two houses, the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House of Representatives is intended to represent the people, while the Senate represents the 31 states and the Federal District. Both houses of Congress propose and pass laws, and the Senate also is responsible for ratifying Mexico's international treaties and agreements.
The executive branch has also dominated the creation of new laws, through the tabling of proposed legislation before Congress (Congreso de la Unión).
National - Sub-national Relations.
The federal government in the Mexican Republic is divided into three powers: the executive, the legislative and the judicial.
The President of the United States of Mexico is elected for a single six-year term through citizen direct vote. The President is in charge of the implementation and administration of laws.
The Congress of the Union is composed of two chambers: the House of Representatives (Cámara de Diputados) and the Senate (Cámara de Senadores). The House of Representatives is made up of 500 local representatives or "deputies" each elected for a single three-year term. Representatives are precluded from seeking immediate re-election.
The general structure and operation of the federal judiciary is set forth in the Mexican Constitution and regulated under the Organic Law of the Judicial Power of the Federation (Ley Orgánica del Poder Judicial Federal (LOPJF)). The judicial power lies with the Supreme Court of Justice (Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación), an elections court, the Collegiate and Unitary Circuit Courts (Tribunales Colegiados y Unitarios de Circuito), and the Council of the Federal Judiciary (Consejo de la Judicatura Federal).
The resolution of legal conflicts involving fiscal, labor and agrarian matters is also handled by auxiliary administrative bodies within the executive branch. The rules and procedures of these systems are set forth in the internal organic laws of each specific body. Administrative decisions may be appealed through the review recourse, as provided under the Federal Administrative Procedure Act (Ley Federal del Procedimiento Administrativo).
The Mexican Federal Republic (República Mexicana) is composed of 31 states and a Federal District (Distrito Federal (DF)),
Native Governments / Indigenous People
In Mexico, some municipalities are mainly populated by indigenous peoples who have distinct organizations, laws, religions, languages, traditions and customs.
(B) Sources of Law:
The sources of Mexican law are formal, historical and material.
Law or Derecho. This is the most important formal source of Mexican law. The law includes all those provisions enacted pursuant to the law-making process.
Custom. This is considered a secondary source in the Mexican judicial system and includes two elements: (1) inveterata consuetudo, long-established practice within a social group; and (2) opinio juris sive necessitatis, compulsory behavior for everybody in that social group.
Jurisprudence. This source of law comes from the federal courts. Court resolutions only constitute jurisprudence when there have been five consistent uninterrupted resolutions. In comparison with the common law system, where jurisprudence is a primary source of law, jurisprudence in the Mexican civil law system is only a secondary source.
Agreement. This is a contractual relationship between two or more persons that creates, transfers, modifies or extinguishes obligations.
Unilateral will. This is a specific action taken by a single person identified by law, which establishes a rule or creates a new standard for this very person or others and by which the legal order is modified. There are both public and private examples of unilateral will.
Article 133 of the Mexican Constitution states that the supreme laws of the Republic are: the provisions contained in the Mexican Constitution, the laws of Congress emanating from the Constitution and the international treaties signed by the President and ratified by the Senate.
A draft bill may be presented to the President of either the House of Representatives or the Senate, who then forwards it to the appropriate Congressional Committee (Comité del Congreso).
(Ley Federal de Metrología y Normalización) (hereinafter Standardization Law) on 1 July 1992.
(C) Court Structure:
The Federal Courts (Tribunales Federales) have two basic functions in the Mexican legal system: the resolution of legal conflicts and the interpretation of law through jurisprudence. The most important function is the resolution of legal conflicts. Generally, this implies applying the law to a case in contention. In some instances, however, when the court is required to interpret or apply a law to special circumstances not directly addressed by the law, it creates jurisprudence when deciding on the conflict. The creation and effects of jurisprudence are established in the Amparo Law (Ley de Amparo). Only the Supreme Court of Justice and the Collegiate Circuit Court (Tribunal Colegiado de Circuito) may create jurisprudence that is binding upon all lower federal and state courts and tribunals. Obligatory jurisprudence of the Supreme Court is created only when there has been a series of five consecutive similar rulings or judgments.
There are three types of amparos:
Direct Amparo: Decisions made by state or federal courts, or by administrative tribunals may be appealed through a direct amparo. The direct amparo is brought before a Collegiate Circuit Court or the appropriate chamber of the Supreme Court and may be based on both procedural and substantive errors. It is independent from a standard appeal.
Indirect Amparo.: An amparo brought to challenge an official action, which allegedly violates a constitutional right, is known as an indirect amparo. Such official actions involve the following issues: federal treaties; federal or local laws, regulations, decrees or agreements, or actions that do not involve judicial, administrative or labour tribunals.
Amparo: Against a Law. Instead of pursuing the amparo against the implementing authority, the aggrieved party may bring an amparo suit "against a law", challenging the constitutionality of a federal or state treaty, law, regulation or decree. As discussed above, the decision of the court will only be binding upon the parties involved in the proceedings.
(D) Different forms of business allowed to operate and the laws Governance:
The Mexican companies' law (which is federal law) provides for several types of companies that can be organized. There are various differences in their legal and tax treatment, depending which form is chosen.
It is usually recommended to incorporate a limited liability stock corporation (sociedad anonima) which may adopt the form of a fixed capital company (S.A.) or that of a variable capital company (S. A de C.V)
The key characteristics of both types of companies are:
The shareholder's liability is limited to their stock interest in the company.
The directors are fully liable for the loyal and diligent administration of the company.
Must have at least 2 shareholders and a minimum capital of $ 50,000.00 pesos. (fifty thousand Mexican pesos); twenty percent of which must be paid at the time of incorporation and must appoint a statutory examiner who is a disinterested third party that supervises the operations of the company and represents the interest of the shareholders.
Limited Liability Company:
Another form of Limited Liability Corporation, the Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada or S. de R. L, has become popular among foreign companies. The key characteristics of the S. de R. L are as Follows:
Like a S.A de C. V. the porters liability is limited to their partnership interested in the company and the directors will be fully for the loyal and diligent administration of the company.
It must have at least 2 ( two) partners to a maximum of 50 (fifty) and a minimum capital of $3,000.00 pesos. For which 50% must be paid at the time of incorporation.
There is no requirement to appoint a statuary examiner.
The tax rate will be normal corporate tax rate of 35%
Another form of business entity is the general partnership or the Sciedad en Nombre Colectivo (the SNC). A distinct disadvantage of the SNC is that all of the partners will have unlimited liability with respect to the obligations and debts. This corporate form is not frequently used in Mexico.
The limited partnership or the Sociedad en Comandita Simple (the SCS) has two types of partners: the active partner(s) who have unlimited liability, and the silent partner(s) who are liable for their capital contribution. This corporate form is also not frequently used in Mexico.
(E) Dispute resolution procedures/options available and their effectiveness:
Mexico recognizes arbitration as an alternative for dispute resolution. Mexico's arbitration statues apply to all national (parties that reside in the same country) and international (parties that reside in different countries) arbitration when the place of arbitration is in Mexico, unless there are treaties or laws that certain dispute are not susceptible to arbitration.
The Federal Commercial Code of Mexico and the Civil Procedure Codes of the several state of Mexico set forth basic recognition and use of arbitration. The Federal Commercial Code recognizes the enforcement of foreign arbitral awards.
The agreement to arbitrate in the case of dispute should be given in writing between the parties (in the principle contract or a separate agreement) and in the case of invalid ness of the contract.
Both the U.S and Mexico are signatories to the treaties which generally mandate enforceability, as:
New York Convention ( U.N. convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards)
Panama Convention ( Inter-American Convention on International Commercial Arbitration, Panama 1975)
Mexico's Law on Arbitration:
Mexico passed updated (by Decree) Commercial Arbitration Statue as of July 22, 1993, by modifying and adding to the content of Title 4 'Commercial Arbitration' of the Federal Mexican Commercial Code (see articles 1415 through 1463 of the Commercial Code). This statue is structured after 1958 United Nations Convention of the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards:
Control by law
Parties must agree to arbitrate
Mexico the enforcement of the arbitration judgement in Mexico is done pursuant to its Article 360 of the Federal Civil Procedures Code.
(F) Laws relating to Copyright:
According to the Mexican Copyright Law ("Copyright Law"), the following works are able to obtain protection as copyrights:
Literary works, musical with or without letter, dramatic, dance, pictoric or drawing, sculpture or plastic, cartoon, architectonic, cinematographic, audiovisual, radio and T.V. programs, computer software (data bases are included, but software created to produce harmful effects to other software or hardware is excluded from copyright protection), photographic, of compilation, provided they constitute intellectual creations. Non original databases shall be protected only for 5 years, while copyrightable works will be protected during the author's life plus 75 years.
Mexico - Copyright Law Amended:
The Mexican Copyright law was amended with effect from July 24, 2003. The following are some of the more significant changes:
1. The normal term for which the economic benefits of copyright protection can be obtained has been extended from the life of the author plus seventy-five years to the life of the author plus one hundred years. 2. The rights of the author in an original work to control the exploitation of a derivative work have been improved.
3. Performer's and creator's rights in musical works have been improved so that, even though copyright may be owned by a third party that commissioned the work, the creators and performers will have a right to a royalty if the work is reproduced or performed in public.
Laws relating to trademark:
According to the Mexican Industrial Property Law ("IP Law"), a trademark is defined as "any visible sign adopted by a manufacturer, merchant or service provider to identify its goods or services and distinguish them from others of their same kind of class in the market place". Furthermore, the IP Law expressly includes the following signs as trademarks:
Laws relating to patents:
Marking a product with the indication of an industrial property right may prevent or discourage third parties from infringing the intellectual property right associated to a product or service. If, in spite of the marking, a third party infringes the patent or trademark right, the measures available for the right holder are also stronger.
There are certain rules about the marking of products provided in the Mexican statute:
1. The use of the symbol Â®, the abbreviation M.R. or the expression "Marca Registrada" (Registered Trademark), "patente en trámite" (patent pending) or "patentado" (patented) may only be used if the trademark is registered in Mexico of there is a patent application or issued patent in Mexico.
There is the case of products imported into Mexico that use the symbol Â® because the trademark is registered in the country of origin, but not in Mexico. In such case, the use of the Â® is also illegal in Mexico.
Laws relating to design:
Design is perhaps the most interdisciplinary subject in IP law. The notion of design embraces everything that humans can crate by recording images, pictures or three-dimensional figures and doing so with pencils, brushes or even computers. Designs cover everything form appearance of products, every field of IP law, whether based on novelty, originality or distinctiveness, has dealt with designs.
So it would be absurd and inappropriate to make an attempt to learn about Mexican law devoid of its historical background and without an interest of learning about its people, their problems and tragedies, their failures and successes, and their hopes and dreams. Only then may one proceed to place this universe of information within the political and diplomatic context of its old but uneven and sometimes prickly relationship with the United States.
Business Organization and Changes:
AKTEL is the second largest and dynamic to-end countrywide GSM mobile communication solutions of Telecom Malaysia International Bangladesh (TMIB) Limited. It is a joint venture company between Telekom Malaysia Berhard and A.K.Khan & Co. Limited which was established in the year 1996 and services launched in 1997 under the brand name AKTEL.
In this age of globalization people want to move smoothly and rapidly. Everything in the world should be time effective. Productivity is the main key for industrialization and the productivity depends on the ability to do things on time.
As Bangladesh is a developing country, for proper development time should be managed effectively. But lack of some initiative a huge amount of man hour damaged everyday. Another obstacle for the development of Bangladesh is import dependency. We have already passed 37 years of our independence, but still we are dependent. And the reason is improper utilization of our resources. As per the economic solution for the developing countries Adam Smith's suggestion "country should produce the product with their factor abundances".
As the man power is the biggest asset for Bangladesh it should produce labor intensive products, which can be the guideline for the development of our country.
Negative effect: Globalization leads to exploitation of labour. This company is inviting professionals from outside countries. It also leads to inflation of the country. Sector inflation is given following:
Agriculture (19%), Industry (28.7%), services (53.7%), here telecommunication fall under the services sector.
Positive effect: Globalization creates works and employment as such the company like Aktel gets the bargaining position with the overabundance population of this country. Multinational company like Aktel enjoys the benefit of lower costs because the wages in this country is far lower.
Forces that drive the organization: Businesses are expanding by nature. Because of competition and for the survival of the company, it expands to a new place where it is supposed to get the advantages out of other companies already existed. Bangladeshi people are social by nature, a big portion of the GDP remit to Bangladesh from the Non-resident Bangladeshi living in abroad and telecommunication company AKTEL came up here to connect them. There are some more forces like cheap labours, highest population density and economically it is a least developing country in the world that drive the company to come in Bangladesh. Moreover, when AKTEL decided to come into Bangladesh, another company Grameen Phone already installed in here so the cost of initiating the business became less for the AKTEL.
(B) Developments in Information, Communications and Technology:
Over the past decades, globalization has now become a new world order, which virtually influences everything that comes in our mind. Developing countries like Bangladesh with vulnerable geopolitical locations and weak economies are now looking at globalization to strengthen their economy to fight any perceived threats. But the increasing role played by the western dominated institutions such as, the World Bank (WB), International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the World Trade Organization (WTO) in setting the rules under which globalization is played, has placed developing countries in a much disadvantageous position vis-à-vis the developed countries. However, a closer look at the globalization will show that it has both positive and negative impacts on the economy of Bangladesh. A thorough understanding of the effect of globalization is needed to use its advantages to improve her economy.
Internet over mobile to dominate
Despite such numbers, less than a quarter of the world's population has internet access, either shared or personal. In 2008, Gartner estimated there were 437 million PCs in emerging markets, compared to billions of mobile devices in the same countries.
Clearly, for most people the mobile offers the most accessible method for getting onto the internet. Yet, of the four billion mobile subscriptions in the world, less than 500 million are mobile internet users. (Strategy Analytics, November 2008)
By the impact of telecommunication in this globalization, Bangladeshi culture has been affected in both positive and negative way. In one hand it has got the opportunity in Advertising and Media world as huge development is seen within last 10 years time. However, on the other hand Bangladesh is losing its own cultural values and norms. The challenge before this nation is to find strategies that will protect and preserves Bengali culture in general. AKTEL came up with a solution of sms with the Bengali font.
Telecommunication sector like AKTEL is playing a big role in introducing this concept among the professionals.
AKTEL Corporate is founded on a robust network employing cutting-edge technology such as Intelligent network (I.N.); providing the ultimate solutions in terms of voice clarity; a continuously expanding nationwide network coverage; abundant international roaming global partners; popular value added services (VAS); quality easy-access corporate customer care; iron-clad digital network security; competitive and tailored tariff plans and specific billing. The Corporate Strong-arm of AKTEL is committed to keeping you ahead of the rest.
AKTEL Corporate provides customized solutions to facilitate the sales reports from the diverse Points-of-sales; message broadcasts to customized groups; inventory updates.
Power comes from many sources:
Physical power: Money, effort, size of the country, volume of the business. Bangladesh is surrounded by India which is one of the BRIC nations and that's why Bangladesh's economy is greatly influenced by India.
Resource Power: Control on access, on usage, on monopoly, on discretion and the mineral resources that Bangladesh is enriched with.
Personal power: AKTEL has got image and good reputation in the public so they are confident, popular and they have the social credit issue.
The political system affects all organisations and determines the context within which businesses operate.
A change in policy can have major effects on the local economy and on the firms that serve it, like a year back in the reign of caretaker government AKTEL could not run its operation smoothly as it was before in the time of elected Government.
Pressure groups exist to influence government and politicians. Their activities can also have a major impact on industries and individual firms, for example some concern citizen of Bangladesh are pressuring Government to pressurize Aktel to enlist their stock in the capital market. Government departments frequently consult pressure groups about new regulations and legislation. Business has to be prepared to deal with the effects of pressure group campaigns and to counter propaganda. According to statistics Labour force by occupation:
Agriculture (65%), industry (25%), services (10%), here it is seen that service sector is taking only 10% of the labour forces yet there are huge number of population who are using the telecommunication companies. Which means most of the money is being remitted to the country of origin.
When law and order changes, it incurs extra costs for the AKTEL. Like in the summer season, the local government urged all the office of the service companies to be closed after certain time so that electricity can be transferred to the other place where it requires.
Understanding the choices of the consumer requires conducting surveys time to time. Choice changes due to the factors such as:
Age: AKTEL launches promotional activities to the young generation who used to love talking at night over the cell phone. It was highly revenue generating steps for the Aktel.
Special events: Bangladeshi people love talking to local celebrity. So Aktel had arranged a Talk Show where people had to call to AKTEL network to talk to them.
AKTEL is starting its billing system through their own networks; even they provide important news and sell ticket of the special cricket game through their network.
In this Modern-techno age, capital accumulation is based on the exploitation of the human and non-human world. While there is a limit to how much surplus can be consumed, there is no limit to how much capital can be accumulated. Because each capitalist must compete or die, nothing, not even the continued existence of life on Earth, matters more than "accumulation for the sake of accumulation, production for the sake of production." In that sense, the pursuit of profit is mindless.